Lumpers, also known as dockers, wharfies, stevedores, and longshoremen were waterside workers who manually loaded and unloaded ships. They have largely been replaced by containerisation.
The Fremantle Lumpers Union was active 1889-1946, when it became part of the Waterside Workers Federation. That merged in 1993 into the Maritime Union of Australia.
Harcourt, Geoff 1999, 'The purple circle', Fremantle Studies, 1: 39-46.
Oliver, Bobbie 2016, 'Conflict on the waterfront: Fremantle dock workers and 'New Unionism', 1889 to 1945', Studies in Western Australian History, 31: 159-172.
History timeline on the MUA website.
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