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Stephen Montague Stout - Convict Teacher, Photographer and Journalist

Irma Walter

Walter, Irma 2017, 'Stephen Montague Stout - Convict Teacher, Photographer and Journalist', Fremantle Studies, 9: 48-64.

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Image 1: Stephen Stout wearing signature white bell-topper hat, 1921. Sunday Times, 21 July 1921.

Stephen Stout arrived in Western Australia in 185 8 as a convict at the age of 27. During almost thirty years in the colony he worked as a school- teacher, photographer and then as a journalist, working on most of the papers of the day, as well as launching two newspapers in Geraldton. He was a colourful character, Well-educated, talented and self-opinionated - not your typical convict. He was not one of those who stole the ubiquitous loaf of bread to feed his family. He simply aspired to a high-living lifestyle which he could not afford. His errant ways earned him a term of 14 years’ transportation.

Stout considered himself a gentleman, who, once he left the prison system, was the equal of anyone else in the colony. He expected that he would take his place within the higher levels of administration. However his well-written job applications were constantly rejected. Admittedly, he was prone to exaggeration where his qualifications were concerned. When applying for a position with the railways department, he claimed seven years’ experience on the Great Eastern railway out of London.‘ He also claimed to have qualifications as a surveyor? At one stage he deemed himself a ‘language professor’ when offering French lessons in Perth? There was simply no room for him to have acquired all these qualifications in his short working life in England, where he was employed variously as a glass warehouse manager, salesman, writer, exhibition organiser, mercantile clerk, and a geological and general agent. 4

Stephen Stout was born in 1831 and raised in the suburb of Ingouville in Le Havre, France, the eldest son of British citizens Kedgwin and Mary Stout. 5 lngouville was a pleasant suburb, overlooking the harbour, and inhabited by the local merchants of the day. 6 We do not know why Kedgwin chose to live there with his family, but when Stephen was around sixteen years of age they returned to England, where Kedgwin took up the respectable post of stationmaster at Waterbeach in Cambridgeshire, where several more children were born.7

By 1850 Stephen and his brother Charles were working in London. His first acquaintance with the law was when he was arrested that year for failing to hand over two small sums of money he had collected on behalf of his employer at Cambden Station in London. He quit his job that day after being found not guilty, but was re-arrested the same day, for embezzling two slightly larger sums from the same employer. On his re-arrest he was reported to have said ‘I know what you want me for. If I get the money, would it be all right? 10 Somehow he was again acquitted. Perhaps it was his father’s family connection to lawyers that helped him win his freedom in this case. Stephen had not learned his lesson, however. By 1851 he was serving a year in Coventry Gaol, for overcharging a customer while working in a telegraph office. 9

In 1853 Stephen Stout married pregnant Sarah Ann Barlow in Holloway, London and soon afterwards their son Stephen William Kedgwin Stout was born. 10 It was evident, however, that marriage did not suit Stephen’s free-wheeling lifestyle and that he was keeping bad company. In 1856 Stout was in the Qld Bailey courthouse, on trial for falsifying the sale of a sewing machine and forging his employer’s signature on a bank slip. At the time he was described in the press as ‘a showily dressed young man, suspected of dishonesty on several occasions’. 11

His former employer Charles Judkins had been seeking him for months. He had employed Stout as a sewing-machine salesman and sent him to Plymouth for one week to take orders. Four weeks later he reappeared at the firm’s business premises where he claimed to have sold the machine that he had taken with him and handed over a forged bill of sale. It was some months before Judkins discovered a discrepancy in the sale but by this time Stout had been dismissed and had absconded. He was informed that Stout was in France, employed as Secretary for the Committee representing British and Colonial exhibitors at the Paris Exhibition of 1855, where his fluency in French would have been an asset. While there he was part of a delegation which met with Prince Napoleon himself. 12 The business connections Stout made while in France should have resulted in promising employment opportunities on his return to England. Instead, three months later,Judkins spotted Stephen coming out of a dance studio in London and had him arrested. This time Stephen asked the constable if he could go home to tell his family, but permission was refused. Instead, he was taken to Newgate Prison where he was held for a month. 13

Following a lengthy trial in the Central Criminal Courts the judge declared Stout to be a ‘most dangerous man to be allowed to remain in the country’ and sentenced him to 14 years’ transportation. 14 This view of petty criminals as a danger to the smooth running of a society based largely on commerce was prevalent at the time.

During his trial evidence was given by Stephen’s brother-in-law of the distress he had caused his wife Sarah. No mention was made at this time of Stephen’s liaison in Paris with another young woman, Pauline de Lavarenne, whom he had brought back to London, pregnant. However his listed home address while in Newgate Prison was not that of his wife Sarah, but of Pauline, who was living in Deptford. 15

Prior to transportation, Stephen served around a month in Millbank prison, 16 where prisoners were assessed before being moved on to Pentonville. While there his mother Mary was permitted to pay him a special visit in May 1856, possibly with news of the birth of his second son Kedgwin Stout, born to his French mistress Pauline. It is likely that Stephen never saw this boy.

Pentonville was based on a modified version of an octagonal plan by Jeremy Bentham, designed to allow minimal but strict supervision over the inmates. It was described as a ‘model prison’, where inmates received training in trades such as weaving, boot~making or were employed in stitching uniforms for inmates or the armed forces. They laboured all day in solitary confinement, allowing them time to reflect on the error of their ways. Those incapable of learning a trade were forced to spend the day un picking tarred ropes to create bales of coir and oakum, required for caulking the Wooden decks of naval ships. Following concern over the high rates of suicide, a brief period of daily exercise was introduced, with the prisoners linked together in a line while wearing mask-like caps to prevent eye contact. Even on Sunday visits to the chapel prisoners were separated from each other in wooden box-like structures. 17

On 12 March 1857 Stephen was transferred to Dartmoor due to ill- health (Dartmoor was a grim forbidding place, originally designed to accommodate French prisoners-of-war captured during the Napoleonic Wars.) On Stephen’s arrival there the surgeon described him as an ‘invalid’, possibly indicating depression. By June his behaviour was noted as ‘V. G.’, and his health had improved by September. 18 He remained at Dartmoor for a year before being taken to Plymouth to await shipment to Western Australia, the only state in Australia still prepared to accept convicts. On 5 March 1858, Stephen was on his way in the convict ship the Lord Raglan. Buoyed by the prospect of starting a new life, Stephen made the most of his opportunities while at sea. The ship’s surgeon recorded that during the voyage Stephen Stout gave a series of lectures, on topics such as ‘the eclipse’ and ‘job opportunities in Australia’, as well as producing a small weekly paper, The Lifeboat. 19 He also assisted Rev Frederick Lynch in the monumental task of educating the 269 convicts on board. Lynch recorded their names and progress in his personal diary. 20

After an uneventful passage, the Lord Raglan arrived in Fremantle on 1 June 1858. Stephen stayed in Fremantle Prison for a few months before being sent to the Bunbury Convict Establishment. From here small gangs were sent out to live in camps while they cleared trees and built the roads, drains and bridges desperately needed by local settlers. There were never enough convicts to satisfy the demand for labour.

But no slaving with the pick and shovel for Stephen! He was soon appointed by Superintendent Henry Duval as clerk and writer at the convict depot. 21 Bunbury at the time of his arrival was showing some benefit effects of seven years of convict labour and British Government expenditure in the district. New buildings had been erected to house the convicts and the Pensioner Guards, while the roads and footpaths around the little town were a vast improvement on the swamps and bogs of the past. Yet the small scattered population was still living mostly at a subsistence level, with few outlets for their produce. Burgeoning industries such as timber and sandalwood cutting were hindered by sandy tracks often made impassable in winter, while lack of proper harbour facilities made export of produce difficult. As well there was a general shortage of labour and capital. Nearby Australind had been settled with great optimism in 1842, but lack of financial backing and the difficulty of establishing farms on heavily timbered land and poor soils had taken their toll on many of the settlers, who soon moved away. Those remaining were under the leadership of Chief Commissioner Marshall Waller Clifton.

While employed as a clerk in the convict depot Stout was also appointed by Duval to teach the convicts in the evening. 22 A controversy arose in Bunbury when it became known that a group of local dignitaries had been invited to hear a lecture on the value of education, presented by the clerk to the convicts. A local settler wrote a letter to the Perth Gazette objecting to this event and suggesting that ‘the favourite and talented ones‘ in the Bunbury convict establishment were being favoured with walks and horse rides. He stated that he fully expected that sometime soon balls and concerts would be held for their entertainment. 23 A lengthy reply the following week, probably penned by Stephen himself, condemned the settler as ‘exhibiting a mean and uncharitable spirit, by speaking out against a man who was simply seeking to atone for his misdeeds, by guiding his fellow inmates towards a more upright future’. 24

Stout’s lecture made a good impression in some quarters, because it was not long before he was appointed as the first convict teacher at Australind, having received his ticket-of-leave in April 1859. 25 He settled into his role with enthusiasm, winning the support and approval of the parents and the local school board. Stephen’s relationship with the Clifton family was generally a cordial one, though Clifton kept a tight rein over his activities. His journals mentioned Stout on quite a few occasions with references to social interactions, including members of the family going fishing with Stout, attending his next lecture and the school examinations. Two of the entries are of particular interest:

22nd November, 1860 - Mrs. Locke called and spoke of Mr. Stout's intended Marriage. Sent for him 8L spoke to him of it (p.641).

30th November, 1860 - Harris came to me on Mr. Stout’s affair (p.642). 26

The so-called ‘affair’ referred to Stout’s intention of marrying a young girl in the community. Convicts were permitted to re-marry after seven years in the colony, regardless of whether they had a spouse living in another country. Stephen had only been here for two years. Officials were in a difficult situation with regards to giving permission for ex-convicts to marry. On one hand they encouraged marriage as the best way for the men to lead a settled life. However there were occasions when authorities were criticised for allowing bigamous marriages to occur. On seeking permission Stout was informed in November 1860 by Resident Magistrate George Eliot that since his status appeared as a married man on the lists, it was therefore required by the Controller General that Stout should satisfy both the prospective bride and the clergyman that there were no impediments to his marriage. 27

It was at this time that Stephen posted an unusual advertisement in the Perth Gazette announcing the death of his little son, Kedgwin, aged 4 years, of scarlet fever - ‘the only son of the late (divorced) Mrs Stephen Stout, nee Pauline de Lavarenne, of Paris. 28 The death of the child, in the care of his grandparents in Cambridgeshire, is documented. However this notice was more likely designed to assist Stephen in his quest to re-marry, by attempting to publicly clarify his marital status. Instead the declaration led to his downfall.

Soon after the death of Marshall Waller Clifton in 1861, details of Stout’s complicated marital history became known and the authorities promptly dismissed him from his teaching post. 29 The dismissal was said to have nothing to do with Stout’s performance as a teacher. His pupils’ results at the annual examinations, held in the tiny Australind Church,were reported to be excellent. 30 But by this time Stout had lost the support of many of the locals, who felt badly let down by this man in whom they had invested their trust. It was Bunbury Resident Magistrate George Eliot, husband of Louisa Clifton, who was instructed by Governor Kennedy to dismiss Stout from his post and to expel him from the Wellington District. 31

Stout headed off to Fremantle to set up his own school, the Fremantle Academy for Boys, in Grosvenor House in High Street Fremantle. He advertised an all-round classical education with subjects such as superior penmanship, philosophy, book-keeping, Latin and French. 32

Quite a number of private schools were set up in those days, by bond men and free, but many did not survive, due to a lack of finance or of qualifications on the part of the teachers. In a cash-strapped society most parents of large families needed their children to be out earning a living or helping in the home rather than spending their time in school. In 1863 Stout moved his academy to Bannister Street. 33 Due to financial difficulties, the school did not survive much longer.

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Image 1A: Fremantle Academy for Young Gentlemen advertisement. Perth Gazette and Independent Journal of Politics and News, 15 August 1861)

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Image 2: Two indigenous men, 1864, Stout image (RWAH5 # 3558)

Later that year Stout was in the photography business in Fremantle, 34 followed by a few months spent in Geraldton and Northampton. 35 During 1866-67 he made several trips to Bunbury 8L the Vasse to take photographs. 36 His images are recognised as significant records of the early colony. He specialised in outdoor views as well as portraiture, while his photographs of local Aboriginal people display an awareness of the influence of western culture on their traditional way of life. Over a period of ten years until 1873 photography was either a full-time profession for Stephen, or a part-time supplement to his work as a schoolteacher. Photography became more competitive during this  period, with the likes of James Manning  and Alfred Chopin active in the industry.

While in Bunbury Stephen met and then married 17-year old Elinor Brown, step-daughter of Perth lawyer Nathaniel Howell, a move that lent him added respectability. The ceremony was performed in 1868 by Rev Andrew Buchanan, Congregational minister at St Nicholas's Church in Australind. 37 By this time Stephen had opened a school in Bunbury, the ‘Wellington Academy for Boys’, offering a classical education for sons of the upper class. 38

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Image 3: Elinor Stout, marriage at  Australind, 1868. Photographer unknown. (SLWA # 005264PD)

Image 4: Stephen Montague Stout, marriage at Australind 1868. Photographer unknown. (SLWA # 054988PD)

These included two sons of the Resident Magistrate, George Eliot, the man who had been instrumental in having him dismissed from the Australind School some years earlier. The school was housed in John Scott’s two-storey building in Victoria Street (This building was later to be replaced by the Koombana House boarding establishment.) Stephen found extra work as book-keeper for local businessman William Spencer and was occasionally paid for articles submitted as local correspondent to the colony’s newspapers. He took part in the first show staged in the new Bunbury Mechanics’ Institute, the first of many performances by him over the years. It was reported that ‘his humorous reading, en costume, of ‘Ensign Martin’s First Scrape’ gave every satisfaction, while his comic song ‘Lord Lovel’, sung in character, was a great success.’ 39 Elsewhere, convicts were said to be excluded from these establishments. They were more likely to be found in the Working Men’s Institutes. Stephen appears to have been well-accepted within the small Bunbury community.

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Image 5: Victoria St Bunbury, Scott’s two-storey building, site of Stout’s Academy, c1867. Probably Stout image. (Bunbury Historical Society, # P112.22)

In 1869 Elinor gave birth to their first son, William, at Rommel in Australind. 40 At that time the property was being leased from the Cliftons by a fellow Lord Raglan ex-convict, David Cundell, as a staging post for travellers. 41 His wife Margaret Tuthill probably acted as mid-wife for the birth.

By 1870 Stephen and Elinor went off to Perth in search of better prospects. The Bunbury Wellington Academy was taken over by another forger ex-convict, Archibald Hamblin Livingstone Cole. 42 He kept it going for a couple more years before leaving to work as a journalist at the Fremantle Herald, then later carving out an illustrious career as newspaper editor in Japan and China. 43

In Perth Stephen Stout opened a new school advertised as ‘Perth Middle Class School’. 44 This venture was short-lived, however. By June he was advertising that he had been ‘induced’to re-establish his school in Fremantle, this time as a ‘Fremantle Academy and Boarding School’. 45 This was to be a regular pattern of behaviour by Stout over the next few years. He started up and then re-started several private academies in Fremantle and Perth. When they failed due to financial difficulties, photography was his fall- back position. Despite the inconvenience caused by the closures, Stout had loyal supporters who wrote references praising his skill as a teacher.

In 1872 he made a brief foray into journalism, partnered by fellow-expiree Frank Timewell, whose small newspaper the Express; had a chequered history. Suffering from competition in Fremantle by the progressive Herald newspaper, Timewell had moved his tiny printing press to a back room at the Pier Hotel in Perth. With himself as printer and Stout as editor, the small paper, described as ‘no larger than a shoulder of mutton’, made an irregular appearance. A very public fa1ling-out occurred when Timewell expressed his outrage at Stephen's implication that missed deadlines were Timewell’s fault and that it was his responsibility to repay their subscribers. 46 Much later an uncorroborated story by retired editor Horace Stirling, writing under the pen-name ‘H’ appeared, asserting that the two hapless individuals were at one stage dunked in the Swan River for insulting the Queen in their newspaper. 47 Another article described how, when threatened with seizure of their printing press by a money-lender, Stephen interrupted kindly Governor Weld at dinner one evening in order to plead for financial support, coming away with a crisp five pound note. 48 Stout spent several years between 1873-1878 as the first expiree employed as a government headmaster in Perth, at the Pensioner Guard Barracks. Elinor was his assistant, teaching needlework. These were good years for the growing family at a time when Stephen’s drinking problem was being addressed through their membership of the Good Templars' Temperance Society. He freely confessed to his former addiction to the national sport of nobblerising, when addressing groups on the evils of drink. 50 Both Stephen and Elinor held official positions within the organisation. They were active in organising concerts to raise funds for their own lodge, the Rose of Perth'. They were so devoted to its cause that they named a daughter Rose Templar Stout (She later married Frederick Charles Chaney, in 1904.) 51

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Image 6:The Templars’ Rest advertisement, 1874. The Inquirer and Commercial News, 21 October 1874.

Stephen established quite a reputation as a public speaker, expounding on topics as diverse as the potential for the discovery of quantities of gold in WA, 52 the need to promote Western Australia’s unique products at international exhibitions 53 and another on the life of the Irish writer Oliver Goldsmith. 54 Big crowds were attracted to his magic lantern shows which he accompanied with full descriptions of the various slides, which included scenic views, grotesque scenes and comic interludes. 55 The performances were sometimes accompanied by a pianist.

Like many others of the convict class Stephen Stout strongly supported the fledgling movement for Responsible Government in Western Australia. Other Australian colonies were far ahead of this state in achieving their autonomy, with New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania gaining their freedom from Westminster’s control in 1855, while South Australia was granted its rights in 1856 and Queensland in 1859. Western Australia still functioned under a system whereby the Governor exercised full authority, advised by a small partially-elected Legislative Council. This did not satisfy some individuals such as radical Geraldton businessman Henry Gray and Fremantle’s Michael Samson, who together had circulated a petition on the subject as early as1868. 56 However many were of the opinion that, with a small population and a struggling economy, Western Australia was not ready to cut ties with Britain. The presence of convicts was also seen as a reason for delaying the process. It was the Herald newspaper which led the concerted push for independence from the British government, with expiree editors James Pearce and James Roe to the forefront, supported by regular columnists such as Archibald Cole,William Beresford and Stephen Stout keeping up the pressure. It was a long and difficult journey before Responsible Government was finally achieved for WA in 1890 during Governor William Robinson’s third term. 57

Stephen knew the value of advertising and sought to promote himself at every opportunity. His advertisements were catchy and way ahead of the type generally seen in the newspapers of that period. He loved nothing better than to perform on the stage, often delivering dramatic readings or humorous monologues, a popular medium at that time. The Good Templars provided him with a ready audience. One of his regular acts which drew hoots of laughter and applause was in the character of Mrs Caudle, dressed in a white nightgown, bemoaning the shortcomings of her husband. 58

As modern-day publicity-seekers have found, however, there can be a downside. Newspaper columnists loved to report Stephen’s latest misadventures. Readers frequently vented their disapproval of him through letters to the editor. When Stephen advertised himself as a dancing instructor he was accused of keeping the Good Templar piano in his own home for this purpose. 59 When his lodge initiated fund-raising on behalf of a widow in desperate straits members of a competing lodge accused him of misappropriating the money. 60 Whether these criticisms were justified is difficult to judge. There is little doubt however that the Stouts often lived beyond their means.

Always looking for ways of improving their situation, Stephen and Elinor set up Perth’s first Temperance Hotel. They advertised it widely but overspending led to their downfall, with bankruptcy declared in 1875. 61 Luckily Stephen still had his teaching position at the Barracks.

Threatened with the closure of the Pensioner Barracks School in 1878 Stephen once again applied for a government position, this time as Traffic Manager/ Station Master on the new Geraldton/Northampton railway. 62 Rejected again, he was forced to accept another teaching post, becoming the first expiree to be employed as headmaster of the Geraldton Boys’ School. According to his references he was considered a fine teacher, yet salaries in this profession were poor.

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Image 7: Railway engine outside Victoria Hotel, Geraldton, 1879, Photographer unknown. (SLWA # 521B_2)

While in Geraldton he seized the opportunity to partner a local businessman in establishing the first newspaper in the town, to be called the Victorian Express. The paper was launched with great fanfare. 63 On the surface all was going well for the family. Stephen joined the Working Men’s Institute where he was involved in committee work and helped organise entertainments. However the partnership with Walker soon ended in a controversial manner when the paper’s stated policy of promoting Responsible Government caused concern among conservative citizens. Stephen was encouraged in this by the editors of the Fremantle Herald who were leading the push for cutting the ties with Britain.

It was also rumoured that his problem with alcohol had returned. Soon after reaching Geraldton, Stephen gave up his allegiance to the Good Templars. His contemporaries at the Fremantle Herald sternly admonished him at one stage, when it reported that ‘the Victorian Express had been published late that week, due to the men drinking’. 64 Stephen was their local Geraldton correspondent.

Determined to get rid of him, Stephen’s partner Isaac Walker dragged him through the courts three times for petty reasons. An excessive sum of £1200 was set as bail money by Resident Magistrate George Eliot, formerly of Bunbury, on the grounds that Stephen might abscond from the colony. It was the most talked-about scandal in the colony for many Weeks. Each case was Widely reported in some of the Eastern State’s newspapers, where Stout was well-known as a regular Western Australian correspondent. The first charge concerned the embezzlement of two sums of five shillings, in which Stout’s own defence council Mr. Duboulay was actually called to give evidence against his client over the recording of his subscription payment to the newspaper. 65 Stout was found not guilty. The second charge, of stealing a bundle of old newspapers which were traded to a local shopkeeper by his young daughters in exchange for a few yards of calico, was dismissed. 66

Stephen then started up his own rival newspaper, the Observer, with the backing of controversial local businessman Henry Gray, a die-hard supporter of the push for independence. 67 Seeking revenge for his humiliation Isaac Walker took Stout to court a third time, once again over embezzlement of several small sums of money. Following his final acquittal on the grounds of poor book-keeping on the part of Walker, Stephen was said to have doffed his white bell-topper hat with a flourish, saying to his band of supporters - ‘That’s how it’s done, boys!’ - a comment that understandably did not go down well with the opposition. 68 The town was not big enough to support two newspapers. A relentless campaign was waged against Stout and his paper by the new editor of the Victorian Express, Roland Howes. Within a year the Geraldton Observer failed and Stephen went back to Perth to join the Stirling Bros Inquirer and their new Daily News, launched in July 1882. 69 He is credited with having Written the first editorial for this newspaper and would have been involved in reporting on Western Australia’s first International Exhibition, held on the Esplanade foreshore around that time.

Following the death of his wife Elinor at the age of 38 to tuberculosis, Stephen fell on hard times. Sacked by Horace Stirling and struggling to keep his family of six children together, Stephen survived mainly on part- time work as a journalist. He collapsed and died suddenly in 1886, just a year after his wife, aged 55. 70 His children, aged between sixteen and two years, were left destitute, with the landlord threatening to put them out on the street. It was proposed to place several of the children in the Girls’ Orphanage but the youngest, Elsie, was deemed to be too young. Instead she was raised by two worthy ladies, Miss Sarah Alicia Cave and her sister Agnes, who together ran a girls’ school on what is now called Mounts Bay Road. Years later, on the death of Miss Agnes Cave, Elsie Eggert (née Stout), inserted a notice in memory of her loved ‘aunt’. 71 Her sisters Elinor and Rose spent some time in the orphanage. 72 The three older children were expected to fend for themselves. The family credited their eldest sister, Frances, with keeping the family members in touch during these difficult years.

Stephen Montague Stout was a talented and entrepreneurial individual, yet his life was one of missed opportunities. Unlike many other expirees who fled the colony as soon as they were able, Stephen’s strong belief in Western Australia’s potential never wavered. Four years after his death Responsible Government was finally won in 1890. Stephen remained a controversial character throughout his life and beyond, referred to variously in the press as ‘the immaculate one’, an ‘old press hack’, or ‘the old penny- a-liner’. Newspaper men such as Horace Stirling, the great storytellers of their day, for many years continued to regale readers with tales of Stephen Montague Stout, a man ahead of his time.

Fremantle Studies Day, 2013

Notes

1 SROWA, CONS 527, file 1884/1257

2 SROWA, SDUR/S5/465

3 Inquirer and Commercial News, 4 February, 1874, p. 1, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article65963123

4 1851 British Census and British Marriage and Birth Certificates

5 French christening records

6 Honore de Balzac, Modeste Mignon, ch.1, (Chlenowski: France, 1844), www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1482

7 Waterbeach birth records

8 Central Criminal Court Records, London, 1674-1913, www.oldbaileyonline.org

9 Coventry Standard, (Coventry, 1836-1969), 3 January, 1851, www. britishnewspapersarchive.co.uk

10 British marriage and birth records

11 Morning Post, (London,1772-1937), April 12, 1856; p.7; Issue 25671, www. britishnewspapersarchive.co.uk

12 Ibid., September 22, 1855; pg. 4; lssue 25498,wwwbritishnewspapersarchive. co.uk

13 Home Office: Newgate Prison Registers and Statistical Returns, (PCOM2/ 21 3), National Archives, London.

14 Morning Post, 12 April 1856;p. 7; Issue 256 71, www.britishnewspapersarchive. co.uk

15 Home Office,Millbank Prison Registers and Statistical Returns, (PCOM2/ 37), National Archives, London.

16 Home Office, Millbank Prison Registers and Statistical Returns, (PCOM2/ 37), National Archives, London.

17 Mayhew, H, and Binney, J., The Criminal Prisons of London and Scenes Of London Life. (Griffen, Bohn and Co., London, 1862), vvww.victorian london. org/publications5/prisons.htm

18 Home Office, Pentonville Prison Registers and Statistical Returns (HO24/17), National Archives, London.

19 John Bower, Surgeon, Daily journal aboard the “Lord Raglan", 1858, Joint Copying Project (AJCP) microfilm reel 3181, State Library of Western Australia

20 Frederick Lynch, Papers, 1858 - 1889." Diary kept while on hoard the ‘Lord Raglan’, Battye Library, Perth, Western Australia, MN247, ACA 1559A - 1560A

21 Rikkers, J., Western Australian Schools - 1830-1980, Part 1 Schools and Teachers 1830-1871, p.28

22 Inquirer and Commercial News (Perth, W14.‘ 1855-1901), 10 April, 1878, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article65 95 7538

23 Perth Gazette and Independent journal of Politics and News, (WA: 1848 - I864), 17 December, 1858, p.3, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article293 121 7

24 Ibid., 24 December, 1858, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2931228

25 Rikkers, Western Australian Schools, Part 1 - Schools and Teachers 1830-1871, p.25

26 Phyllis Barnes, Cameron, H.A.Willis, et al, (eds.) The Australind journals of Marshall Waller Clifton, 1840-1861, Hesperian Press, Perth, Western Australia, 2010

27 SROWA, Cons 222, Item Vol. 3, 15/181

28 Perth Gazette and Independent journal of Politics and News, 23 November,1 860, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2932783

29 SROWA, Acc 51/6 5L 7, items 983, 984

30 Perth Gazette and Independent journal of Politics and News, 30 December 1859, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2932070

31 SROWA, Acc 51/6&7, Items 983, 984

32 Perth Gazette and Independent journal of Politics and News, 15 August, 1861, p. 1, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2933331

33 Inquirer and Commercial News, 7 January 1863, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla. news~article69 1375 1 1

34 Inquirer and Commercial News, 16 December, 1863, p. 3, http://nla.gov.au/nla. news-article66014278

35 Perth Gazette and Independent journal of Politics and News, 29 April, 1864, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2935043

36 Perth Gazette and West Australian Times, (WA: 1864 - 18 74), 21 December, 1866, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3756795

37 Marriage certificate

38 Perth Gazette and West Australian Times, 3 January 1868, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3753787

39 Perth Gazette and West Australian Times, 19 February, 1869, p. 2, http://nla. gov.au/nla.news-article3752506

40 Birth certificate

41 Perth Gazette and West Australian Times, 4 June, 1869, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/ nla.news-article3751082

42 Inquirer C9’ Commercial News, 5 October, 1870, p. 3, http://nla.gov.au/nla. news-article66033450

43 Daily News (Perth, WA: 1882 - 1950), 24 March, 1884, p. 3, http://nla.gov. au/nla.news-article76215245

44 Perth Gazette and West Australian Times, 18 March, 1870, p. 2, http://nla.gov. au/ nla.news-article375 2787

45 Perth Gazette and West Australian Times, 1 July 1870, p. 1, http://nla.gov.au/ nla.news-article375 1507

46 Express, (Perth WA: 1872-1873), 18 April,1872

47 Sunday Times, 20 December 1920, p. 1, Second Section, http://nla.gov.au/ nla.news-article5792358

48 West Australian, Perth, WA: 1879 - 1954), 13 February, 1915,p. 8, http://nla. gov.au/ nla.news-article285 83829

49 Rica Erickson, The Brand On His Coat, University of WA Press, Nedlands, Western Australia, 1983, p. 283

50 Perth Gazette and West Australian Times, 22 August, 1873 p. 3, http://nla.gov. au/nla.news-article3749127

51 Marriage Certificate, Reg. N0. 1932 Perth Gazette and Independent Journal ofP0litics and News, 22 N0vember,1861 , p. 3, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2933546

52 Perth Gazette and Independent Journal of Politics and News, 10 May, 1861, p. 3, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2933 128

54 W.A. Church of England Magazine, The West Australian Times, 24 March, 1864, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3367038

55 Perth Gazette and Independent journal of Politics and News 3 January, 1862, p. 3, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2933621

56 Inquirer and Commercial News (Perth, WA : 1855 - 1901), 26 February, 1868. p. 3 , http:/ / nla. gov. au/ nla. news-article693 86602

57 Daily News, 16 March, 1916, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article80889

58 Western Australian Times (Perth, WA: 1874 - 1879), 1 August, 1876, p. 2, at http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2976354

59 Western Australian Times, 3 October, 1876, p. 3, http://nla.gov.au/nla. news- article 2976585

60 Western Australian Times, 10 March, 1876, p. 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news- article2975 665

61 State Records Office 0fW A, N0. 314.17.0

62 SROWA CONS 527, file 1884/1257

63 Inquirer and Commercial News, 25 September, 1878, p. 3, http://nla.gov.au/nla. news-article65 95 701

64 Herald, (Fremantle WA: 1867-1886), 30 November, 1878, p. 3, http://nla.gov. au/nla.news-article1 10470572

5 Victorian Express (Geraldton, WA: 1878-1893), 19 May, 1880

66 South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA: 1858 - 1889), 15 June, 1880, p. 7, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article30803069

67 West Australian, 6 August, 1880, p. 1. Supplement, http://nla.gov.au/nla. news-article29835 10

68 Victorian Express, 9 June, 1880

69 Daily News, (Perth, WA .' 1882 - I950), 17 March 1925, p. 5 Edition: Third Edition, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84303238

70 Inquirer and Commercial News, 21 April, 1886, p. 5, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news- article66036847

71 Western Mail, 22 October, 1925, p. 35, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news- article37641798

72 Western Mail, 17 December, 1892, p. 31, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news- article33075 5 37


Garry Gillard | New: 23 June, 2018 | Now: 16 December, 2018