Fremantle Stuff > books > Moore 1884

Diary of ten years eventful life of an early settler in western Australia

and also A Descriptive Vocabulary of the Language of the Aborigines

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Member of the Irish Bar. Advocate General. Sole Judge of the First Civil Court. Acting Colonial Secretary for a time. And ex officio an Honourable Member both of the Executive and Legislative Councils of the Colony.



August, 1884.


Think of me, when first the sun
Paints with gold the Eastern sky,
And when his daily course has run,
Remember me, and think me nigh.

Morn will bring to mind our meetings.
Cheerful looks and spirits light,
Eve, our late protracted greetings.
As we whispered a " Good night."

And when, in sacred hour of prayer.
Blessings are asked on bended knee,
Give, of that hour, sufficient share.
To ask a blessing too, on me.

Then, though to the world be given,
All that you may, of mirth and glee,
I shall be sure that next to Heaven,
And Heavenly things, you think of me.

May, 1830.


In the year 1828, the British Government being anxious, for political reasons, to establish a colony on the West side of Australia, issued public notices, offering large tracts of land, on certain conditions, to any who would proceed to, and settle on, that district before the end of the year 1830. Attracted by the hope of obtaining possession of a good estate, and feeling that the prospect of success at the Irish Bar was but remote and uncertain, I applied to the Government on the subject of some official appointment, if I should go to the Colony as an emigrant. The answer was to the effect, that any appointment made here now might clash with the proceedings of Governor Stirling; but if I chose to go out at my own risk and expense, they would give me a favourable letter of introduction to the Governor. On this encouragement, I made up my mind to go at once.

My friends were doubtful as to the prudence of such a hazardous step, but I reconciled them to it by a solemn promise that I would keep them fully informed, by each available opportunity in my power, of every incident and circumstance of my position and life there, whether good or bad, and leave them to judge of my success or failure. This was the cause of the "Diary or Journal" hereinafter contained. It was written solely for the information and satisfaction of my father, brothers, sisters, and immediate friends in this country. It was commenced soon after my embarcation from Dublin, and was a great source of relief and consolation to myself during the voyage, as well as through all the difficulties, dangers, labours, and eventful incidents, for the space of ten years in the colony, until my first return home on leave of absence. It was not continued after that time.

Having mentioned that the acquisition of substantial property in the shape of land was a great inducement to my emigration, it is right to mention the result. On giving a schedule, and satisfactory proof of the value of the property, and the number of servants taken out, an assignment of 12,000 acres, or rather a right to choose that quantity of rural land, was given to me, which was eventually obtained in various blocks and in different places according to my own choice. There was considerable delay in getting the blocks surveyed and the boundaries marked out, and registered in, the records of the office of the Surveyor-General. I purchased also from time to time several blocks of land from settlers, who either preferred the money, or were desirous of leaving the colony for various reasons. The result was that when I came home finally, some twenty years ago, I was, and still am, the possessor of twenty-four thousand acres of land in fee simple, as well as several allotments in towns. I became the first Judge in a Civil Court, was member of both the Executive and Legislative Councils, Advocate-General, and sole legal adviser of the Government, acted temporarily as Colonial Secretary, because of the illness and death of that officer, and the illness and death of Governor Clarke about the same time.

The history of the original letters may possess some little interest. They were from the first carefully preserved by those to whom they were sent in this country. But, after the lapse of many years, they were confided to the care of a near relative in the colony, who had expressed a great desire to see them. This lady was well acquainted with Sir Thomas Cockburn Campbell, the able Editor and owner of the paper called "The West Australian." The letters were shown to him, he begged to be permitted to publish extracts from them seriatim in his paper, according as space would admit of. He sent to me a copy of each paper which contained an extract. I cut out those extracts and gummed them into an album. This has enabled me to publish them all here afresh.

I have also added to them a "Descriptive Vocabulary" of the language of the Aborigines—their habits and manners, and the fauna of the country. The only restriction I put upon Sir Thomas as to the treatment of the journal was, that he should omit anything too trivial for publication, and also carefully avoid anything that could in the least degree be likely to annoy, or hurt the feelings of, any one, either in the colony or in this country—an injunction which he has most judiciously observed and most honourably carried out. I introduce here one of his letters to me as being appropriate to the subject.

Copy of a letter from Sir T. Cockburn Campbell.

West Australian Office,
Perth, 16-9-1881.

My Dear Sir,

Many thanks for your kind letter. I have had great pleasure in publishing your journal, and I can assure you it is read with very great interest indeed. There has been a break in its publication lately on account of my space in the W. A. being so filled with Council reports, but I shall resume the journal again next week. What terrible times you early settlers had to pass through. It is difficult to imagine it now, in a country with railways, telegraphs, &c., and so many of the conveniencies of modern life.

Believe me, my dear Sir,
Faithfully yours,

George Fletcher Moore, Esq.

So far as regards the winding up of the Journal, I could not desire a better than the gratifying commentary of the EDITOR of the West Australian, to whom I tender thanks for the interest he took in it, and the judicious care he bestowed on its publication in his paper. On my part, I have to render my humble thanks to the Heavenly Giver of all Good, that at the ripe period of an eighty-sixth year, I should be permitted to undertake, and enabled, as I hope, to complete the work of its publication, 54 years after its commencement.

With reference to the "Descriptive Vocabulary" which has been added to it, the appropriate Preface thereof speaks fully for itself. It was put into my hands in a very crude state by Governor Hutt, that I should get it published in England. I had been called home on serious family business. There was no direct conveyance; I had to go by Java, had a long voyage in a Dutch ship—the captain alone had a small smattering of English. To relieve the tediousness of such a voyage, I devoted my leisure to the manuscript, added to, enlarged, expanded, and made it what it is. So, though only one of the few parties connected with the former attempts, I might fairly and truly use the familiar expression, "Quorum pars magna fui." [in which I played a great part]

I made all arrangements for the printing, corrected the press, made terms for the binding, advanced and paid all attendant expenses, had the books carefully packed in a well-tinned chest, which I took back to Governor Hutt, and divided them equally with him. This was in accordance with a previous understanding between us, that on my doing so he would pay half the expenses, which he cheerfully did. That work has been long out of print. It concerns a race which is gradually dwindling away, and may soon be entirely extinct—its language corrupted, disused, forgotten, lost. It is well to endeavour to make a small record of it whilst there is a possibility of doing so. Such is one chief object of the present attempt; may it have the desired effect. The Aborigines, when we first came in contact with them, had no knowledge of a God, no worship, no object of worship, no ideas on the subject. Many efforts were made to civilize and to Christianize them. The Wesleyans made some tolerable progress with them, but sedentary habits did not suit either their health or dispositions—a violent disorder of the mesenteric glands suddenly carried off thirteen of their most promising pupils, and the school was broken up at that time. Some 40 years ago a Mission of Spanish Benedictine Monks was established in the Colony for the avowed purpose of the conversion of the Aboriginal natives. They gathered the children, both boys and girls, into the schools together, and when they came to marriageable age, such children were joined in pairs according to their choice, by a form of matrimony.

All these young people, at suitable ages, were brought forward for confirmation. About ten years ago, a grand ceremony was that of an unusual number of these young natives, collected on such an occasion, a photograph of which, taken at the time, has been shown to me in London.

It is right to explain the singular concatenation of circumstances by which I found myself compelled to act for a time as Colonial Secretary. His Excellency the Governor Colonel Clarke) and the Honourable the Colonial Secretary (Peter Brown, Esq.), were simultaneously so prostrated by serious illness as to be incapable of transacting any business; the doctors denied all access except to their nearest friends. How the Government was to be carried on was a grave question. As I had married the Governor's stepdaughter, I was admitted as a friend. I found him greatly depressed and distressed. I offered to discharge the duties of the Colonial Secretary temporarily, getting another to do my duties for the time. The Governor was greatly relieved by the offer. By the permitted interviews at his bedside, I was enabled to use the usual formal heading of letters from the office, such as "I am directed by His Excellency," &c., &c. My first step, as soon as a mail served, was to inform the Government at home of the unprecedented position in which I found myself, and begging their instant attention to it. In due time another Colonial Secretary came out, and I gladly resumed my former positions. Both the Governor and Colonial Secretary died.

I have stepped beyond my strict limits in introducing this episode, but the step was almost unavoidable under the circumstances.

George Fletcher Moore.

(From the West Australian).

Amongst the earliest settlers in Western Australia was a gentleman well known to old colonists Mr. George Fletcher Moore, late Advocate-General of the colony, who for many years past has been resident in England.

Mr. Moore, from his first arrival at Fremantle in 1830, kept a diary–recording the events of his daily life–which, as opportunity occurred, he sent home to his friends. This diary, full of details of the greatest interest to all West Australian colonists, most graphically illustrates the early life and progress of the Swan River settlement. Of Mr. Moore's letters, those written prior to 1834 were published in England, but have long been out of print, and, with the remainder, which carry on the record of events to a much later date, are now in the hands of his relatives in this colony. These letter-diaries seemed to us of so much interest that we asked, and were kindly granted, permission to publish them serially in the West Australian.


reflections on leaving land—duties of the sabbath-day—meets a vessel in distress—trade winds—madeira—flying fish descried—pilot fish—portuguese man of war—memorials of home—epitaph on his spaniel—rain—a strange sail—crossing the line—the southern cross—the cape—stanzas—termination of the voyage.

Dear Brother,

Exhausted with sleeplessness and agitation, I threw myself into my berth soon after you and my dear father left me, still indulging a hope of seeing you on board once more before sailing. On awaking from long and painful slumber, disturbed by a confusion of all imaginable noises, I found that a steamer had taken us out of the harbour in the course of the night, and that we were at a considerable distance from land. The reflection then crossed me, that I was for the first time separated from my family and friends,

"Quaero alio patriam sub sole jacentem;"

and placed as it were, alone on the ocean of life to steer my own way, and depend on my single efforts, without the friendly hand of the dear parent, who had hitherto been my guide and companion—the "custos incorruptissimus "—without the interchange of fraternal love, and with the heavy responsibility of having embarked four others in my service and speculations, for whose welfare of mind and body I feel myself accountable ; under all these anxious thoughts and considerations, I prayed to God, the only source of calmness and of comfort, to strengthen and support me. To vary the usual monotony and dulness of the long and painful voyage before me, I shall keep a journal, which, if it ever reach you, will make me present to you all.
[Many parts of the Log-book are abbreviated, or omitted altogether, as containing details too familiar to be generally interesting.—Editor.]

Sunday, June 4th, 1830.—In pursuance of a determination, which I had previously formed, never to omit, when practicable, the duties of the Sabbath-day, either at sea or in the land of my destination, I read prayers and a suitable service to my own people ; great interruptions, from several causes, occurred, but I persevered, and had the satisfaction of finding that the captain would be pleased at having the service on deck for the advantage of the crew. Wind moderate and favourable, our lat. 46°, Ion. 10°, and yet the weather cool. Thermometer only 64°—great talk of being in the latitude of pirates, and consequent cleaning and preparing of all our fire- arms — saw nothing, however, more terrible than some large porpoises playing about the bows of the vessel. Experienced the want of a filtering machine for our water, which already smells offensively and tastes badly. This is a sad want. It is inexcusable in the captains of vessels to be unprovided with this valuable and unexpensive apparatus, which conduces so much to health and comfort.

July 8th.—Approaching the trade winds ; James killed a pig in the evening — quite an event ! This same James makes himself very useful in many ways ; he takes particular pleasure in feeding our sheep, but whether this taste proceeds from a disinterested benevolence, or from the anticipated enjoyment of good mutton chops, I cannot say.

9th.—A vessel in sight, making signals of distress. Hove to. She sent a boat to us. Proves to be the Patriot, from Benecarlo to Dublin ; had been six weeks at sea, sprung a leak, and was kept afloat by incessant exertions at the pump. Her provisions were running short, so that we were obliged to give her a supply of water and biscuit, some coals also, and leather for the pump. Many of us took the opportunity of writing to our friends, as well as the limited time would permit. I wrote a few lines (thought crowding upon thought in the happiest confusion) to my dear father and brother. As the captain of the Patriot did not seem quite sure of his reckoning, we gave it correctly to him ; he had two officers on board who wished for newspapers, which unluckily for them and the credit of our philanthropy, we did not share. Being now 16° W. our time is one hour and four minutes later than at Greenwich, each degree making a difference of four minutes. The most perceptible difference in our latitude is the short duration of twilight.

We expect to fall in with the regular S.E. trade wind a few degrees on this (north) side of the line ; our course must then be directed towards South America, until this region be traversed, after which we may calculate on variable winds until we shall have reached a more southerly latitude, when westerly winds will prevail again. Remained late on deck in the evening, watching the phosphoric brilliancy which every one has witnessed at sea, and the deep blue of the ocean.

11th.—At four in the morning passed Madeira, lying about twenty-five miles to the east. Most delightful day ; wind moderate and steady from the N.E., supposed to be the regular trade wind. Read morning service, and the psalms and lessons for the day, with a sermon ; the captain, passengers, and crew, with the exception of two or three, attending in the large cabin—a gratifying and impressive scene. No vessel, no living thing in sight, except a solitary bird, one of Mother Carey's chickens. Ship going at the rate of nine knots, and rolling more than is quite comfortable. Peak of Teneriffe not yet visible. Saw flying fish for the first time. They seemed to spring up from the side of the vessel as if startled, sometimes taking a considerable flight, at other times just touching the waters and then rising again. Occasionally a single one rises, at other times twenty or thirty spring up together. I could not perceive any vibrations in their fins or wings, whichever naturalists please to call them. Most of them are of a silver grey ; a few of yellow or gold colour. We are supposed to be now about the tropic. Thermometer 80°. Water miserably bad ; even filtering fails to improve it, as one of our passengers, who happens to have a good filtering machine, assures me. The only way to swallow it without disgust is in negus, with plenty of lemon juice.

Saw a pilot fish, which is about the size of a mackerel, with stripes on his side like those of a zebra. I am told that he generally accompanies the shark ; the latter, however, did not appear, but towards evening a large shoal of porpoises surrounded the vessel, apparently more for sport than prey, their gambols being of the most comic kind. This night the captain took an observation of the north star ; the sky too cloudy to be very accurate. Thermometer 80°. This degree of heat produces in me great languor by day and restlessness by night. Lat. at noon, 18°, 16'. We hope to see Antonio, one of the Cape Verd Islands, to-morrow. The anxiety with which we look for the smallest island is inconceivable to those who have not been exposed for many days to the monotony of time passed on the ocean.

Sunday, 18th.—I officiated as usual for a congregation of about thirty-six persons, apparently interested and attentive to the services of the day. Thermometer 80°, at 2 p.m. This day, for the first time, we saw a shark gliding slowly along, with its fin just above the water's surface, and in his wake followed a great train of what the sailors call Portuguese men of war, and a long shoal of flying fish and bonetas, so that we had something to look at. We are disappointed in our hope of seeing the land of St. Antonio, the weather proving hazy, and there being every indication of our losing the N.E. trade wind, and falling in with the S.W. wind, which prevails about the Cape Verd Islands. The heat at night, thermometer 82°, is very oppressive, so much so, that I can hardly bear even a sheet over me.

19th.—This day has been marked by a fearful accident. We had been all anxiously looking out for fish, and endeavouring to catch men of war by means of buckets, and had just succeeded in capturing one (which I shall describe by and by), when a boy, in the act of throwing out a bucket, became entangled in the rope attached to it, and was dragged overboard. A sailor looking on, instantly jumped into the sea, and by assisting and encouraging the youngster, until a boat was lowered, saved his life, Providentially the day was calm, and the boy had great presence of mind, and swam pretty well, though he had all his clothes on, except his shoes. The brave fellow, who risked his life for the lad, is George Southern, son of a respectable man living at Bray ; his amiable and obliging temper had rendered him a general favourite previously to this occurrence, which of course has not lowered him in the scale of estimation. I was in the cabin when the alarm was given, and on reaching deck, George had made such way towards the boy, who sustained himself boldly, that my only apprehension was that the sharks would meet them. If these monsters were in our track, the bustle and noise from the ship, and the appearance of the boat, kept them at a distance ; — it was a scene of intense and awful anxiety. May we all give praise where it is due, and may our praises be accepted !

I threatened to describe the man of war:—It consists of a bladder filled with air, from which depend roots or feelers, nearly four feet long. One of the roots of this zoophyte I have now examined with a microscope ; it is no thicker than a thread, transparent, and hollow, with many knots or joints from which other minuter fibres extend. After I had handled these fibres, I experienced a prickly sensation like that of needles in my face, on the application of my hand. This I am unable to account for. I have lately acquired the habit of taking a night bath, by having water pumped over me. The time which I have chosen has been about an hour before midnight, in order to obtain cool and refreshing sleep. Last night, after my bath, I remained a long time on deck en chemise, without any inconvenience whatever. Thermometer yesterday, lat. 15° 4', in my sleeping cabin stood at 81° ; in the afternoon 85°, and on deck 92° 22'. This day we have had a great addition to our live stock. Poor Lass having presented me with nine puppies, five of which were committed to the deep. I have been obliged to keep four, to gratify the urgent solicitations of some of our passengers ; but I fear that the mother has not strength or nutriment sufficient, and milk is a scarce article now on board. The dozen bottles which I had brought with me, boiled, corked, and hermetically sealed, soon became sour ; even Poor Lass, for whose accouchement I had kept it, since it proved unfit for her master, refuses to drink it;—tell this to all whom it may concern.

The effects of the heat have been proved on our mutton (the sheep which James killed three days ago being quite offensive, though washed with chloride of lime), and still more lamentably on Poor Lass, who is staggering about, restless and feverish, and half frantic ; at one time coming down to my cabin, at another wandering about the deck, as if in search of something, and paying little attention to her young ones ; indeed her doing so would be of little service, her milk being gone ; I have given her medicine, and whatever else I could think of as possibly serviceable to her.

24th.—Poor Lass is no more. I grieve at her death, for she formed a link of associations with home and its inmates. Oh ! how bitter are the thoughts of the exile !

"Every tedious stride I make Will but remember me what a deal of world I wander from the jewels that I love."

How often, and with what intense anxiety, do I contemplate successively the many little memorials of affection and friendship, which are almost always before me ! Not only those which you, and my father and sister have given, and which are associated in some way or other with all my occupations, whether praying, reading, writing, marking the progress of time, or preparing for eternity ; but those tokens of regard which I have received from comparative strangers. I constantly wear a ring which gave me just before I came away. Poor fellow I he could scarcely speak, I could not articulate a syllable. I trust before this, his anxious and affectionate heart has found rest and peace in wedded life ! I dress every day before a glass belonging to a case given me by Miss T—.

Instances of Mrs. R's kindness are constantly before me. Poor John Maguire (Joseph's old servant), with tears in his eyes, entreated my acceptance of a handsome dark lantern, which he had had for one and twenty years. It is now suspended in my cabin, and my reminiscences revert with as much gratification to this keepsake of poor John's, as to any other that I see around me. Furlong's kindness and attention appear in several marks of his friendship. A cabin lamp, fowling-piece, and pair of pistols, an apparatus for kindling an instantaneous light, are suspended in my cabin ; and when I look at these articles, as well as at the books, and many other of his gifts, I am filled with gratitude at his disinterested friendship ; but I shall not dwell more upon recollections. I cannot dare to indulge in the "solemn sorrows of suffocating sensibility" as Bridgetina Botherum says, else I should unnerve my mind when it has need of all its fortitude ; and yet, my dear brother, I cannot avoid giving you the rythmical produce of my waking thoughts last night, or rather at peep of day this morning, soon after the death of Poor Lass. My melancholy must have vent, and though there is sad wastry, as Rose Anne would say, as applies to paper, yet, under existing circumstances, I may be allowed to play the fool, if it were only for my beloved sister's sake. She knows when the fit comes on, how hard I find it to resist. Was ever an epitaph on spaniel composed in my present position ?
Lat. 11°, 12' Here goes :—

Aye ! give the body to the deep,
That universal grave ;
There let it sleep the dreamless sleep, —
Its mound—an ocean wave.

In losing thee, I've lost a friend,
Whose instinct worth, well tried,
Could service with affection blend,
Though reason was denied.

If thou hadst reach'd the looked for land,
I hoped to see thee bound
With frolic gambols on the strand.
And hail the adopted ground.

I pictured oft thy mute surprise,
When (instinct still the same)
New climes had shown thy wond'ring eyes
Some unaccustomed game.

I thought to see thee at my side.
Watch the uplifted gun —
Or view thee in thy race of pride —
But now thy race is run.

Wakeful guard 'gainst nightly spoil.
Companion of the day ;
Cheerful partner of my toil,
Thou'rt call'd, and must obey.

What meant that last, that wistful gaze,
When at thy masters' tread,
Thy little strength was meant to raise
The drooping, dying head?

Was it in hope his essayed skill
E'en yet might bring relief ?
His power accords not with his will,
He could but vent his grief.

Or was it meant as to commend
Thy new born young bereft ?
Could substituted care befriend
A progeny thus left ?

Th' Equator's sun — weak ill-timed brood !
Has drain'd your fountain dry ;
And here no artificial food
Can nature's store supply.

Poor victim of a torrid clime,
Where e'en to breathe is pain,
Cut off in all thy vigour's prime,
Thou'rt gone ; — regret is vain.

The wise may think 'tis weak in me,
To grieve ; — so let it pass :
But yet I feel, in losing thee,
I've lost a friend — Poor Lass.

Sunday, 25th. — Read church service and a sermon as usual. Robert has absented himself on this and the preceding Sunday, without any good or apparent cause; I must remonstrate ; — strongly impressed myself with the many mercies of a kind Providence, and the dependence of His creatures on Him for each moment of their existence, every circumstance of their prosperity, and every hope of future happiness, I consider myself involved in the fate of those who have accompanied me, and bound to confirm them, as far as I am able, in religious principles and observances.

Weather fine, but warm and close ; a numerous shoal of porpoises have come rushing towards the ship with great violence. "They are just like sheep sporting in a field," said Letty, and it was not a bad simile for their boundings and gambols ; and although it was comical enough to see these animals floundering about, I could not help feeling some alarm on the recollection of an observation Captain Cook makes somewhere in his voyages, " that the playing of porpoises ..

[This prognostic (for I believe there is some such notion prevalent) may have arisen merely from the superstition of seamen. Shakspeare, with his admirable accuracy of observation has alluded to this belief.—Editor.
"3rd Fisherman—Faith, master, I am thinking of the poor men that were
cast away before us, even now.
1st Fisherman.—Alas, poor souls ! it grieved my heart to hear what pitiful
cries they made to us to help them, when, well-a-day, we could scarce help
3rd Fisherman.—Nay, master, said I not as much when I saw the porpus,
how he bounced, and tumbled? They say they are half-fish, half-flosh ; a
plague on them, they never come but I look to be washed."]

... round the ship was a certain indication of an approaching gale ;" this remark made by so experienced a seaman was calculated to excite apprehension in a landsman.

25th.—This day has been delicious—one of heavy incessant rain, welcomed by the crew, passengers, and every living animal on board ; it is the first heavy rain of any consequence we have had since we sailed, and as our allowance of water has been very limited, we all eagerly prepared for a general ablution of clothes. Letty's obliging temper has been taken full advantage of, every one applying to her in difficulties, and she does everything in her power to accommodate. We have saved much of the rain, and I have bottled a large supply for my own use.

28th.—During the few preceding days, the air has been cool—wind variable, and sometimes foul. A dolphin went off with a line and hook in his stomach this day. I fear that he will suffer from dyspepsia.

We had been complaining of the monotony of our time, "one day telling another and one night certifying another," when a vessel was descried; conjecture became immediately busy, and her movements and appearance were watched with intense interest.

29th.—At length we communicated by signals with the strange sail, which proved to be not a pirate, as we had dreaded, but the brig Harriet, bound for Buenos Ayres.

30th.—I slept uncommonly well last night, which I attribute to my having taken a cold bath immediately before retiring to bed ; breeze unfavourable, lat. 6° 42' at noon. It is not recommended to come closer to the coast than 18 long. We are now opposite Sierra Leone, and are entertained by the sailors with agreeable tales of the corsairs, seven of whom, my story tellers asserted, they have seen beheaded at Cadiz. Our determination is to fight manfully, if we should be attacked by an equal force ; if by an overwhelming one, to submit quietly at once. Some of these pirates have eighty men and ten or twelve guns ; we have but twenty men and two six pound carronades, and small arms.

August 1st.—Fine morning. Breeze strong. Found that we had made but nine miles southing since yesterday. Read prayers, and an excellent sermon of Burder's. This admirable preacher of a pure religion must have done wonders with his parishioners. I give him the credit of the manifest reform which appears to have taken place in my congregation ; he cannot be read or heard without interest and improvement. He speaks to the heart more in the eloquence of feeling than language ; but whatever he says, he strongly impresses. His sermon on the text, " Christ is the way," is calculated to make a man a Christian, and to keep him one. On these occasions all on board regularly attend, with three or four exceptions.

[I cannot too strongly applaud the conduct of Mr. Moore in this respect ; nor too warmly recommend the imitation of it to others similarly circumstanced. Every person, however humble in ability, may be the instrument of incalculable benefit. Let him take a few Bibles, Prayor-books, and well-selected volumes of sermons ; let him produce and use them on the Sabbath, and in his own little circle keep the day holy. He may at first meet with indifference or opposition, but let him persevere, as in the instances of Buchanan and Henry Martin, and he will at length be listened to with reverential attention. Sailors have strong impressions of religion ; and the ocean is a scene, of all others, the most likely to excite the adoration of Him, " who weigheth the waters by measure."—Editor.]

2nd.—I have been occupied most of this day in writing out the foregoing part of my journal, in the hope of its being conveyed to my sisters. It is inconceivable what a pleasureable interest I take in it. Since this notion has come into my head, it is no longer to me a mere dry record of each day's progress, and its passing events. It is my medium of communication with my dear girls ; and though the voyage be barren of incidents, it will, I know, be valued as a memorial, from its writer—as a transcript of his thoughts. How often and how intensely do I think of you all !

The north star is almost invisible, and only the tail of ursa major can be seen. A breeze has split our fore-topsail, but this is a trifle. We are now supposed to have caught the first of the trade wind, which blows strong from S.E., and must, in consequence, shape our course towards South America, and we experience more motion than at any other period of our voyage. The vessel lies more on her side, which renders our position, either sitting or standing, an embarrassing one. Everything is kept on the table by means of raised ledges, placed at equal distances. The sun is strong but the breeze cooling. Thermometer 70° to 82°, lat. 4° 39'.

Several of Mother Carey's chickens were flying near the vessel at dusk. Certes if they go home to sleep, it will be late bed-time with them, for we are several hundred miles from land.

I take a great deal of exercise on deck, swinging on the ropes by the hands, legs, arms, and jumping over one of my feet held in the opposite hand. These gymnasticising exercises are of great benefit to me. You may tell this to Huguenin when you see him. Several of the passengers, and sailors also, amused themselves to a very late hour with different sorts of sports, hunt the slipper, and other playful exercises, with which they were much delighted. I took a pump bath at midnight and found the water rather cold.

5th.—Approaching the line ; certainly the line of heat is in lat. 10° or 11°, for our weather here, lat. 2° 11', is quite cool.

6th.—We have crossed the line without witnessing any of those wonderful sights which landsmen are taught to expect. There was neither a well-stretched line in the air, nor a white streak on the waters ; nor did the needle tremble, nor the ship groan, nor the heavens give any peculiar indications. We sailed along at the rate of four knots an hour, on a cool and pleasant day, over an unruffled sea ; and it was only by observation at noon that we ascertained our having crossed the mystic boundary. We are promised a visit at night from Neptune, on passing his peculiar territory.

9th. — Last night I got a view, for the first time, of the Southern Cross, a beautiful constellation, which corresponds with the Plough or Bear of the northern hemisphere; its shaft points to the south pole, and at midnight it is vertical. All the stars here appear with greater splendour than in our part of the northern hemisphere) the sky being cloudless, and the atmosphere clear. After admiring the brilliancy of Venus until eleven o'clock, I bathed, and retired to rest about midnight. I have not told you exactly how my day passes on board : — We rise about six ; and breakfast on coffee, biscuit, and cold meat, or fried pork and rice, about eight ; sometimes on stirabout and molasses : after breakfast, I read and write (occasionally going on deck to see any novelty which may occur there), and at three sit down to a very fair dinner with the captain, the first and second mates, and Messrs. Codd and Nolan. We take tea at candle light (the sun setting at six), and from seven until bed-time, I usually remain on deck, star-gazing, gymnasticising on the ropes, or chatting with some of the passengers.

Before leaving Europe I was cautioned against heavy night dews, but I have not experienced any vapours, though remaining on deck until nearly twelve every night, and frequently standing for a considerable time en chemise after a cold bath. Time passes slowly with some persons on board, but with me its course appears rapid ; and when I look back I am surprised at the lapse of days since I left land.

18th.—Last night the appearance of Jupiter, when rising above the horizon, was so singular, that many persons (thinking of pirates) cried out in alarm, "a light, a light ;" his rapid ascent in the heavens, however, soon put an end to conjectures.

Our course is now S.E. direct for the Cape — many birds have been flying about us.

20th.—What a busy day this is with you — preparing for grouse shooting. Shall I ever shoot grouse with you again ? As I have nothing else to do, I must scribble poetry on the occasion.


Oh, what a spirit-stirring day
For me would this have been,
Had I on land been doomed to stay ;
But here, how changed the scene !

I tread not now the heathy plains,
Nor climb the mountain's side,
Where undisturb'd the moor-cock reigns
In solitary pride.

My path is on the trackless wave,
And through the billowy foam ;
Where ocean birds together have
Their cradle and their tomb.

But memory dwells on that dear sound,
The cheerful, welcome home ;
When amidst friends those joys were found
Which ne'er again may come.

But, home and friends, where shall I find ? —
Henceforth 'twill be my part
To seek for friends within my mind ;
My home must be my heart.


Sept. 1st — While fishing with a piece of pork as bait, a Cape pigeon caught the hook in his bill and was pulled up. Porpoises, and an albatross about the ship. Weather cold, like the month of March. Thermometer 52°. Drew the quilt over me for the first time for many weeks.

11th. — A heavenly day, like one of our autumn days ; but rather too calm for our impatience — the Cape being within less than a hundred miles. Great cleaning out of the ship preparatory to our arrival.

13th. — The breeze has, most provokingly, freshened to a gale, and we are obliged to keep off land, for there is no shelter from this wind in Table Bay. It is most tantalising to be within view of the light-house and flag-staff on the mountain, and then to recede from them.

14th. — After a storm last night, which to my inexperienced eye was sufficiently terrible, the wind has moderated, and we are now standing in for the Bay ; straining our eyes to have the first peep of African scenery, turning the glass towards every flat-roofed villa as it appears on the shore, and gazing as we near the quays, at the great teams of twelve or fourteen oxen drawing waggons.


20th. — We are now under weigh for Australia. I have brought some cuttings of vine and fig trees in earth, and pumpkin and orange seeds.

25th. — A week has now elapsed since we left Cape Town, and we have made no progress, but have rather gone backwards ; so difficult is it sometimes to weather the Cape. We may now have to run to the fortieth degree of south latitude before we meet with a west wind.

I have stumbled upon a pamphlet written by Dr. Macartney, 1810, on the luminous appearance of the sea. He describes one luminous animalcule like a shrimp — so far his microscopic observations agree with mine; but he does not conjecture (as I do) that the small globules are the spawn, which afterwards assume the tadpole, and subsequently the fish shape. I wish I had seen his pamphlet before, as I should then have observed more closely.

28th. — What a night has passed ! Incessant thunder, lightning, and wind, accompanied with torrents of rain and hailstones of a very large size. Sleep was out of the question. I was frequently on deck to observe the vivid flashes of electric matter, which illuminated the ocean around ; and on one or two occasions I saw a steady light, which sailors call Jack-o'-the lanthern, continuing at least ten minutes on the mast-head. During this storm we sailed ten knots an hour, shipping a tremendous sea occasionally.

Do you ever think of me ? I hope you do, at least in your morning and evening petitions to the Throne of Grace. I think of you, and pray for you every time that I offer up my prayers and thanksgivings for myself.

October 1st. — I have been in a poetical mood again; yet dissatisfied with the labours of my brain. Last night (when I wrote them) I thought my lines sublime,

"But in the morning cool reflection came."

To-day I think some of them bordering on the ridiculous. Between the two, you know, there is but a step ; you shall have them, however, but please to bear situation and circumstances in mind. I was alone on the deck on a beautiful moon-shining night, when the poetical afflatus seized me. Whatever the character of the poetry may be, these lines are faithfully indicative of my feelings, and of the communion which subsists between my head and heart:

I gaze on the moon — I gaze on the moon —
As at home I have gazed of yore ;
But the change of scene, and the space between,
Make me feel the same pleasure no more.

For it brings to mind the land of my birth,
And it painfully brings to mind
My solitude here, and the friends so dear,
For ever perhaps left behind.

And it brings to mind, oh ! it brings to mind,
Happy hours that are now gone by ;
The blush and the smile, as I gazed the while
On the light of a soft blue eye.

And it makes me feel, oh ! it makes me feel,
The loss of those earlier years ;
When hearts are so light, and hope is so bright,
And nothing but pleasure appears.

Then the moon looks lone, and I feel as lone,
How could it otherwise be ?
There's nothing on high, but a starless sky.
And here there's nothing but sea.

And that passing cloud, and that passing cloud,
Whose gloom as it low'rs, I now mark.
Is the transient shade which sorrow has made,
When the prospect around looks dark.

It brightens again, it brightens again.
And how clear is the blue serene !
The cloud passes on, the shadow is gone,
Was ever so placid a scene ?

So is it with hope, — thus is it with hope,
For hope seems to me like the moon ;
Its look is so soft, it changes so oft,
And it darkens and brightens as soon.

Hope saves from despair, — hope conquers despair,
And enlivens the surrounding gloom :
Its abiding ray fadeth not away,
But shines — even on to the tomb.

Then rouse thee my heart, and cheer thee my heart.
And let all thy hopes still be green ;
For oh ! thou shalt not by friends be forgot.
Though distance and time intervene.

But prepare to meet, — be ready to meet
What good or what ill may befall.
Whatever betide, be it still thy pride
To be calm and resign'd in all

Are you as the dead ? has all pleasure fled ?
Are there no joys for those who roam ?
Can no place on earth but the place of our birth
Be called by the sweet name of home ?

From its native clay, — from its native clay
We transplant to a genial soil
The vigorous shoot, lo ! it soon takes root.
And will amply repay our toil.

Though it pine at first — though it pine at first
With regret for its parent bed,
The bright sunny clime, and propitious time.
Will raise up its fallen head.

Friends hallow a spot — Love hallows a spot,
But bliss is to no spot confin'd ;
'Tis here, or 'tis there, 'tis everywhere.
Its dwelling place is in the mind.

Let us make a home, — let us make a home.
Wherever our lot may be cast ;
Let us new friends find, bear the old in mind,
And cherish the days that are past.

So shine on sweet hope, and shine bright sweet hope,
And if the sky darken, — why then,
We'll look for the ray of that promis'd day.
When friends may all meet once again.

5th. — Nothing worthy of note has occurred of late ; we have fine weather, a smooth sea, and a favourable wind.

13th. — I have my expectations excited, from hearing that a great flaming cross is frequently seen in our present position, lat. 38°, long. 67° 35' at midnight. I have seen it, but with great disappointment.

It is composed of many stars, of no extraordinary brilliancy. The sky has not been clear for some time ; and it was only last night that I saw it in its erect position at midnight.

I also saw the Pleiades, a beautiful constellation, the sight of which (so powerful is the association of ideas) led my thoughts far, far from the present scene to our little study, and boyish days, when we conned over Virgil and Ovid; and, heartily sick of their Pleiades and " Aquosus Orion," wished them at the bottom of the sea. I little thought then, that it would be my subsequent fate to gaze on these beautiful constellations on the wide ocean.

I need not recall to you that exquisite expression of Job, which may challenge comparison with any of the ancient poets, " Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades or loose the bands of Orion ?" — a passage which Milton has borrowed and appropriated : —

" The Pleiades before him danced, Shedding sweet influence."

You see I am not totally idle, but make some use of the few books which I have packed up.

18th. — I have had a dream of home, and here you have a poetical version of my visions of the night : —

When gentle slumber seals my eyes,
And dreamy thoughts are free as air.
Back, back to home my fancy flies,
And fondly, fondly lingers there.

Methought, that when some years had pass'd,
I trod again my native shore,
And forward still my looks were cast,
Till I had reach'd my home once more.

But over all there seemed a change —
Save over my own mind alone ;
And there were many faces strange
Amidst a few I once had known.

I miss'd the old sequester'd spot.
The fav'rite walk, the well-known tree ;
And, somehow, flowers and shrubs were not
Where mem'ry said they ought to be.

And faithful unchanged mem'ry sought
Familiar looks — alas ! in vain —
Time had been there, and time had brought
New scenes, new faces, in his train.

Can this, I said, can this be home—
That home I've longed so much to see ?
In such brief space do changes come,
Or is the change alone in me ?

* Deep darkness o'er my spirit came.
My troubled soul was wrapp'd in shade.
Till one dear sound thrill'd through my frame
When music lent her soothing aid.

For there was one who struck a chord
And waked a well -remembered sound.
Which like a spell broke sorrows ward,
And then, and then my home was found.

* This reference is to my Sister Catherine playing a piece of music which we had often practised together, she on the piano, I on the flute.

20th. — We have been watching the land (which is about thirty miles distant) since dinner time, and are now running parallel with it ; we hope to anchor to-morrow.

I have been searching for my tents and iron bedsteads, and getting my packages into order.

This voyage, which once appeared interminable, now draws to a close ; and though fifteen weeks have elapsed since I left Dublin, the time has passed more rapidly and agreeably than I could have believed to be possible. I do not recollect to have been so fat at any other period of my life, and am in perfect health. Even my cheeks have plumped out, and I have no longer the sallow visage of the student, but the ruddy hue of the farmer. A freedom from anxiety of mind, and professional occupation, may probably be the cause of my being so fat ; however, an active life of rural industry will soon rid me of superabundant flesh.

29th. — There has been almost a dead calm since yesterday, until within this last two hours. We are now advancing towards the coast, which has an undulating and very pleasing appearance, like gentlemen's parks. We can plainly distinguish clumps of trees on the low lands in front ; and in the back grounds a range of hills, apparently twenty-five or thirty miles distant. All our people are in high spirits but we are obliged to put about, and stand off, as our charts are not perfect enough to assure us of our proper landing-place.

30th. — We are now at anchor in Cockburn Sound, near Garden Island; which, except for the greenness and the foliage, does not deserve the appellation. Why it is so called I cannot conjecture, unless it be according to the accommodating rule, which so satisfactorily accounts for every misnomer, best known by its example — lucus a non
. The soil on the beach is sandy ; the view around is beautiful, the land having sufficient diversities.

The entrance to Cockburn Sound is attended with some difficulty to strangers ; but new charts have been sent home, laying down all the soundings, &c., &c. It is a fine harbour when you reach it.

Nov. 9th. — More than a week has passed since I came here; but such a week ! So many new scenes, new people, new languages and manners, incidents and accidents !

I have waited on the governor ; been at the head of the Swan River, and in a conflict with a tribe of natives ; accompanied a party, which chased them for miles through the woods, where they had been making merry with plunder ; and after seeing one native shot, and three wounded, assisted in bringing seven prisoners to Perth. To-morrow I shall set off for the Canning River, my object being to procure a grant at once, if possible, as I do not wish to be at unnecessary expense in keeping my people. Letty has come ashore with a hen under each arm ; and James has brought the sow, sheep, and goat. The weather is roastingly hot, but not oppressive.

And now safe on shore,

"Prima mei pars est exacta laboria."



Nov. 12th, 1830.

I SEIZE the opportunity of almost the first leisure moment which I have had here, to give you a hurried account of my proceedings and prospects up to this time.

We anchored in Cockburn Sound on this day fortnight, and on the evening of the same day landed on Garden Island, where the first thing that struck us was the very unpromising appearance of the soil (which seemed to be little else than white sand) and the singularity of tolerably good crops, or rather patches, of peas, barley, turnips, radishes, &c., which it produced.

On Sunday we reached the mainland, where (on the beach) the embryo town of Fremantle is situated.

I was anxious to see the governor without loss of time, and therefore proceeded to Perth, about twelve miles up the river, in the boat of Mr. Brown, the Colonial Secretary, from whom I have received the kindest and most hospitable attention. In consequence of some depredations committed by the natives on the upper part of Swan River, Mr. Brown proceeded thither, accompanied by a few soldiers, and I took the advantage of going with him to that part of the country, but have not now time to give you a minute detail of our proceedings. Some natives were detected in the act of plundering a house, and enjoying the spoil, and seven were taken and brought prisoners to Perth, where they were kindly treated and dismissed after a detention of a few days.

It is hoped that the lesson taught them on this occasion the superiority they must have perceived in our weapons, strength, and co-operation, with their subsequent kind treatment, may prevent any further annoyance from them. They are rather active than strong, slender in the limbs, but broad in the chest ; and though generally far from being well-looking, yet not deserving the epithet of hideous, which has been applied to them ; and they are quick of apprehension, and capable of reflecting on the difference between our manners and customs and their own, in a degree which you would scarcely expect. At King George's Sound, they call their wives by a name which sounds to us appropriate, "yoke," yokefellow. I have sketched for you Too-legat Wanty and his "yoke," who was in rather an interesting state when we saw her, which she intimated to us with very little reserve.

At her back she carries the bag containing some roots which they eat after roasting and pounding. At King George's Sound, it is said that they never molest white people, but they have deadly feuds with each other, tribe against tribe ; if one person be killed, or even dies a natural death, it is an ordinance of their religion to sacrifice a victim from another tribe, just to preserve the balance of power.

One of our natives slept with his head on my knee in the boat, but not till he had asked permission, which I gave him; first taking the precaution of spreading paper on my trowsers to save them from the grease and red earth with which his hair was dressed.

I next went up the Canning River, my object being to obtain a grant without loss of time, and to take my people to it, but I find it difficult to get one. The only land available for present purposes is on and near the banks of the rivers : all this is now allotted on both sides of each river, almost to their source ; but an offer is frequently made of giving one half to a new settler, on condition of his performing the location duties sufficient to secure the whole. I have an offer of this kind on the banks of the Swan River, and think of accepting it ; if I do not, I must explore beyond the mountains, where a fine country is said to have been discovered twenty-five miles to the south, where three rivers fall into a lake, and thence into the sea, or still farther to the south to Port Vasse, or Cape Leschenhault ; or it may be to Cape Lewin, where the soil and climate are good and the harbour is excellent. These, of course, are only my unarranged notions on the subject, not grounded yet on any firm foundation ; for I have not been long enough here to form any decided opinion as to soil, situation, or probabilities. In general, the higher you go up the Swan River, which is an estuary, the better is the adjacent land, which is overflowed in winter, and like all alluvial soil productive for summer pasture. As to Mr. Fraser's account, I have no doubt it is strictly true, respecting every part which he describes ; but it would not be safe to rely upon it, as a general description of the land.

Much disappointment has been felt by many over-sanguine persons here, who thought they had nothing more to do than scratch the ground and sow. But there are many difficulties to surmount ; the proper seasons for sowing are scarcely yet ascertained ; from this circumstance many have failed altogether in their crops, which throws them on their capital for another year, and but few have been able to raise as much as is sufficient for their own consumption.

I have seen two or three good fields of wheat, maize, barley, oats, and rye, and I have every reason to believe that crops of all sorts will thrive here with moderate care ; melons, cucumbers, pumpkins, cabbages, peas, and all the ordinary garden vegetables, have been already produced.

Our vessel was the first that came during the season ; and being just in time, everything sold enormously high. If this colony be supported as it ought, during the trying period of its infancy, I am convinced, from all I hear, that it will succeed. Cockburn Sound is an excellent harbour in winter ; Gage's Roads in summer. From the nature of the coast, the climate, and the relative circumstances of the interior, it is unlikely that another harbour so good will be found in this quarter. All the rivers in this neighbourhood seem to be small, and to have bar harbours. A river has lately been discovered, beyond the range of hills running to the north-west. Beyond those hills, the interior, for forty or fifty miles back, has an undulating appearance, and is then succeeded by plains good for pasture. On this side, the only good pasture is on the alluvial flats, which are flooded every winter. Those who speculate on keeping large flocks speak of going next summer over the hills, which are of trifling elevation, and present no serious obstacle to carriage, or the formation of roads, when the colony is strong enough to make or require them. The expense and labour of conveying goods up the river, at present, is very great ; boats in summer must be unloaded, and dragged over the flats, but above these the water
is deep, and the navigation only occasionally impeded by fallen trees, which may easily be removed. Every settler should have a boat, and learn how to manage it.

Friday 19th. — I wrote the foregoing observations at the house of Captain Irwin, from whom I have received the greatest kindness. I have since been up the Canning River, about a mile above the navigable part, to look at some grants which are undisposed of. The country there is beautiful, covered or rather studded with magnificent trees, but the sub-stratum is ironstone, the clay strongly impregnated with it, hard and unmanageable, and having very little grass on it, which (for immediate use) is the chief requisite. Besides, the river there is salt in summer, and fresh water it is difficult to find. The Canning (with this exception) is located up to the mountains. It is intended to build a town near its source, where there is some fine ground.

About Fremantle, where I am now sitting, in my tent, the land is mere sand ; but we must not judge of this by similar-looking places at home, for all vegetables flourish on it, and cattle thrive on the herbage, scanty though it be.

Until you have gone above Perth, the ground is of the same nature ; it changes to alluvial flats, and the higher grounds consist of sandy loam of different qualities. Brick and pottery clay is abundant, and they are making bricks in many places, which will soon supersede wood as a material for building. I saw a wooden house burned down some nights ago, and have therefore a dread of one — a mud edifice for me. The great mistake committed by settlers has been bringing too many articles of machinery and implements, which are not necessary, or suited to the soil. Some ploughs, cars, saws, and mill machinery are lying even yet on the beach.

If I were coming again, I should content myself with grubbing hoes, felling axes (mine are too long and narrow), spades, some kitchen utensils, plenty of provisions, and a hammock ; these would do to begin with. Those who brought great apparatus and stock were sadly burdened with the first, and did not know what to do with the second. Many of their cattle ran into the bush and were lost, and some of the more delicate died from want of care and fodder on ship-board, or on landing. The emigrant should not encumber himself with any superfluous articles ; let him bring plenty of provisions and a few common utensils for cooking them ; no cattle from England ; very little furniture, and that of the strongest and most portable kind ; no large packages ; every thing in stout square boxes, not exceeding 2 cwt, each; and he should keep as much of his property as possible in cash, which in many cases clears 25 per cent.

25th. — I have taken half of Mr. Lamb's grant ; it is nearly at the head of the navigable part of the Swan River; how it may look after enduring the heat of the summer I know not but it had a fine appearance when I was there. It is singular that it is just about the spot where we had the skirmish with the natives. There are several very respectable persons settled near it, and there is now a party of soldiers stationed there. Since I wrote the first part of this, two vessels have arrived from Van Diemen's Land, with provision, which has caused a most beneficial effect on prices ; — other ships are expected soon, so that we shall have plenty ; but it is evident that) until the colony is able to produce something substantial for its support, we must depend on contingencies and have a fluctuating market. That it will succeed ultimately, I have not the least doubt ; but we shall have two or three years of hard struggling to contend with. The servants I brought with me are all happy, contented, and healthy, and it must be my care to keep them so. As to myself, with the exception of several scrapes, cuts and bruises on my hands from dragging, carrying, and other works (for I have not spared myself), I never was in better health — thanks to the beneficent Giver of it. I have not as yet suffered any difficulty or privation, which I think worthy of mentioning. I hope to get all my luggage and articles to Perth on Monday ; paying £5 for taking one boat-load so far, and I must then push them over the flats. >

I have endeavoured (without regard to the connexion of my sentences, which I have not time to reduce into order) to give you my first impressions, neither disguising nor over- looking any thing, — so far as it goes, good and bad, you may depend upon the accuracy of my report. When leisure and and time may permit, I shall write more satisfactorily.

Yours ever, &c. &c.



8th December, 1830.

This letter goes by the Cruiser to India, whence there may be an early opportunity for its transmission to England ; so that, in all probability, it may reach you before my last of the 23rd November, which was accompanied by the continuation of my journal, and contained my first impressions of this place. I should not be sorry if it were so, for I can write now rather more satisfactorily with respect to several matters. I have since agreed with Mr. Lamb to take the half of his grant on the left bank of the Swan River, on condition of expending so much on my part as will secure the whole. I walked all over the front ground near the river, some days since, and it seems to be good. It is generally considered so, and above the average of neighbouring land ; but I cannot speak more particularly at present.

A vein of good soil has been discovered on the banks of a river called the Avon, behind the hills, on which many of the settlers are selecting their grants. I have got one upon that river towards the south.

All the lands up the Swan and Canning have been long since granted ; but some of the grantees have left the colony, and their lands may be resumed by the Government, if not occupied, at the expiration of the year. I have spoken to some practical farmers, who have not the slightest doubt that the colony possesses every capability, both for agriculture and grazing, and though the pasture lands on this side of the hills are not extensive, there is an unlimited tract behind them, and at no great distance.

Two or three vessels have come in since I first wrote, and the prices of provisions and clothing are now moderate.

Cattle are very dear, though we daily expect arrivals from Hobart Town. Good cows are as high as £25, though some have been purchased for £12. It is not advisable to bring stock from England ; freight and casualties make them come too expensive. A vessel is to sail for the Mauritius in about three weeks, when I hope to write more fully.

At present I am unwilling to take the responsibility of advising any one to come out ; but I have met with no difficulties for which 1 was not prepared.

I went out some days ago, about four miles off, to hunt kangaroos ; we huntsmen saw five, but the dogs never got sight of them. 1 went astray returning, and no wonder, for nothing is more perplexing than walking in the bush ; you have no object to steer by, except your shadow or a compass; the one is always changing with the day, and the other may mislead, unless you keep your eye constantly upon it. The country is most singular, but does not possess those features of extreme interest which I expected ; there is (as far as I have seen) great sameness in the scenery, and several parties which have been beyond the mountains (perhaps to the distance of 100 miles) report the scenery to be of the same character — undulating ground and extensive plains ; but no very striking object, no large rivers, no lakes of any extent — and the low lands are subject to floods in winter. The river on which I have my grant from Government has been but lately discovered, and is not, I believe, navigable ; it runs strongly in winter, and forms a series of pools and shallows in summer ; its course is to the north-west, the more northerly part being nearest the Swan River, but the better ground along its banks lying more to the south ; on this has been laid out the site of three towns ; Northam — said to be about twenty-eight miles from the head of the Swan; York — ten miles farther, and Beverly — (close to which is my grant), ten miles more ; this I know only from an unfinished map.

We are to have a monthly conveyance by boat for our goods, up to the head of the river. A store has been established at Guildford, a few miles from this, where we are sure of procuring a temporary supply of the necessaries of life, when it may be inconvenient to obtain them from Perth. Prices are now moderate. I have bought sugar at seven-pence, rice at twopence-halfpenny, and coffee at eightpence per pound, arrack at six shillings and sixpence per gallon ; rum is a dearer article, generally twelve shillings and six- pence per gallon; it is allowed as a daily ration to the servants, who have got into the habit of demanding it, and grumbling if refused.

Ever yours,

&c., &c.



March 5th, 1831.

It would be impossible to give you such a description of this country as would apply to all parts of it. The general character is that of an interesting landscape, rather than of sublime or grand scenery. There is every variety of soil from white sand, to the deep black vegetable alluvial mould, each variety, generally speaking, having something of peculiar production, either of tree, shrub, herb, or flower. On the white sand, the Australian mahogany is found in great abundance, and of excellent quality; on the clay grounds, the red and blue gum trees appear ; and sandy soils produce the Banksia and Protea.

For the first fifteen miles up the river, white sands present themselves on either side with some mixture of vegetable mould. In this district, white limestone is tolerably abundant. About three miles above Perth, alluvial flats begin to appear close to the river, and as you ascend, these become more frequent and extensive; the rising grounds change to a brown or red clay, and you lose sight of the sand, which, however, still continue to run parallel to the river, at some distance back, and thus to accompany it almost to its source ; on the left bank, ascending the river behind the alluvial flats, is a border of rising ground, generally composed of a brown or red sandy loam, upon which rests a plain or high table land of stiff clay, stretching back to a considerable distance.

In many places, however, the high land rises boldly up from the river, so as to alternate with the flat on the opposite side. The alluvial flats are covered with a luxuriant crop of grasses. But on the table lands the grass is not abundant. There has now been a year's experience of the capability of the soil, and there is no doubt that it can abundantly produce any grain, fruit, vegetable, tree, or shrub, which belongs to its parallel of latitude. The sandy loam is considered the best for present purposes, the stiff clay lands being difficult to break up, and requiring more time and labour than many are willing to bestow. I have seen within two miles of this, a fine crop of wheat grown without any manure, and with much less preparatory culture than would be required in England. This was produced on an alluvial flat, the grain being ploughed in, just before the rains which flooded the ground ; and in spring its vegetation was rapid and healthy. All sorts of garden and field vegetables thrive well, when put down in the proper season ; but nothing worthy of being called fruit has as yet been discovered, if we except the zamia, which produces a nut, which the natives eat after considerable preparation by steeping in water. Tobacco, hemp, flax, eringo, celery, parsley, are indigenous. To the distant eye, the country has the appearance of being well wooded, but I should not say it was thickly timbered. In some places there are open plains that resemble well ordered parks, — no where do you find impenetrable jungle, save in the mere swamps and the lagoons. The seemingly conflicting accounts of two, ten, one hundred, or a thousand trees to an acre, may be all true of different places, if you reckon every shrub as a tree. Take, for example, the ground where I have built : to avoid injuring the appearance of the place, I have cut down but one large tree, and not above a dozen shrubs and small trees, preferring to fell the timber necessary for building, at the distance of a quarter of a mile.

Just behind my house (on the high level land), is a plain of perhaps two hundred acres, upon which large trees are not numerous, or more than sufficient for ornament. There is one spot looking like a cleared field, of eight or nine acres, not encumbered with a single tree or shrub. In other places a tree resembling a larch of four or five years' growth, is thinly scattered. This large plain is skirted by a thick border of red gum trees, intermixed with banksias, black wattles, and other shrubs. The ground of this border is a rich red sandy loam, very easily turned up ; and here my men are breaking ground with the hoe, there being abundance of clear ground between the large trees, when the light brush wood is removed. The trees have not a very ample foliage, so that you may walk in the forest, and yet not enjoy much shade. The red gum tree resembles an old pear or cherry tree, but is of much greater dimensions. There is one beside my house, which in winter will protect it from the fierce north-west blast.

The Zanthorea Hostile, or grass tree, puts me in mind of a tall black native, with a spear in his hand, ornamented with a tuft of rushes. These vary in size from those peeping over the surface to those in the swampy grounds, eight or ten feet high, with a spear equally long growing out of the stem, and bearing at the top a beautiful flower ; on the spear is found an excellent, clear, transparent gum, and from the lower part of the tree oozes a black gum, which makes a powerful cement used by the natives for fastening stone heads on their hammers. The country presents an endless variety or succession of flowering trees and shrubs ; but I have not seen any having much perfume.

The kangaroo has supplied food to many who were prudent or fortunate enough to provide themselves with proper dogs, such as strong greyhounds, which are here expensive and difficult to be procured, a good one costing more than £15.

The only other animals you meet with usually, are, the opossum, the kangaroo-rat, lizards, rats and mice, the rat not much larger than the English mouse ; they are abundant and mischievous.

I have heard of emus ; and have seen wild turkeys, cocka- toos, parrots, pigeons, quails, pies, jays, hawks, black swans, pelicans, and a number of other birds.

This day I shot a duck. There are two kinds of them ; one of which, the wood duck, alights on trees. The white cockatoos are very numerous, and now feed upon the flower of the red gum tree, which lately came into blossom. There are three or four species of the cockatoo, — white, black, grey, and black with a red tail. The parrots are small and green, the neck ornamented with a gold ring. The pigeons are beautiful, with a bronze-coloured wing. Many birds have singular calls or cries, and our crow makes a most dismal noise, terminated by a long doleful cry. The white cockatoo screams like a clucking hen disturbed from her nest, and the black one whines like a discontented pug dog. There is a bird called here the robin, like our own in its habits of familiarity, but its plumage is much more beautiful ; a thrush resembling the field fare ; a small bird the size of a wren, but of splendid ultramarine colour. There are many other varieties, but I have not time to enumerate them.

Fish abound in the river, but without a net of peculiar construction (a trammel net) it is not easy to catch them — I have taken a few perch, however, one small turtle, and shell fish like the clam.

The climate in summer, in the middle of the day, is very warm ; most agreeable in the morning and evening, cool and pleasant at night, sometimes even cold as it approaches morn- ing. In winter, notwithstanding what has been said of it, I am told the weather is delightful — a modeiaLe warmth during the day, and the night so cold as to make you enjoy a fire ; the rains only occasional, and not of long duration.

Insects are now wonderfully numerous. Ants in great quantities and of many varieties of size and colour, from the lion ant, an inch long, to the small brown ant, which can insinuate itself into the most minute crevice. These seize upon whatever is eatable, and devour it in a short time. The ground seems alive with white ants, and the trees swarm with them inside and out; every thing here teems with life.

The principles of increase and the agents of destruction are so actively employed, that there seems to be a rapid round of production and decay, unknown to your more moderate climate. Of snakes I have seen only two, both very small; but my men have killed five or six, some of them three feet long : we have not heard of any injury being done by them, and in fact they do not seem to be at all dreaded.

The natives are not so despicable a race as was at first supposed. They are active, bold, and shrewd, expert in thieving, as many (and myself among the numberj have experienced ; they are courageous when attacked ; however, they are not very numerous, and we are on good terms with them. I walk occasionally to and from Perth, through the woods, alone and unarmed ; so you may perceive, from this circumstance, we are not in much dread of them.*

* Governor Stirling states, in his official communications, that many of the settlers had established themselves at once upon their lands, regardless of any danger from the natives, who were found to be so harmless, that single persons who had traversed the country never met with any interruption, or sustained any insult or injury at their hands. However, it will subsequently be seen that the governor gave them too much credit for " sweet simplicity." — Editor.

Settlers are so scattered that I cannot form any correct estimate as to their numbers; many more are expected before the expiration of the year, for the purpose of obtaining the promised grants of land ; but the good grounds in the vicinity of the Swan and Canning Rivers were almost all occupied by those who had previously arrived. Endless tracts of country are now opened to new settlers, though at a greater distance.

The inhabitants at the Cape, at Sydney, and Hobart Town, have done everything in their power to decry this settlement, and deter the emigrants from proceeding hither ; yet of the final success of the colony there can be no doubt.

The jurisdiction of King George's Sound has been transferred to our governor. This opens a new district for colonisation ; but there is not much fertile land, it is said, in that quarter, until you recede from the coast to the distance of twenty or thirty miles. Captain Bannister, who walked to it overland from Perth, mentions his having passed over, in his journey, about ninety miles of luxuriant pasture ground, in one continued tract, and he reports that water was procured without difficulty.

Many of my friends will be still anxious to know wliether I can recommend this place for emigration. I have but as yet five months' experience of the country ; but I have observed that practical men, who have seen the ground over the mountains, are writing to their friends in England to come out.

If persons cannot remain comfortably at home, but are obliged to emigrate somewhere, I would unhesitatingly recommend this place in preference to Sydney, or Van Diemen's Land.

Our market is at present, and has been ever since the arrival of the Cleopatra, very well supplied with all the necessaries and many of the luxuries of life. We have flour now, so low as threepence per pound, sugar from threepence to fivepence, coffee sevenpence, tea four shillings and sixpence, rice 2d. per pound, rum six shillings per gallon, salt beef and pork about sixpence to eightpence, and fresh meat one shilling and sixpence per pound. Prices are not likely to continue so moderate during the winter. I purchased half a ton of flour some time ago at £27 per ton, and must soon buy more. The difficulty of moving these things over the flats in the river is considerable, but there is a plan in progress for deepening the passage.

The natives stole two cwts. of my flour, as well as some belonging to others, on its way over the flats ; they also took a bag of biscuits and some pork from my house when I was last absent.

Our greatest want at present is live stock ; we have prepared a memorial to the Government at home, soliciting assistance in this particular, and undertaking to guarantee the payment of the advances.

Black cattle thrive here ; English or Cape cows are the best ; the latter are excellent, and may be had at the Cape very cheap ; those of Van Diemen's Land are so wild, that they generally run to the bush and are lost.

It is not advisable to bring any stock from England, except perhaps a few prime sheep for breed ; to a small extent sheep may be purchased here much cheaper than they could be brought out.

The thermometer to-day did not rise above 80°, we have had it often 110°, some days as high as 120°, but I have not on any day found the heat insupportable, even in the open air at noon. It is now (nine at night) only 66°. The seasons here differ from those at Sydney, as far as I understand them.

Before our arrival here, I speculated upon two crops in the year, which doubtless may be produced of many things ; but it must be after the ground has been well prepared, and under a more regular system of agriculture than we can practice for some time. I dare say, many who were thinking of coming out have been deterred by unfavourable accounts — some written perhaps with sincerity and with a good deal of correctness ; but very many the result of prejudice, total ignorance of agriculture, and consequent disappointment.

In fact, many persons arrived here quite unqualified for a settler's life. The first settlers have all the difficulties to contend with. By the time other emigrants arrive, the way will have been greatly smoothed, and prices will be much lower.

I have built my house upon a rising ground which first slopes rapidly, then gently down towards the river, which here is about thirty yards wide ; smooth, clear, and without any perceptible current, except as driven by the alternate land or sea breezes. The ground is very picturesque ; on both sides it is broken at intervals, into small rounded eminences, rising a little way back from the river, with a gradual ascent, reaching to an extensive level plain behind. It reminds me of the Thames near Richmond, and it sometimes looks not unlike home, and might feel so too, if my friends were with me.


When I came here there were only ten settlers on the upper part of the river, — there are now ninety-seven ; but, as I am a colonist of such recent standing, I shall not speak decidedly of the eligibility of this district as a place of emi- gration, but feel, from what I have seen, quite borne out in my original impression of it as a place where (even with a small capital) a settler may secure an independence, and possess, at least, the substantial comforts, if not the refined luxuries, of life.


Yours ever, &c.



May 12th.

My last letter was broken off abruptly from the necessity of the mail being closed.

On the 4th, had the pleasure of meeting at Perth, one of a most agreeable party, Captain Mangles, who published his Travels in Egypt.

Any man of sense, who has travelled far and observed much, is invaluable as a companion, or as an author, particularly if he don't let the latter character absorb the agree- able qualities of the former.

The author is often too retentive of materials which he is collecting for his work, to communicate them freely, whilst the companion, as such, overflows with interesting and useful information.

As far as the 28th instant, my time has been occupied in farming, gardening, &c., with a moderate attention to the larder and the provant*

* " When a cavalier," says Dalgetty, " finds that provant is good and abun- dant, he will in my estimation do wisely to victual himself for at least three days, as there is no knowing when he may come by another," — Legend of Montrote.

I caught a couple of turtles, one but small, the other larger ; and shot a pair of ducks, all tending to our great desideratum in luxury — a supply of fresh meat. We have had some re-freshing rain, but the weather is now settled again, and most charming ; thermometer 66°.

The spring of grass is amazing — everything green ; beautiful little flowers, raising their heads like snow-drops, and having very much the fragrance of the hawthorn blossom, have sprung up in great profusion.

How often I wish that some of you were here ! for this wild life although it has its inconveniences, has its pleasures too. I am sure you would enjoy it, if once the roughing was a little over, I have had great feasting upon fresh meat (fowls) every day for some time for myself and people : to-day I had at dinner a very large pigeon ; yesterday, a brace of wild ducks ; and the day before a brace of parrots, and so on — besides greens and radishes. I feel very happy just now in every respect except my solitude. Great rumours of ship arrivals ! — are they true ? — any from England ? — any letters ?

Oh ! the anxious throbbings of the emigrant's heart, with those he loves, far — far away, but with perhaps long letters of their affectionate remembrances on board that ship now sailing into the harbour : — alas ! she is from another country. But 1 must resume my diary.

Saturday, 28th. — The numerous frogs remind me that the moist weather and approaching winter have brought into active life an immense quantity of these creatures, some of which make a hard co-ax, co-ax, sort of noise, and others a most mournful and horrible bellowing, which might be mistaken for the high note of a bull ; perhaps this was what frightened the French navigators.*

* Alluding probably, to the alarm felt by M. Bailly, and his party in exploring the Swan River, on hearing a bellowing much louder than that of an ox, among the reeds on the river-side, which they attrributed to some large quadruped. — Bailly, quoted by Feron, v. i. p. 173. — Editor.

Planted yesterday two hundred cabbages and some lettuces in my garden : we did not get them till late, and put them in by the light of a beautiful moon. Do you take an interest in the daily labour of my garden ? I hope you do, for to me it is a source of great interest and amusement. This morning I sent for my cows : the men could not succeed in bringing them, I went myself and brought the older one, and afterwards returned for the younger : I believe James and I never had so hard a piece of work in our lives ; she was wild beyond belief; actually knocked him down twice, and ran at me. We got her home through the river, put her into a pen, and there she shall stay till she is tamed.

31st. — Some officers of the Nimrod paid me a visit ; they had not long gone when two others came ; and shortly after they had left me, a boat full of company hailed us in passing. I called on Mrs. Shaw when the family were at dinner, and sat down and stayed till the moon rose ; — returned about nine o'clock. Got from Mr. Breckman's gardener some onion and carrot seeds, and sowed them in the garden, which is now pretty well filled. My peas are above ground, and all the seeds I brought with me have kept pretty well. Most lovely weather ! when is this dreaded winter to come ? I feel like one that holds in his breath, and collects his force to resist a shock ; — making every preparation against the winter ; but though this is the last day of May,* it has been as warm as your May when you have sunshine. The mornings and evenings are cool ; yet here I am, sitting with doors and windows open, feeling no cold, and not even once having a fire in my room. The thermometer is now 63° (eight o'clock in the evening). It is a delightful climate ; would to God we were all settled together ! — but I always check myself from saying much on this subject, until I shall have been here a full year. Those who are fond of the gaieties of a town life would not be reconciled to this place, but I greatly enjoy the quiet and peace of mind with which 1 am favoured.

* The reader should remember that May ia a winter month in Australia.

June 1st. — We have had a most delightful day : this morning, soon after breakfast, some friends came to remain an hour or so with me, and two gentlemen came to dinner.

4th. — I am told that the Governor, Captain Irwin, Mr. Brown, and several others, are coming up the river. This morning I found my pigs and dog busily employed in devouring a wild turkey, which had been wounded ; I had no notion it was so large a bird ; it measured seven feet from tip to tip of the extended wings ; the thighs like those of a lamb. My men were occupied in the distant field, trenching the wheat ground.

5th. — Got wheat-ground finished, and prepared ground in the garden for peas. Some wheat coming up well.

6th. — A boat with visitors stopped here just before breakfast, when I was out shooting. Got my chimney finished to-day, and this night had a fire for the first time ; it burns well : my room looks snug and cheerful.

7th. — Dined to-day with Mr. Tanner, and have got some garden-seeds from him : he is to have half when they come up. I have just been calculating that since Sunday morning last I have had no fewer than twenty-one visitors. I expected the Governor, Mr. Brown, Captain Mangles, and Captain Irwin to-day ; they did not come, but perhaps they will to morrow. Put down peas in garden ; the wheat drills up, and looking well ; sky threatening ; thermometer 56°.

Yesterday, it rained the greater part of the day, but cleared up in the evening : heard that the Governor and his party on horseback had come up the river on the opposite side, and returned shortly after by an intended new road, which is marked out by notched trees, near half a mile beyond this place.

9th. — Mr, B. called yesterday ; took tea, and slept here, being unwilling to walk home, as the night was foggy. He wants me to sketch a plan for employing prisoners, as a working gang ; the Governor being anxious to occupy them in this way, if settlers will pay a superintendent.

This day I sowed many seeds : onion, cauliflower, broccoli, endive, French sorrel, brett (a Port Louis vegetable), spinach, parsley, and three sorts of tobacco, for experiment. My garden is nearly filled, and begins to look well. Caught in the garden a beautiful snake, about eighteen inches long, with a black head and yellow body ; put him into a bottle of rum, along with many other such things ; he vibrated his tongue most rapidly and wickedly. Caught a centipede, nearly four inches in length, when moving my trunks to-day ; it is in the bottle of preserves also.

Captain Mangles, E.N., Mr. Andrews, and Mr. Elliott stopped at my landing-place for a few minutes on their way up the river : they promised to call again, but, returning, shouted out they had not time : — those whom we are most anxious to see are generally the most expeditious in their movements. This evening I took tea, sitting on my canteen opposite a blazing tire placed on a brick hearth a little above the level of the floor : no invidious fender* to keep my feet from receiving the benefit of the fire : neither sashes nor windows, thanks to the erratic disposition of my carpenter.

* Perhaps for a reason similar to that which deprived the lady of curtain-sleep —
" No curtained sleep had she, because
She had no curtains to her bed." Colman's Broad Grins.

10th. — Delightful day ! I have been amusing myself in the garden, making a new bed for pumpkin, water melon, orange, lemon, and cucumber seeds ; and these I mean to cover during the winter, from the heavy rain and frost (if there be any). John busy to-night mending his shoes; I rummaged out bristles, awls, thread, a ladle to make wax, and cut the legs off a pair of boots for leather, which cracks so rapidly with the heat, that we wear out a pair of shoes in two or three weeks.

Captain Mangles told us yesterday that a ship had come in ; it was not known with certainty, when he came off, what ship it was.

11th.— Sat up last night sketching a plan for employing prisoners as a working gang, I shot a duck before breakfast, and had, very reluctantly, to swim across the river for it ; found the water by no means so cold as I have often experienced in bathing at home in summer ; on the surface it was cold, but was quite agreeable at the depth of two feet. A little rain this morning, but the middle of the day as warm almost as your summer : — certainly this is a fine climate, though rather on the warm side in summer. Shot two cockatoos, which are excellent eating. Rain commenced at one P.M., and has continued pretty constant, and sometimes heavy. River swollen fourteen inches.

12th. — Rain all day. Continued building within doors. Weather not cold, like your wet summer.

13th. — Rain has ceased. Every thing looking well in the garden ; all my cabbages strong and healthy. Shot a brace of ducks, one fell in the river, had to swim for him — any thing for a fresh mess. In the evening shot a bird which some call a squeaker. Tied my two cows for an hour to feed ; they became tame, — thanks to the tethers.

16th. — Nothing worth noting has occurred for the last two days. My men have been enclosing the distant field. Crows are very persevering and destructive ; shot one, with its stomach full of wheat — hope to have the field finished tomorrow. Much thunder and rain on Monday night, but the weather looks settled again ; we have had nothing like winter yet. The Stirling has arrived ; I must go down to buy a boat and other things.

17th. — Have been kangaroo hunting with young Shaw ; we had three runs, but got only one brush kangaroo, about fifteen pounds' weight ; I got half of it (the usual terms of hunting in company) — dined on part of it — delicious eating.

20th. — Here am I at Fremantle, after having spent the evening at the house of Mr. Leake, in company with Mr. and Mrs. M'Dermot, who have lately arrived ; we had some airs sweetly played ou the pianoforte by Mrs. M'Dermot, most of the music from Don Giovanni, which was a treat here. Dined yesterday with the Governor.

On looking over this, I found it an odd jumble de omnibus rebus, part of it being intended for my father, part for my sisters, and the rest for you. The vessel sails to-morrow for Java.


22nd. — No words can express my disappointment in not receiving the letter which you had sent by Mrs. M'Dermot. They who are in the midst of society, with the constant facili- ties of having letters and news from their friends, have no just notion of the mortification on the non-arrival of a letter from home. The receipt of a packet is a great and happy event ; its arrival an epoch, anticipated with anxiety, hailed with excitement, and referred to, as a period from which one dates the lapse of time.

I shall now give you an outline of the occurrences during my absence from Hermitage, which I left on Friday last.

Mr. Mackey and Mr. Madden (midshipmen of H.M.S. Sulphur), drank tea and slept at my house on the night of that day, and breakfasted there next morning, and afterwards overtook me at Guildford, whence i accompanied them to Perth, where we arrived in sufficient time to dine comfortably at the mess-room. On the next day (Sunday) Captain Irwin read the morning service of the church in the hospital, and in the evening I went to the Eev. Mr. Wittenoonis church, and afterwards had the honour of dining with his Excellency the Governor, Mrs. Stirling, Captain Mangles, and some others.

Not being able to return to Fremantle on Monday, I spent a few hours agreeably at Mr. Leake's, where Mrs. M'Dermot again gratified us with some excellent music on the pianoforte, with a flute accompaniment.

28th — I arrived at Perth after a very tedious passage of six hours, greatly fatigued, having rested the preceding night on the bare ground — my blanket a greatcoat, my pillow a fishing basket !

The four following days were passed in short and pleasant excursions from Perth, and in quiet, and yet very social, dinner parties.

July 3rd. — The Sabbath passed nearly as before. The clergyman goes on alternate Sundays to Guildford and Fremantle, and attends a Sunday School.

A botanical garden has been lately laid out here, in which I walked with the Governor and his lady, accompanied by some of my kind friends. I left Perth mounted on a small pony, which Mr. B. wishes me to take charge of ; indeed change of air or of keeping seems desirable for him, as he is miserably weak and quite unable to support me for any con- siderable distance ; but for the honour of the thing, I might just as well have walked. My friends bore me company for a short time, and I reached my home and indulged in a sound nap in my own bed, being the first night, except one at Capt. Whitfield's, since my excursion commenced, that I had an opportunity of stretching my limbs upon any thing more luxurious than a clay floor or a chest.

This day I have been very busy sowing small parcels of red and white wheat (in drills), peas, beans, cabbage seeds, leeks, onions, turnips, cauliflower, mangel-wurzel, rape, radishes, mustard and cress, and had the gratification for the first time of eating an excellent salad, the produce of my own garden. Henceforward I calculate on a regular supply of vegetables for my solitary table.*

* Nee modic4 coenare times olns omue patellji. — Horace. Dotlb, Jcn.

I had nearly omitted to state that on the 23rd, we had one of those storms, with the accounts of which people have been kindly endeavouring to alarm me. It certainly blew with violence, but I have been ridiculed for asserting that its force was by no means equal to that of an equinoctial gale in England. I am certain, however, that it was not. There was not a single house thrown down, or any thatch stripped. The wind undoubtedly made a fearful roaring among the trees, and this led our Colonists to think it worse than it really was. The only accidents in consequence, of which I have heard, are the driving ashore of a small vessel of 35 tons (which was afterwards got off without damage), and the loss of a boat.*

* How fully is Mr. Moore borne out in his just opinions, when these unimportant casualties are compared with the melancholy destruction, by the equinoctial gales and other storms of 1833, which have lined the coast of Great Britain and Ireland with innumerable and fatal wrecks, exhibiting a more extensive ruin of the seafaring interests than was over before recollected in the memory of man.

4th. — The weather is most delightful, like that in April or May at home — when is the winter to come ? our shortest day is past. During my absence about half an acre was broken up for Indian corn. My potatoes, — me miserum ! — have failed in a great degree ; the seed was damaged, although it cost me thirty-five shillings per cwt., and now there is none to be had at any price in the colony ; but we hope to have some from Van Diemen's Land before the close of the season, and I have the satisfaction of calculating, that there will be 200 acres of wheat grown this season, which will supply 800 persons with flour for one year — vide Malthus (or any other economist whom you may like better) on Food and Population. This is a great struggle for a new colony, is it not ?

5th. — We had a slight frost last night. This day I have completed the sowing of all my seeds, except that of maize (or Indian corn), and transplanted 300 cabbages, besides those which I brought from Perth, tares, flax seed, rye, castor oil seed, stones of the date tree, lucerne, red and white clover, trefoil, hay seeds, and planted five young orange trees.

9th. — After the interval of a week, I have heavy arrears to pull up, and have been interrupted this day by an incessant throng of visitors ; and now at eleven at night, I, for the first time, during this interval, find myself alone and at leisure. This day week I dined with Mr. Tanner, when a messenger came to state that Captain Irwin had arrived at my house, — of course I hurried thither, and gave him refreshment and a bed. He had come for the purpose of making preparatory arrangements for the public celebration of the church service, which we mean to have regularly at a neighbouring barrack. Twenty-eight persons, many of them of the higher class, attended the next day; and warmly entered into Captain Irwin's object. He is a truly amiable and religious man; and interests himself most usefully for the colony, and the enjoyment of his friendship is a valuable privilege to me. We have subsequently measured the boundaries of a projected village, for which I have offered a part of my land. Young Shaw and I have been looking for kangaroos, but unsuccessfully. We have, however, obtained many varieties of beautiful plants and shrubs, and some more seeds from Mr. Tanner, who is to have half the produce.

Last Thursday was very wet, with high wind, and thunder and lightning at night. I slept very little.

On the ensuing morning. Captain Irwin came for me to accompany him to my back grounds to look for kangaroos ; we were again unsuccessful. On the night of this day we had a most providential escape ; my friend had put the cotton match, which we use for lighting a cigar, into his pocket, supposing it to be extinguished, but, as if purposely to convince him of his mistake, it communicated with the bed quilt, and before he awoke, set fire to it, — the blanket, sheets, and part of the mattrass ; his pillow actually rested against an open cask of gunpowder ! When I started up, the quilt was burning up to his head. I carried out every thing in my arms, and stood in my shirt until I had extinguished the fire. The night was very cold ; so much so, that even this unexpected excitement gave me no renewal of warmth, and after a sleepless night, having talked with gratitude over our most providential escape, I arose to labour in the garden, in which I was occupied with little cessation until three o'clock, and ended the day with a most charming evening party, at Mr. Tanner's house. But the greatest event of all is to be told : a soldier has brought me from Dr. Millegan two packets of letters and newspapers (with some of my father's handwriting too), from you, dear brother. This, then, is the packet which I lamented as lost — oh the joy of receiving it ! you were all well — may God be praised ! Long before this time your affectionate and anxious hearts must have received tidings from your poor emigré. But to go on with my details, in each and all of which you are so intensely interested : —

On Sunday the 10th I filled, as I have so often done before, the office of chaplain to about twenty persons. On returning, still thinking of the lost packet, and home, and all its endearing associations, I found what I deemed a prize, in the present condition of my larder, in the form of a floating fish — a mullet, about two pounds weight ! What a dinner I shall have ! to say nothing of some young cabbages from my own garden ; but, alas ! without the orthodox accompaniment of bacon.

12th. — While I was reading a letter in a Derry paper, Mackey came in, and on examination recognised it as his own production, written in his boyish days to his father, or some other relative in the North of Ireland : whimsical coincidence ! We remained awake almost all Thursday night in retracing recollections of our friends and contemporaries and I read so eagerly the news in the Derry papers that I put my eyes out of writing order, and idled away the ensuing day in paying and receiving visits from a gentleman, and a lady too, who afterwards sent me an invitation to dine about two miles and a half from Hermitage, with Mr B. Think of the dissipation of society on the Swan River ! I walked to and from his house without greater inconvenience than that occasioned by the wet grass. I wish the "walking" in Ireland may be as peaceable this day. When will the dreaded winter come ?

I went yesterday to Mr. Brown for some carrot seeds ; the weather was lovely, like one of your summer days ; towards evening it becomes cool, and in the morning there is some frost. Every day now my garden claims my labour : I have transplanted my young carrots, rape, cabbages, and French spinach between my wheat drills, which are eighteen inches apart ; and I expect that they will all thrive, especially where manure has been supplied to them.

21st. — I breakfasted this day week with Mr. M'Dermot, who lives, as a matter of temporary accommodation, at the Governor's house at Guildford. The succeeding day proved so tempestuous as to prevent me from proceeding to Fremantle. I gave Captain M. some specimens of flowering shrubs, besides a bottle full of snakes, lizards, and scorpions. On Saturday was held a meeting of our Agricultural Society, of which the Governor is patron. I shall send you a printed copy of its proceedings, and can assure you that, though not quite so imposing an association as the Highland Society of Scotland, or the late Farming Society of Ireland, it is of great consequence and utility here, where agriculture is but in an infant state, and where experiments are most important.

My cow has calved, but the "milky mother" does not yet supply me and her other calf with much nutriment. The calf is happily of the feminine gender : an important consider- ation to me.

I have been engaged in enclosing a field of about five acres, in which the garden is included: James and John are hard at it. I regret to say that my wheat has an unhealthy appearance, being of a reddish colour at the end of the blade: whether this discolouration be the effect of the frosts, or of the underground work of a wire-worm, 1 am not yet agriculturist enough to determine.

22nd. — Some boatmen have just brought me five cwt. of flour, a barrel of herrings, a bag of coffee, and another of rice, all necessary for my winter comforts, though of winter there is no appearance, neither floods nor rain : in fact the weather is delightful, and the cow seems to feel the benefit of it, if I am to judge of her increase of milk, which Letty has already churned in a small box-churn, expressly borrowed for the purpose : the result of her industry has been one pound of very rich butter.

23rd. — Laboured again at the garden, and sowed a bed of carrots and two beds of turnips, cabbages, and radishes, each bed about twelve yards in length, and one yard in breadth : transplanted peas, which were too thin in their rows. My garden is nearly full, and it affords me radishes every day for myself and my friend, Mrs. Tanner.

25th. — Yesterday I walked through the river, which was a little cold, to church, where I read the service. The congregation was respectable. I afterwards dined with Mr. Brokman, and met an officer in the navy, who has left the Canning River to settle here; he knew our friends E. L. and his wife, and Mr. Edward Scott, the barrister, and this acquaintance with them at once formed a link of companionship with me.

30th. — My diary for some time past presents nothing more than a detail of work in the garden, and the cooking of a dish of greens, with observations on the weather, which has been rather windy, (accompanied by some rain) but it has now moderated. Ah, woe is me ! the calf became so weak and ill, that I have been obliged to cut its throat, — poor innocent! Some gentlemen came here, while my larder was so well supplied with veal, and did me the favour of dining and sleeping sub tegmine. Next day we all dined at Mr. Mackey's, across the river, where we had a noble feast of vegetables from his garden, which being on moist ground yields abundantly.

31st. — I went to bed early last night, but was deprived of my desired slumbers by the arrival of two gentlemen, who had been benighted on the river, and requested a night's lodging; they had come from the Surveyor's office on a holiday excursion. On the next night again, after I had composed myself to rest, with the expectation of taking a double dose of sleep, I was aroused by a furious barking of my dogs ; up I jumped, and hearing moans of distress, commenced a search, which ended in the discovery of a drunken fellow lying in the bottom of a deep ditch : he proved to be one of Mr, Burgess's servants, who had gone up the river, got drunk en chemin, lost his companion (who was in a similar condition), and his way. I am in great want of a good kangaroo dog, which, besides his proper office of game-hunting, would be a watchful sentry at night : fifteen guineas are demanded for one, which is a high price ; but the dog, if good, enables his owner to have a constant supply of fresh kangaroo meat, — a very material object. No winter yet, — thermometer 62°, — fresh flowers springing up every day !

Aug. 1st. — The younger Mr. Burgess came this morning to tell me that his dogs had killed an old and young emu ; I hurried off with all the ardour of a young sportsman to see them ; the old one, when erect, is nearly seven feet high, and resembling the kangaroo, both being small and slender in the fore parts and heavy and strong in the hind quarters. This bird has a very gentle look, seems to feed entirely on grass, has no wings, and scarcely the indication of a pinion, for it is only six inches long, terminated by a small claw. The feathers are singular, two of them springing from one stem ; the only long ones are in the tail ; the colour is of a dark brown. I hope to send you some in a box, with other Australian curiosities. The young one is not unlike a gosling, with light coloured longitudinal stripes.

27id. — An easterly wind prevails, and it has something of the sharp penetrating and drying quality which it has with you. Some complain of rheumatic tendency as a consequence of it : unaffected by it I have been rambling about on my back grounds without seeing any living thing except a solitary quail, which I did not shoot ; — game frequents swampy land, and I have none such on my back ground. This easterly wind already causes a parched appearance in the soil. Thermometer 62°, yet I have had a fire all day.

3rd. — This morning has been very warm. I shot a duck, and without hesitation jumped into the water after him : I have him, and shall eat him for supper ; but without peas, which are only now coming into blossom. A moderate shower has already revived our drooping plants, and caused an agreeable change in the weather, I have found a new plant like a single wall-flower, but without perfume; and also a beautiful frog mottled with bright green — it is already in my bottle of preserves for my dear sisters. Some of the day was passed in garden operations, among which transplanting cabbages, preparing for Indian corn, melons, and cucumbers, were the principal, I have one almond and five orange trees, growing very well,

4th. — Last night there were strong symptoms of winter vivid lightning and cannonading peals of thunder, followed by heavy rain, which continued almost all the succeeding day ; however, we had our in-door occupations, Johnny mended his shoes ; James made a mud floor in the centre room, while I was building up one of the compartments which had been left unfinished until bad weather, such as we have just had, should confine us to the house, and in-door occupations.

Our building operations would be more facilitated, if we could procure stone ; but there is none on the land here — not even a pebble to be flung at a bird ; a benevolent action, in which from old habit, I frequently feel a desire to indulge. My tools are suited to the nature and extent of my establishment ; every thing in this way which I brought with me is useful ; and grubbing hoes, which I did not bring, are indispensable. I have not used my cart or plough yet, but they will, I trust, be soon in requisition. My hand-cart is very useful ; spades, hatchets, saws, wedges, nails, metal pots for cooking, my canteen and cooking oven, I find very serviceable ; but the cooking apparatus I have not yet tried.

5th. — An unpleasant, windy, and rainy day, like some of our rainy days at home ; and I think it worse than usual, because I am very cross and fidgetty at having lost my rest last night. You have heard of the man who, when roused from his bed to attend his sick cow, exclaimed, "he's a happy man that has no cow ;" I can sympathise with him, and fully understand his feelings, for my cow is sick, and I have been up with her half the night, and have brought her into the next room to sleep.

6th. — James is making a house for the cow ; the great difficulty is to find thatch. Heavy showers are frequent, yet my kind neighbour Mr. S. came to dine with me and inquire for my cow, which has eaten nothing these two days but glauber salts and aloes — I fear she will go.

8th. — When I was going to rest last night, a traveller came to beg a night's lodging — granted of course. I had just gone into bed and was very snug, when two drunken men arrived ; one of them could not and the other would not go any farther, so I allowed the rascals to lie by the kitchen fire, and then obtained some sleep myself, after having removed the cow to the shed, which we had covered pro tempore with a tent.

11th. — A budget of news by Corporal Doherty (an Irishman to be sure) from Perth, where it appears the natives are exceedingly troublesome, and that a settler has been killed. The Governor and Captain Irwin are gone in pursuit. By one of the letters which I have received, I learn that I have been elected a member of the Institution here,* and that we are to have a small detachment of mounted police or cavalry

* A kind of Literary Society. — Editor.

established near this. Government speak of sending to the Cape for horses — rather a long look out. A lovely day for vegetation, warm and damp. No flood yet.

12th. — The cow is dead ! Dies atro notandus lapillo !

ISth. — Cut up and salted my poor deceased companion, and made candles of the tallow. Query, shall I make a mourning suit from the hide, which is jet black ? I dined sumptuously on one of poor dear Cowsy's marrow-bones — and now she's gone — "marrow-bones, and all."

The weather has been so very mild that I have seldom observed the thermometer, which was at 52° at sunrise this morning, and 64° at noon in the shade ; really the winter of this climate is delightful, like your charming June. The air at this moment is perfumed by a shrub resembling jessamine, bearing a yellow flower ; this is the fifth odoriferous plant that I have met with ; the ground is almost covered with it. I have had a disappointment in some more of my farming stock — thirteen eggs which should have produced chickens about this time, have every one failed. I have been favoured with two new songs from birds like thrushes ; the notes are not much varied, but seem rather a repetition of something corresponding with these words, "come with me and let us make a nest, ah ! do," to which the other seems to reply, "no indeed I shan't, at least with you" — the last note accented.

15th. — I turn from the harmony of these charming birds to the disrespectful tones of James, who swears that he will leave me, even if I should send him to Botany Bay, and because I will not allow him to hunt the dogs after some strange cows which have wandered on my land. I do not well know what to do with him ; he looks very sulky, but has commenced his work again. I laughed him into good humour by leading him to the ditch at which he had been working, and putting a spade into his hand. And what do you think was the reason which he assigned for not leaving me, after all ? — his going away would vex you ! ! ! Poor Letty has a sore throat; but a dose of glauber will set her all to rights again.

After breakfast I walked to Perth, which is no trifling effort — the distance being eighteen miles — and my load, a fishing-basket crammed with a change of linen, and other essentials for the comfort and ornament of the outward man : five kangaroos together, of different gradations, met me on the way ; how I longed to catch them ! Saw some native asparagus in the course of my walk.

My letter now draws to a close. I feel as if I were again parting from you : but I shall resume my diary, which gives me pleasing occupation, at every interval of leisure.



Hermitage, Western Australia, August 19th, 1831.

My last letter was dated from Perth, where I then was. Nothing remarkable has occurred within the last two days, except the appearance of seven spermaceti-whales from Fremantle, and that the people have been smitten with the mania for whale fishing ; but, unfortunately, there is no suitable fishing- tackle for an attack on these monsters of the deep, which would otherwise (and will at a future time) have a successful result. I have been in vain endeavouring to obtain a Perth newspaper for you, containing an account of our last agricul- tural meeting. I returned home, partly by boat and partly on foot, and found all well : but my young cow has become plaguy restless, and has broken away repeatedly into the bush : we have her, however, in the cow-house now.

20th. — The weather is still very fine, the temperature de- lightful. At this moment I am very much annoyed, and am actually writing from my bed to tell you how uncomfortable I am from an incursion of blow-flies, which have taken a fancy to my new blankets, that have been so covered by them as to require fumigation with brimstone to effect their dislodgment, and I am now bewailing the absence of my comfortable clothing.

22nd, — Pined after church service yesterday on delicious kangaroo soup, a fine haunch of ditto, lamb, a pair of fowls, ham and sausages, turnips, lettuce, onions, fruit-pies, and plum and custard puddings. Just think of such fare on the Swan River, and confess whether your organs of taste can resist an extra humidity "from bare Imagination of the feast," You know, however, that I care little for these things, and detail them merely to show that we have not always hard fare.

It falls frequently to my lot to settle disputes about boundaries : the Dii Termini are very troublesome divinities to me ; this day I have been arbitrator in a case of this nature, besides one on a disputed point concerning a sale of horses.

I have to finish a certain memorial to the Home Government, to attend an agricultural meeting on the second of next month, and to prepare for an exploring expedition over the mountains on the fourth, and have just written for Mrs. Tanner a song about this colony, of which she wishes to send her friends a copy ; but I have not time now to transcribe it, but must do so at some other time.

I have a song in my mind, suggested by that of a bird's notes ; and if I can get my flute mended, shall set it for you. I mean to try the system of robbing my own potatoes — viz., taking away the large ones from the roots, which is practised here with good effect.

23rd. — You will think me a most dissipated dog when I tell you that I have dined with the same large party three successive days !

Servants' wages are extremely high, and all work proportionably so ; £2 10s. per month for inside servants ; from 5s. to 7s. per day (without diet) for labour. At present the cultivation of new ground will not pay where there is any difficulty beyond mere ploughing, and that can only be performed in cleared flat meadows. The quantity of stock is still insufficient to support a shepherd. There are not yet more than a dozen persons possessing large flocks, but we are in daily expectation of arrivals of sheep from Van Diemen's Land. I am within the limit when I tell you that for even a small establishment like mine, where everything is to be purchased, it is necessary to have between £200 and £300 a year.

Our means will be greater and our wants less as our gardens and crops become productive. My stock of shoes for myself and people is already exhausted, and the price is 18s. per pair. Clothes and provisions, as in all infant societies, are of course our chief wants, but in some things money goes a great way.

Wine, tea, and sugar are cheap. F— talks of sending goods here on commission — an excellent speculation ; in shoes alone a profit of 150 per cent, might be effected.

As to clothing, black and blue clothes are the most saleable. Our medical men, lawyers, clergymen, and those in mourning, as among you, wear black ; and there are persons here of each of the learned professions. The Government officers and naval and military men wear blue cloth coats with gilt crown buttons, and blue frocks and trousers — on great occasions, white duck trousers ; but there is some hazard in this speculation, unless on a small scale.

Substantial clothing seems to be the taste of our sensible people, who are good judges of such matters. Blue striped shirts, shoes, boots, buskins, and corduroy trousers, meet with ready sale. We are in great want of light black beaver hats, which every one who can get them wears ; but we can procure no male headpieces here, except some villanous-looking silk ones of an old-fashioned shape. In the country, or in undress, little attention is paid to mere ornament ; but in company, or on state occasions, we are a very well-dressed and particular people.

As to the ladies — I suppose you have hitherto been in the habit of mistaking them for Hottentot dames, and consider them suitably appareled in linsey-wolsey, or "in druggets drest of thirteen-pence a yard ;" but our fair ones of the upper grades are of a very different class indeed : but, alas ! alas ! I cannot enumerate any of the thousand articles which they may wish for, from the hustle (no allusion to the Hottentot ladies, I assure you) to every other appendage of the person : — pray interest yourself to have a well-selected cargo sent especially to them. Among the common necessaries which would sell well in this colony are starch, blue, candles of every kind, glass, flannel, and soap, which now brings (and sold as a special favour) 2s. 6d. a pound.

Masters here are only so in name ; they are the slaves of their indentured servants. In my absence, *** does nothing, and if I speak to him — exit in a rage. I could send him to gaol, but I do not like this extremity, and yet I cannot afford to lose the advantage of his time, and pay £30, besides diet, to another in his place. Letty, however, continues faithful.

Yesterday, after the adjustment of a boundary line between neighbours at the base of the hills, a singular circumstance occurred, when the last two trees were struck with an axe, for the purpose of making a boundary mark — a jet d'eau issued from out of a blue gum tree, and continued running without intermission during the time of our stay — a quarter of an hour. This water had a strong chalybeate taste. On my return, we saw some native huts and graves ; I picked up a man's under jaw, and looked for a skull, but in vain. These are the remains of the native who speared James ; and the grave was dug soon afterwards by Corporal Fea, who shot him. I have despatched one of my people with a venture of vegetables to the market — a hamper of cabbages, turnips, and lettuces — may success attend this grand speculation !

2&th. — No intelligence of the venture yet. My pigs have strayed away, old and young, without leave, for two days. On this day se'night, our next Agricultural Meeting will take place, on which occasion the Governor is to give an evening party, and I believe there will be some dancing. I had no notion there would be so much society here, so much gaiety, so much dressing, I thought, in my simplicity, that I had for ever laid aside my slight shoes, silk stockings, and kid gloves ; but I have been most agreeably disappointed.

Spring is coming ; I heard its herald, a cuckoo, last night. The weather has been very fine, with occasional showers, and this is our winter ! It is really better than our summer in Ireland. Thermometer, 64°

27th. — No tidings of my vegetable servant yet; the pigs, however, have been found, after a long search. There is now a great profusion of beautiful flowering shrubs and flowers in full bloom. The succession of them is endless ; among them I must particularly notice a flower called, I believe, Anigozanthus, which is very beautiful — it is of a greenish colour, issuing from a crimson stem; the green flowers at the top protrude like fingers or expanded honeysuckles. We have also abundance of the clematis, and another creeper of a brilliant blue. One of our grasses, now in bloom, bears a beautiful blue flower with yellow stamina, and reminds me of the star of Bethlehem, or spider lily.

28th. — James arrived here at three this morning; the venture produced 9s. 10d. ; he got 2s. 6d. for twelve turnips, and a high price for cabbages ; but my lettuces and radishes were not in demand, Captain Irwin's gardener having previously sent a boat-load of vegetables to the market. Potatoes would have sold well, if I had them, — mine have been fourteen weeks in the ground, and are now of good size, some of them weighing a pound; I shall send a small supply on Friday next to market, and hope to get one shilling per pound. They are unfortunately of the kind called cups, — not good for eating, — better for selling.

A letter has this day reached me from Mr. Dale, the officer who is to form the settlement at York. I intend to accompany him, and shall take a fortnight's provisions, a change of raiment, a hammock, and a cloak to sleep in. Our present intention is to make the site of York our head-quarters, and to proceed from that central point four day's march up the river, the same in the opposite direction down, and the same distance eastward to the interior.

From Gruildford to York is, I suppose, 50 miles ; from York to Beverley 20 miles ; near the latter place is my grant ; so that I shall have an opportunity of seeing it, as well as so much of the interior. Expeditions, however, of this kind in perspective arrangement, are often attended with serious difficulties in actual execution. In the present case, thirty persons must be supplied for eleven days with gunpowder, shot, and clothes ; and we can only muster three horses for us all. Thunder and rain — a good dramatic conclusion to one day's diary.

29th. — Worked hard in the garden, planting Indian corn transplanting mangel-wurzel, and preparing beds for rock and water melons, cucumbers and pumpkins, and sowing five different kinds of strawberry seeds, and as many sorts of gooseberry, which latter seeds will not, probably, succeed in this climate.

Letty has been preparing striped cotton shirts for my expedition, these being more suited than linen ones to our climate.

30th. — The pigs, confound them ! are gone astray again.

This day I have been burning weed for ashes, and planting maize, of which I shall have half an acre, in drills one yard asunder ; and the intervals, which will be perfectly cleared, are to be planted with turnips and cabbages.

Flax and asparagus are indigenous plants here. Of the former I have seen very fine stalks, which before the general use of cotton would have been valuable ; the asparagus is not good. I have been actively at work this day, and shall be again to-morrow, in getting in the remainder of my maize, previously to my departure. These two days have been very warm, particularly so to James, who has been fruitlessly hunting for the pigs. We shall be roasted to-morrow, if this heat continues, and all the world here is going to the ball.

Perth, Sept. 3rd. — I must tell you all about the great doings since the last entry in my logbook.

Yesterday I came down here for our market, and meeting of the Agricultural Society, and for the Governor's ball.

The brig had just arrived, bringing the first Indian invalid to our shores. Quartermaster-General Colonel Hanson, and also Lord F. Beauclerk. All Perth was alive ; upwards of fifty sat down to the Agricultural dinner, at which we had (as honorary members) Lord F. Beauclerk, Col, Hanson, and Capt. Parker, R.N. And at this dinner a memorial to the Home Government was read and approved of. It is now in course of signature, and will soon be sent home. In the evening, at the Governor's house, we had 180 ladies and gentlemen ! ! !

The ball was kept up with the greatest spirit until six in the morning; and the dancing almost without interval — contre-dances, quadrilles, Spanish dances, and gallopades. I never before witnessed such gaiety at a ball, nor ever before danced so much in one night ; four rooms and an arcade were all filled, and connected with the verandah ; a superb tent was fitted up, decorated and festooned with naval flags, and in this we had supper — an elegant and abundant one. The gentlemen from India were astonished, for they had heard the most gloomy reports ; and the invalid confessed that when coming ashore he had been considering with the captain, the expediency of sending some provisions from the ship, as a preventive against starvation ; his amazement at seeing ample supplies of butter, eggs, vegetables, poultry and butcher's meat, may be guessed at ; he purchased freely and paid liberally ; has rented a house for some time, and is now recovering ; indeed he was actually frolicksome all the evening.*

* The invalid recovered his health completely. A letter from him appeared in the Ceylon paper, which may be interesting, as it will show the impression made on Colonel Hanson and his party, by their visit to the Swan River.

That these gentlemen should have arrived here at this critical period, when the climate is delicious, is considered a fortunate circumstance for the colony.

5th. — The Cruizer goes on Wednesday to Trincomalee, and I shall send my letter by her ; when you may get it, God alone can tell ; but I shall go on as before, connecting as well as I can my very rambling journal, in which I scribble down every thing as it occurs — slapdash. Thinking of home gives me strange sensations ; where is my home now ? * * *

I am living at Captain Irvine's new house (a large brick one, with two stories and a tiled floor), which has been pretty well filled of late ; its occupants being Lord F. Beauclerk, Captain Pickering, Mr. Gilbert, Dr. Littleton, the Messrs. Burgess, and myself. We hear of two vessels coming to England. I hope you have written, and perhaps sent me some shoes : for I am almost barefooted.

Yours ever,

G. F. M.


Sung by me at the first ball given by the Governor, Sir James Stirling, in Perth.— G. F. M.

Air — " Ballinamona oro."

From the old Western world, we have come to explore
The wilds of this Western Australian shore ;
In search of a country, we've ventured to roam,
And now that we've found it, let's make it our home.
And what though the colony's new, Sirs,
And inhabitants yet may be few, Sirs,
We see them encreasing here too. Sirs,
So Western Atistralia for me.

With care and experience, I'm sure 'twill be found
Two crops in the year we may get from the ground ;
There's good wood and good water, good flesh and good fish.
Good soil and good clime, and what more could you wish.
Then let every one earnestly strive. Sirs,
Do his best, be alert and alive, Sirs,
We'll soon see our colony thrive, Sirs,
So Western Australia for me.

No lions or tigers* we here dread to meet.
Our innocent quadrupeds hop on two feet ;
No tithes and no taxes we now have to pay.
And our geese are all swans, as some witty folks say.
'iTien we live without trouble or stealth. Sirs,
Our currency's# all sterling wealth. Sirs,
So here's to our Governor's health, Sirs,
And Western Australia for me.

* There are no ferocious beasts there. The timid kangaroo is the largest indigenous animal. Swans were so abundant on the river when first discovered as to give the name Swan River Settlement. I dare not say that I christened the colony, but certainly after the above song the name of Western Australia was adopted.

#There was much trouble then about a debased currency at the Cape of Good Hope and elsewhere.



October 15th, 1831.

You will hardly believe that I have only this night been able to seat myself at home as a resting-place, since the thirtieth of August, I shall now take up the narrative from the date of the last letter.

The Governor having determined to commence a settlement on the other side of Darling Range, and several settlers being desirous to take the opportunity of going over to their respec- tive grants, Mr. Dale, an officer in the 60th Regiment, the first who had penetrated beyond the Range, was selected to point out the most direct practicable route ; and it was deemed a good opportunity to combine with the expedition an explo- ratory excursion for some distance in a S.S.E. and N.N.W. direction from Mount Bakewell, the centre of York district, where it was intended to form the settlement ; the river Avon was supposed to run direct in this line. As the country had before been examined twenty miles up and ten miles down its stream, it was now proposed to go fifty miles in a S.S.E. and fifty miles in a N.N.W. line from Mount Bakewell, then to strike across the Darling Range to the west, until the Range should be passed over, and to return home along the base of the hills : such is the outline of the instructions given by the Governor.

Many circumstances made me willingly accede to the proposal of joining the expedition. I shall give you some details of our ramble.

On Tuesday, 6th ult., we assembled at Guildford, and mustered twenty-one persons, all interested and excited by the novelty of the first expedition over the hills. Many spectators came from curiosity and gave us a convoy, the Governor him- self kindly riding with us a whole day's journey, and by his presence infusing a spirit of animation into the whole party. His Excellency led the van — then came the Governor's cart drawn by five horses, followed by that of Messrs. Clarkson and Hardy drawn by two horses and two cows, and by another cart belonging to Mr. Hales drawn by two cows. The three horses bearing our provisions and clothes in sacks, saddle-bags, and other contrivances, and numerous men on foot brought up the rear. We crossed some wet places by laying down brushwood, and formed bridges of trees over the stream; and after clearing away trees and all impediments, advanced seven miles to the ascent of the hills. The Governor on his departure was saluted with three hearty cheers, and we then proceeded to bivouac under a large gum tree, near which were two native huts ; and this was my first actual experience of bushing.

I found the excitement delighful, as the evening was very fine ; a kangaroo was killed, a roaring fire kindled, and we enjoyed a delicious fry of steaks. Our hammocks were slung in front, from trees called blackboys, and the scene altogether was such as I thought I should never tire of ; however, when going into my hammock it fairly capsized — a moral hint that there are ups and downs in the happiest scenes ; and the cold, which was intense towards morning, gave still further evidence that perfect enjoyment is rarely to be found.

Next day, Mr. Dale and I walked forward to explore the way, and found a native path leading up the hill : when returning to breakfast a kangaroo came near us, very much to his surprise as well as ours.

After breakfast, as we set out, the day became rainy, and the pass was rocky and difficult ; so much so, that the carts could proceed only three miles. Our order of march was as follows : — Mr. Dale in advance, to ascertain the direct line and mark trees in that direction, generally accompanied by me ; next came Mr. B., who had charge of the waggons, attended by a number of men having axes, &c., to clear a cart-road as near the direct line as practicable ; and in this road the rest followed ; — but I am going too much into details, and must only give you the short notes of my tablets, or else my story will extend to an unmerciful length.

Halted in the valley. Heavy rain. Found great difficulty in lighting a fire under a tree. My hammock fell in the night ; all my clothes were wet, and being in dread of the falling of the tree (pleasant sensations altogether), I lay down by the fire, my head on a soft log and my feet to the fire ; and thus I composed myself to sleep.

8th. — Started at an early hour, on a good road, through an open forest of mahogany and some blue gum trees : halted in a picturesque vale, where we had loud thunder and heavy rain — made great fires to dry the hammocks for the night.

Next morning, the party started at half-past seven; but I remained prudently behind with several others to dry our clothes.

Here I first took notice of Mr. Dale's servant, a soldier, who was afterwards a source of great amusement to us. " Well, Sheridan, how did you pass last night ?" — " Why, sir, I just lay on that 'dentical spot there fornint you at the fire all night, rain or no rain ; for I thought I might as well keep one side dry, anyway — the side that was under me." Morn- ing or evening, wet or dry, busy or idle, Sheridan whistled or sung incessantly : it was his duty to wheel a perambulator (an instrument for measuring distances), and off he started with it this morning, singing with stentorian voice the old drum beat, " Tither, row dow, dow, dow ; and tither, ither, row, dow ; tither ither, row, dow.

Nothing remarkable on this day's journey. Changed our course to wind up a steep hill ; and at the end of four miles and a half reached a watered valley ; stopped here, and had a pleasant bivouack, about a hundred yards from a swampy stream of good water. One of the party slept in the hollowed part of a tree, and made a tent of his blanket, tied by ropes to two of the trees called blackboys.

10th. — We passed this day over a broken hilly country; where large masses of granite appeared in several places of a tabular shape. After crossing over one of those tables, alongside which ran a strong rivulet, we came to deep and rapid streams (branches of the river Helena), and were obliged to halt until we formed a bridge. The day had been rainy, which rendered it difficult to light a fire, so that we were exceedingly uncomfortable ; but the evening became moderate, and the genial warmth of a blazing fire made us soon feel comparatively happy. Here some of the party began to make small huts, like the wigwams of the natives, which often afterwards proved useful ; the process of forming which is very simple. Blackboy poles are stuck in the ground, forming three-fourths of a circle, and meeting in a common point at top ; these are covered with grassy tops of the blackboy : it is a good temporary shelter in rain. Next day, a sufficient bridge having been formed by placing trees and spars over the stream, we proceeded for some time over a rising ground ; then descended into an extensive and rich valley, where there was good feeding for the horses, which they had not regularly had before for some days.

12th. — Crossed a more level and open country for seven miles (which we considered great progress, having made only tliree or four miles each preceding day) and had a more extensive view from some of the hills. The only very attractive object was a conical sloped hill which obtained the name of Mount Dale, after our companion and leader. The appearance of the country and timber began to undergo a change ; the casuarina tree, which is somewhat like a fir, is common on the east side of the range ; — halted at two, having passed some native huts without seeing the natives themselves.

14:th. — Crossed good level ground, and saw fifteen kangaroos ; none killed.

15th. — Passed seven native huts, and ensconced ourselves in them ; ascended a hill composed of what is here called ironstone (a red sandstone) which we imagined affected our compasses, so much so that we called this elevation Magnetic Hill ; — cut some bark from a tree, which smelled like raspberry jam, and caught two lizards — two iguanas, 14 inches long, with a purple tongue, and without a tail. One of our party killed what he called a puff adder, and a small snake ; killed a kangaroo, and found its young one (a beautiful black- eyed creature) in time to rescue it from the dogs. I carried the poor thing in my pocket, and nursed it carefully ; it will soon become familiar ; — surprised some natives, who went off gesticulating and vociferating furiously ; ascended some rising grounds, whence we had a fine view of an abrupt hill in the distance, called Cut Down Hill, and where we observed for the first time the appearance of white lime, and got sight of Mount Bakewell, which we hailed with three cheers and a volley ; crossed a stream running through a very fine country, and ascended another picturesque hill, from which we had no longer the cat-in-bag kind of prospect which had hitherto almost invariably been the case with us. Like puss in a sack, we had been endeavouring to poke out our heads, but in vain ; each hill tempted us to push onwards and upwards in hopes of liberation, but we only found another and another tempting us forward to incur a fresh disappointment.

16th. — Came to another rich valley, where we caught a kangaroo ; arrived at Mount Bakewell, which is covered with long grass, principally of the poa species ; searched for a stream, and found the river Avon, which in some places is 40 yards in breadth, but is in this place broken into several channels ; we ascended at a steep point of the mount, which is about 1500 feet in elevation, and affords an extensive view of what appeared a level country, wooded and rich. Mount Bakewell is a combination of quartz, red sandstone, and granite ; traced out the valley of the Avon for some distance, and calculated that our view extended forty miles, in some directions, without any very striking objects, excepting a few hills of conical form rising here and there ; the soil in this district seems rich loam of a brownish hue, producing patches of grass, wherever a tree had been burnt, and flowers in great quantities, particularly everlasting pink ; and here we also found trees like the crab apple, bearing round nuts of a walnut taste in abundance, but not yet ripe.

17th. — Bathed in the Avon, and made this a day of rest, as well as of ablution, of which the whole party were in need ; our store of linen being necessarily very limited, almost like Falstaff's — "one shirt for superfluity, and one for use," — it became necessary to wash ; my stock was pretty large, consisting of four shirts, four pair of stockings, two pair of trousers, three pair of shoes, two coats, a large pair of worsted stockings, with leather soles, which I found very comfortable to sleep in ; a straw hat for the day, and a blue cap for the night, with the hammock, blankets, and cloak already mentioned. In fine weather we preferred strewing the tops of the grass tree, which resemble rushes, on the ground, and so sleeping with our feet to the fire. I shall give you a short account of the tract we have explored : it is a range of hilly country, about fifty miles broad in one place, over which you must pass in order to arrive at a more open, level, and grassy country, which appears to continue in the interior, and to preserve the same uniformity of character, as far as has been examined in that direction. The hills on the range are principally covered on the surface with the hard red sandstone, or ironstone already mentioned, either in lumpy fragments, or broken into coarse gravel ; in some places, granite appears in large solid masses, or hillocks ; there is a good deal of coarse herbage, but little grass, except in a few of the valleys. Many prickly shrubs abound, differing exceedingly in general appearance, yet bearing very similar flowers, of the pea blossom in shape, and of the colour of single wallflower. There is also a profusion of what you and I would call heath ; but the learned botanists assert that there is no heath in the colony — far be it from me to dispute their judgment ! This is almost a forest of great mahogany and blue gum trees, which have not been seen beyond the range. The streams do not appear to flow decidedly to the east, but rather to the north and south. In the many valleys which we saw, I doubt if the streams flow through the summer. Pools and springs may be frequent; but there are no mountains, whose summits covered with snow might furnish a regular supply of water, nor frequent rains to saturate the earth and feed its springs. The thirsty soil absorbs, and the unclouded sun of summer evaporates, the moisture in its progress ; and this, I take it, is the solution of the apparent paradox, with respect to rivers — that they are sometimes greater at their source than at their mouth. Such is the state of the river in summer ; but what must it be in winter, when every valley and ravine pours forth its tributary streams into one common channel, the sole outlet of the accumulated waters of an extensive district ? The Avon, through which I walked (first tucking my trousers up to my knee), seems the only artery for the collected waters of a line of 150 miles which we traced; and yet we did not reach its source.


Dampier, and subsequently King, observed the great fluctuations of tides on this coast (I forget at what time of the year) ; if it was in our winter months, their observations would tend to corroborate the opinion, that a large river debouches there. But this is a long and dull digression to you.

Deeming it expedient to give the horses another day's rest, we went without them, on a little excursion of six or seven miles, to look at Mr. Dale's grant, and on our way passed a hut, in which five of the natives concealed themselves ; saw some turkeys ; bathed in the Avon, in which we observed something stirring, which we conjectured to be a platypus, but naturalists have not yet ascertained that it exists here.

Eeturned by the river on the plain, and noticed a kind of thorn — a species, I think, of the Mespilus ; and a shrubby tree, bearing fruit like the sloe. Dined on kangaroo stew. My young pet, poor " Hop," looks sickly, and will probably die.

19th. — We have changed our station, to the place where it was intended that the nucleus of the settlement should be formed. I found many burrows, like badger earths ; and shot two ducks, and as many cockatoos.

20th. — Poor little kangaroo has died ; it was a pretty affectionate creature, hopped after me wherever I went, knew my voice, and slept in my bosom. I was sorry for it, and buried it. Set out on our expedition southward, the party consisting of Mr. Dale, Mr. Thompson, myself, and Sheridan, mounted on horses in rather an odd way. Those which Sheridan and I had were without saddles, which had been left behind ; we had for substitutes our cloaks doubled under us, with rope stirrups, and in this way we rode 300 miles ! Mr. Dale's horse was the only one properly equipped. Mr. Thompson rode his own horse, which had a pad on him : and each of us carried his proportion of provisions as well as his clothes, in saddle bags or other contrivances, with his gun slung across his shoulder. We passed over a beautiful country for seven miles, and halted during the middle of the day in a picturesque valley, in which we saw a singular cavern, which had been discovered the preceding year ; it is a large mass of granite, forming the abrupt side of a hill on one part of the valley, and appearing as if the outer side wall of the cave had fallen away, and had left its length exposed ; its extreme end is a round figure, supposed to represent the sun, with the impressions of open hands round it. It appeared to us as if the rock had been covered with reddish pigment, and that the impressions had been formed by the friction of a stone on the rock. The roof is covered with what looks like the remains of broken swallows' or hornets' nests. This cave is supposed to have been a place of worship ; yet I know not why, as the natives do not appear to have any object of vene- ration, nor is there any indication of a path leading to it. — Made by our estimation thirteen miles, and halted near a small stream to make a stew of our cockatoos, but found a grievous want of our plates, which had been left at York, from a prudential desire to lighten our baggage ; we had to make use in their stead of flat stones,

21st. — Breakfasted at daylight, and traversed some beautiful pasture country to the site of Beverley (twenty miles). Went up a hill— fine view — and went down again. Former excursions had terminated here ; and the country was supposed to improve towards the south — here it is not good.

Touched upon the river again, and halted at noon to refresh. Walked across the bed of the river, which was dry, and ascended till we came to a deep pool, or reach, as it is called here, which proved to be salt ; and no fresh water was to be had for our horses or ourselves ; exceedingly puzzled, as the river was running fresh and strong where we had crossed it. The land here is of poor quality ; coarse herbage — hard, barren-looking plains of whitish clay, covered with white gum trees, having a rusty tinge on the bark. Saw a native skulking away ; and had many a fruitless search after kangaroos,

Saw a beautiful animal ; but, as it escaped into the hollow of a tree, could not ascertain whether it was a species of squirrel, weazel, or wild cat. Entertained great apprehensions of not finding water at night ; but found a fresh pool at last. Soil worse and worse : rather melancholy, remembering that my grant is situated somewhere on this day's progress.

22nd. — Started at seven a.m. ; came to a long, deep, and narrow lake of fresh water, four miles in length, and eighty or a hundred yards in breadth, with an amazing number of ducks on it. Sheridan's calculation was quite Irish — "a thousand, sir, a hundred thousand, would'nt be missed out of them." Dale shot a black swan, and I swam for it, and tried the depth in several places, which I ascertained to be about six feet. The soil about it is indifferent. On its margin are samphire and the Hottentot fig (a species of sedum), which gives no indication of fresh water running into the lake. Met with a large native dog, and chased another little animal, such as had escaped from us yesterday, into a hollow tree, where we captured it ; from the length of its tongue, and other circumstances, we conjecture that it is an ant-eater — its colour yellowish, barred with black and white streaks across the hinder part of the back ; its length about twelve inches. Found some water in pools and streams running eastward and the soil improving, but of sandy quality.

23rd. — The country improves. We met seven natives, who drew up in some surprise at the sight of four men on horse- back — perhaps the first Europeans they had seen : we had just before disturbed an emu, of which they seemed to be in chase. At noon, having travelled twelve miles, we halted in a fine valley, with plenty of grass for our horses ; and having now made sixty miles in a S.S.E. line, we were, to our regret, obliged to return. Turned N.N.W. ; ascended a hill, which afforded an extensive view to the eastward of a level country; but undulating to the south. Here were pools of water courses and trees, which are supposed to be casuarinas and acacias ; but neither mahogany nor gum trees. Saw two emus, many kangaroos, and shot a brace of cockatoos, which made no insignificant appearance at our evening meal ; and we turned into our hammocks at nine o'clock.

24th. — Up at day-break, and followed the course of a considerable stream — probably the Avon : determined not to lose sight of it, and passed a waterfall, which rolled six feet over a granite rock, through a falling ground, with buttercups on its surface, and the acacia, bearing flowers like the laburnum. There are many bare downs visible from a hill near this, with green patches here and there.

25th. — Found that one of our horses had broken loose in the night, and had some trouble and difficulty in catching him. Passed rapidly over a bare tract, with here and there a white gum tree creeping like a ghost through tlie vistas. Found the running water in the river to be fresh ; but that standing in the pools, brackish. Followed the river, looking for its connexion with the fresh water lake ; but could not find it : at length discovered the head of a salt water lake. It appears that the stream which we had followed for forty miles had ceased to flow, and become absorbed by the earth : this is one of the puzzles of the country.

A river runs fresh to a certain point, where it terminates ; and if you trace its bed for one hundred yards, you find it occupied by a salt water lake, without any apparent outlet : some miles further down we found a long and deep lake in the reach of the river quite fresh again !

This day we had the last of our rice with a loin of pork, washed down with a glass of spiced grog ; the only new delicacy we could command.

26th. — Our provisions being almost gone, we breakfasted on the dust of biscuit, soaked in tea ; which was a slender preparation for the ensuing fatigue of following the river's course for eight or nine miles to the spot where it disappears above the salt water lake. We contrived, however, to make out a dinner of cockatoos and the remains of the pork, with greens of the carduns or sow-thistle. Took a short march in a westerly direction, to examine another stream, which proved to be the Avon, flowing strongly and deeply in some places, through tolerably verdant banks.

It now appears that all former observations as to the eligibility of location here, were upon mistaken grounds ; and that the line must be changed. We wished to trace this line further ; but neither time nor the state of our provisions permitted us to do so : turning, therefore, towards Mount Bakewell, we made a push to reach it by sunset, in which we happily succeeded, and enjoyed our tea and a good night's rest.

27th. — This day we recruited ; repaired and washed our clothes and ourselves in the river, which had fallen fourteen inches. Missed our dog " Fly," which has not returned.

28th. — Took out all the dogs in the settlement to look for a kangaroo ; but without success.

29th. — Fly has come to us again. Mr. Johnston, who has charge of the Government settlers, having furnished us with twelve pounds of biscuit, to enable us to return and trace that branch of the Avon which we had so recently left, we started for the point of our former resting-place, and there surprised a native family, consisting of a man, woman, girl, and infant, who raised a sad outcry, although we used the most conciliating tones and gestures. As we rode away, the man set fire to the top of the grass trees, either as a signal to other natives, or for the purpose of terrifying our horses ; probably with the first object, as we soon afterwards saw two responding fires. Here we took our bearings, and saw, at a considerable distance, Cut Down Hill.

The stream at this spot is fresh, strong, and deep : the soil of middling quality. We fired seven shots at game ; but dined on salt pork. Came to a better tract, near or about which my grant may be supposed to lie — not far from a rising ground called Mount Shole, from the likeness which it is supposed to bear to the bald head of a gentleman of that name. The plains are of stiff clay of different colours, with some varieties of sandy loam. Here the river dividing into two branches, we had to choose one which runs westerly : we followed until we arrived at a wet valley, not unlike that near the "Echo,"* and as full of springs.

*In the county of Wicklow, Ireland.

Turned homewards by a tract more distant from the river, in hopes of discovering better land ; but it proved to be miserably bad — of white sand, bearing the mahogany tree — which satisfied us that we had again arrived at the Darling Eange : soon afterwards, however, we passed through a valley of better quality behind Mount Shole, where we bivouacked, having first shot two cockatoos for supper. This day we saw several huts.

Oct. 1st. — Proceeded farther in a N.N.E, course, through very bad land, mere sand ; and at noon reached a rich valley, but not well watered. We here saw many kangaroos, and one native, skulking behind a tree ; and heard the screaming of native women and boys. As we approached the settlement, several of these people scampered off, uttering a word which sounded like "hunnyan;" and we ascertained, subsequently, that a great number of them had been at the settlement the day before, with green boughs (we hope emblematic of peace) in their hands.

3rd. — At eight o'clock, a.m., we proceeded on an excursion from Mount Bakewell, N.N.W. Very fine land on Mr. Thompson's grant. Beyond Mount Mackie, fell in with some natives, who called to us frequently "coo-oo," and as soon as we had acknowledged the invitation, two of them (one of whom Dobair recognised to have seen several times before) threw down their spears, and approached us with a friendly manner, as if glad to see us ; we shook hands, and then parted : but on halting for bivouac, we heard several advancing, hallooing for some time, and then preserving silence; we did not deem it prudent to encourage their familiarities. On the ensuing day (Oct. 4th), anticipating an early visit from them and an attack on our provisions (of which we had a very limited allowance), we hastened our preparation ; but had scarcely commenced breakfast, when they began to collect in considerable numbers ; so that we packed up rather precipitately. Dale, having a servant to arrange for him, had finished his breakfast — I had swallowed half mine — Thompson had scarcely tasted his — and poor Sheridan had got none. The manner of these people (who advanced in little detachments, old men and boys among them) was, however, friendly. Some of them sat down beside us; some remained at different distances, according to the signals which we made them ; and none of them appeared to have any arms. Curiosity seemed to be their only motive in remaining with us : there were thirty-one altogether; among whom we did not perceive either of the two men who had been present on the previous evening. Having vainly endeavoured to support a conversation with them, we shook hands and took leave, and proceeded to a deep and broad reach of the river, through a picturesque country, with high hills rising abruptly from each side. Here I shot two ducks, and swam for them.

5th. — Anxious about water, but did not discover any ; and at sunset halted to hold a council of war. My proposal to look for water was rejected ; we were all somewhat in the blues, our horses being knocked up, and ourselves excessively thirsty ; but the indefatigable Sheridan seizing his gun, went off to reconnoitre, and soon returned in great glee, with the agreeable intelligence that at a short distance there was a swamp, and water of course, not ten yards off. Made a famous dinner of ducks, and slept on the ground all night — and slept well.

6th. — Conjecturing that this is probably identical with the Swan River, we advanced over a hilly and barren country, and again heard the natives. After crossing a very rocky district, the country changed its character, and we suddenly found ourselves on a promontory, abruptly sinking into a large and beautiful valley.

This view elevated our spirits again; "Worcestershire," cried one; "Shropshire," cried another ; "Kilkenny for ever," roared out Sheridan. Headlong we rushed into the valley, through grass to the horses' knees, hoping to find the river ; but this valley proved to be only an extensive swamp of soil not so good as it appeared at a distance from the point of our bivouack. We, however, had the satisfaction of observing symptoms of cows, which appeared to have gone further into the interior. We examined our charts, and felt confident that the Avon and the Swan are identical.

After a march of five miles across the swamp, and over a bare and sandy soil, and having reached our N.N.W. limit, we turned east, and crossed a fiat sandy tract, surrounded by hills ; pushed on for a valley, and on reaching it, found that we had almost imperceptibly crossed the Darling Range. From a high hill we got an open view of the plain studded over (in one direction) with lakes, which we supposed to be salt ; the plain seems barren and sandy, and the only attractive object towards the sea, was a double-topped hill, about sixteen miles distant. Halted for the day, after a ride of five hours and a half near a running stream, which we fortunately found, having feared that we should not have met one nearer than that which is called Lennard's, twelve miles distant: must soon satisfy our conjectures about the Swan River. While we were at dinner, a native dog came up, and gnawed some bones within ten yards of us ; Dale fired, but missed the poor animal.

7th. — Arrived at land much dug by the natives, several of whom we heard, but they in general kept out of view; reached Lennard's brook, which at once struck us all as being the Avon. This we had much difficulty in crossing, as it is deep and strong in current, but we walked through it three or four miles higher up the river. Rich grasses grow on the lands here.

Two natives, immediately succeeded by others, joined us in a friendly way, but we did not think it wise to eat in their presence, especially as they seemed very desirous that we should waive all ceremony and do so ; we cannot well understand them yet ; on seeing us prepare to depart, they called to others, who came in groups, until they amounted to twenty- eight merry looking fellows, who accompanied us in a friendly manner for some miles ; one of them begged for a few hairs of my horse's mane, which he seemed to prize exceedingly. These people appeared to have painted themselves fresh for the visit ; and if we could judge from their anxiously pointing in a particular direction, they invited us to take a lunch at their village ; however, we went in a line precisely opposite. Soon afterwards, finding ourselves perplexed in the mazes of a swamp, we began to think that we should have taken their advice, and that the exclamation of "Bogh" was kindly meant to indicate some bridge or ford higher up ; at last, however, we got out of the swamp; crossed a sandy country ; saw many tracts of natives ; halted at a good grassy stream ; drank tea, and went to sleep.

8th. — Continued our progress at a rapid pace over a plain of white clay, which produced white and red gum trees; halted, and refreshed ourselves at Ellen's brook ; broiled our slices of pork at the fire on the end of a long stick ; forward again ; had a view of a limestone vein two miles broad, and dined at Mr. Bull's, where I met Mr, Macleod of the 63rd, and several other gentlemen ; at night Messrs. Dale and Mackie accompanied me to my own habitation, where I once more got into bed with my clothes off, for the first time during six weeks ; and will you believe that I did not sleep half as well this night, as when I had been stretched on rushes in the open air ? I was occupied with the workings of my own brain, and thinking "murders sleep." On the ensuing morning we went to Guildford ; waited on the Governor; presented our report, and then proceeded to Perth under a drenching rain ; thus terminated our expedition. Just think, although it took place during what is supposed to be part of our winter or beginning of spring ; it never interrupted our sleeping in the bush and remaining in the open air for so many weeks without suffering even from a cold in the head ; the fact is, the weather, with the exception of the two or three first days, was very pleasant, like May or June in the old country. Several observations occurred to me at different times, on the particular nature and character of the country, the trees and shrubs, flowers, grass, &c., which I intended to have thrown together in this letter; but I shall refrain, and sum up the results of my exploration in a few brief and general remarks. Of flowers there is a great profusion in all directions ; the ground in some places is covered with them, but the variety is not great, at least so it occurred to me ; we had not leisure to examine large quantities of chrysanthemum, daisies, geraniums, a green tendril with a pink flower, and another splendid flower, growing like bunches of violets close to the ground. There are many flowering shrubs. Of birds we saw no great variety; mocking birds, paroquets, larks, and warblers, but none very beautiful. I have mentioned already all the other animals which we obtained sight of, except some reptiles — viz., three or four snakes. As to the nature of the soil, the salt district may at some future period become valuable, but it is not useful for present purpose ; there is a great deal of light sandy land, and also of stiff clayey soil, which requires, in the language of holy writ, to be subdued, before it becomes in a state to receive seed.

Upon a former occasion, Mr. Dale had been fifty miles farther into the interior, which he describes to be similar to what we passed, undulating and grassy, in such a direction as would seem to indicate a continuation of the saltish land, which we observed in an E.S.E. direction. Some time hence it may afford an interesting excursion to follow the river down from whence we left it, and identify it with Lennard's brook (if it be the same), and trace it to the sea ; this brook has been on several occasions visited by persons looking for stray cattle, and on one occasion by Messrs. Dale and Lennard, who never dreamed of it being the Avon ; but thinking the land good, Mr. Lennard applied for a grant in that district, and it has been called by his name ever since. A singularity was observed there, which is not yet accounted for ; namely, that the river appeared to flow into a large lake on the plain, from which no current in any direction was perceptible. However, they were not then thinking much about the uiatter, and may have overlooked some outlet near or through the doubled hill adjacent.


It is only now that I have been able to finish these random notes (brief and hasty as they are), having written a little now and again, as opportunity permitted ; and on looking over them, I have often to pick up, as my grandmother would say, "my dropped stitches" ; a reference to them (keep all my letters and journals for me) may one day or other amuse and interest us at the fire side, if it shall please God that, among the changes and chances of this mortal life, we shall ever meet again.

On my arrival at home, I was treated with a number of very dismal stories — the sow had devoured nine chickens and several eggs ; the bell was lost from the goat's neck ; many things were going to waste in the garden ; and many other such drawbacks, lest I should feel myself too comfortable on my return,


Oct. 17th. — Gardening.*

* I shall henceforward prune or cut away altogether the details of horticultural operations ; interesting as they might be to many readers. — Editor.

18th. — Had my potatoes dug this morning ; I have about 3 cwt., which is good produce; for although I purchased 1 cwt, for seed, price thirty-five shillings, but a small portion of it was in a fit state for planting ; I believe that only one tenth of the sets grew, so that from ten pounds I had 3 cwt. ; where they did grow, they would bear comparison with any of our crops at home, and this is saying much for vegetation here ; our usual bargain is to give them and seeds of all kinds on condition of getting half the produce. I have this day given Mr. Tanner sixteen pounds for this consideration, and I intend to trade a good deal in this primitive kind of way with some of my neighbours, who have soils different in quality from mine, and we thus assist each other. For twenty pounds of potatoes I received, as I was starting on my late expedition, twenty shillings — a great price, you will say.

There has been seasonable rain this day, which has been of service to some turnips and cauliflowers, which I trans-planted early in the morning on the potato ground. I have found not a mare's nest — but a hen's nest, with fourteen eggs, which I have removed with Dame Partlet herself to an appropriate incubation lodge, snugly placed among the grass-tree tops ; as a set off against this profitable discovery, I have to state the loss of a full-grown chicken barbarously devoured by my sow.

In my list of births I have to enter two kids, but both of the wrong sort, and three kittens ; and though last, not least in importance, six young pigs farrowed in the bush, and were discovered with much trouble. I have now eleven pigs, but it is difficult to procure food for them at present, and I am in consequence of the difficulty, obliged to give them biscuit and flour mixed with greens, viz., sow thistles and turnip tops.

26th. — The beautiful picture of the hen sitting upon her eggs has now vanished ; one of the dogs devoured them all this morning, — I hope they will make him very bilious, the abominable brute ! I learn that during my absence the river rose considerably, and flooded the low ground beside the well ; the tremendous floods in winter have ended in this !

21th. — Broke up a considerable quantity of ground at the well, and planted upwards of one hundred yards of potatoes in drills. If these succeed, I shall have had two crops of the same kind within one year. My other vegetable have multiplied so that I know not what to do with them. The walnuts, however, have totally failed, and I have only eight out of fifty almond trees, and but one healthy-looking orange tree ; strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, all failures.

2%th. — Despatched James this day with potatoes, cauliflowers, turnips, and cabbages, to market. A servant of the Governor passed to-day, and told a fine budget of news, about an attack of the natives on the Government House. I do not believe it ; but the natives have undoubtedly made sad havoc among the flocks of sheep in the neighbourhood ; they took eleven from Mr. Brown, nay worse, speared his cow, and afterwards being fired at for this offence, came stealthily and killed his shepherd ; and as a grand finale, drove away no fewer than sixty-seven sheep, belonging to Mr. Bull, of which, though hotly pursued, they slaughtered forty-seven, en chemin faisant. These wholesale doings must be checked by the presence of a body of yeoman cavalry, when horses can be procured, which it is the intention of the Government to supply to those persons who shall enrol themselves. I intend to serve either as a private or an officer, I care not which. Additional magistrates have been appointed since I was here, in order to act with the military on any sudden emergency ; and a party of soldiers has been stationed on the hills at the head of the Swan — as the upper part of the navigable river is called ; all these matters have occurred during my absence.

A ship soon goes to Van Diemen's Land, and possibly this letter may go that way. We have not had any arrival from England this long time. I am anxiously expecting news from you, besides shoes, my last pair of which I have this day put on.

The Governor and Mrs. Stirling have come down to the river and gone on board the Sulphur, which is going to King George's Island.


30th. — Sixteen months have elapsed since I left Dublin, and precisely a year from the day of my arrival here ; within that little year what changes at home ! what a change in myself ! what a change in my own people !

* * *

I met Captain Ellis (the brother of the master in chancery) the other day at a mess dinner in Perth. On my return home, I began to cut hay in partnership with Mr. B. — This mem should have come in before — but it is all the same.

After dinner on this same anniversary day of my arrival, I went to examine Captain Irwin's grounds and gardens, and gave him fifteen pounds of potatoes ; took tea at Mr. Burgess, and returned at night; on the opposite side of the river, shouted for my boat, "A boat, a boat unto the ferry," but all my people were asleep, so that I was obliged to swim for it ; the water was then rather cool, though in the middle of the day it is warm.

3lst. — I this day opened my last cask of Sherlock's pork; it has kept perfectly sweet, and would now bring a very high price here. Perhaps I am the only person in possession of one cask. Ten guineas per barrel have been paid for Irish pork, and Mr. Labertouche must have made a considerable profit by sending his vessel here always at this time or a little before it.

My outfield of wheat is almost a failure, but wherever there were ashes a good patch appears. Half an acre of my Indian corn looks only middling, but will probably improve ; Swedish turnips, rape, and mangel-wurzel look well ; every kitchen vegetable is promising.

In removing some barrels from the house, I found them filled with white ants, which had reduced the bottom of the vessel (an American flour cask) to a substance of extreme tenuity, as thin as a card.

Have got a "whisper" that one of my servants means to make battle to get another half year taken from his indentures, but I shall kick most manfully against this.

Nov. 1st. — Killed a great number of white ants, which are extraordinary creatures, the most impotent looking things, and yet they perpetrate much mischief, carrying on their depredations in secret, and making their imperceptible approaches under the screen of a covered way. Opened my front window, which has a blackboy lattice, for the first time this day since the natives threw the spear ; I am making a linen blind for it — very grand, all this!

I am at a sad loss for furniture, having scarcely a table, chair, press, or shelf, except what I brought with me, and I have no doors — mere contrivances in place of them. More of servants' whims ! I have just heard of one who demands four glasses of rum per day ! Really, there is no enduring the insolence of this class here ; they soon find out their value, and act accordingly. Any one bringing out servants should accurately enumerate in their indentures every article, and how much of it each should get. Many, who on landing would have been startled at the idea of taking four glasses of spirits every day, soon reconcile themselves to this excess, if they be indulged by their masters : in laborious and warm work, however, such as mowing, a large allowance of grog is not unreasonable.

I exchanged two pair of small linen trousers (which had been made for the boy who came out with me) for a cock of hay, and have a grand project in my head of bartering some chickens (when hatched) for a kid which one of my neighbours expects soon to have born to him.

4th. — I am helping Mackie to cut an avenue from his place to mine ; many settlers are doing the same kind of thing, which makes our houses appear much closer than we before supposed.

James brought me home a turtle yesterday, and to-day another, which he found in the grass, where they had been depositing their eggs ; their weight is four pounds each, and and one had sixteen eggs with remarkably hard shells. Found a pretty rail, shaped like ours, but handsomely freckled; and a young wagtail, which has as varied a style of singing as it has various names, being called, besides the name just stated, razor-grinder, and superb-warbler. Mr. B. called to purchase the single Cape sheep (for which I had twelve months ago given two sheep) for the sum of £3.

6th. — Day cold, wet, and stormy — good for the garden, but not for the hay. As we had so little rain during the winter, it is possible that we may now have frequent showers. I cannot go to church.

10th. — James at work mowing. Made two covered sheds and pig yards. Thermometer 50° at seven in the morning. Fished for cobblers in the evening. The warbler sings its night-song. Fine weather. Rumour that two ships have arrived.

12th. — Hay-making — five cocks saved. Our Irish servants are beginning to be just as saucy as the English ones, who expect to live here as well as their masters did at home ; they talk of having meat and beer three times a day ! The vessels have arrived from Java, with pork, rice, and sugar.

14:th. — Gave a kitten to Mr. Brockman ; little as you may think of such a donation, let me tell you that a guinea has been given here for one. I have got some weighty mahogany from a sawyer to make a box and bedstead. Ten other chickens this day ; we have now twenty-four chickens and seven hens.


19th. — Returned from Perth and Fremantle. Purchased flour at 7d. per pound, and American pork at £8 per cask—what a price your Irish pork and butter, leather, and shoes, would produce here ! No shoes in the whole colony, except a few made in India, not worth a farthing. Another sow has farrowed in the bush ; only four youngsters alive — how provoking !

23rd. — Purchased a cow for £2 10s. My stock of black cattle now consists of ten, great and small, with a prospect of increase. Heard that many settlers are expected, and, consequently, that our land will rise in value. Busy all day ricking my hay, which the men carried in a sort of hand- barrow : there are four tons yet remaining in the field, and the quantity in rick is ten tons. Transplanted celery early in the morning.

25th. — This has been a very scorching day, hotter than yesterday, when I was an hour in the water, cutting, sawing, and raising stumps of trees. Thermometer 90° in my room. Johnny has gone to Guildford for 2 cwt. of wheat for the pigs ; this with garden vegetables will keep them in condition. James (not in the sulks at present) has been mowing in the distant field.

27th. — A great change in the weather ; it being now cloudy and threatening rain, with high wind. Black servants, I find, are very serviceable in this colony ; on them we must eventually depend for labour, as we can never afford to pay English servants the high wages they expect, besides feeding them so well. The black fellows receive little more than rice — their simple diet.

This is an excellent settlement for labourers, if they would honestly preserve their engagements. Government seem desirous to establish a colony on the most thrifty scale, and every part of it should be uniform and consistent with the general plan. If an officer holding a high office under Government receives but £300 a-year, it is out of all proportion to give from £24 to £36 a year, and diet, to a menial. We are in great want of stock; and have been woefully disappointed at not having an expected supply from Van Diemen's Land. The plan of purchasing (at a dear rate too) from each other is doing nothing.

30th. — I took Mackie down the river in my boat this morning at day-light, and returned before my people were stirring, and then commenced hoeing my Indian corn with a three-pronged hoe.

Dec. 1st. — For the first time during a long period my people are employed in labour at the house, and thatching a shed for the cow. Discovered numberless grubs at the root of the Indian corn, to which they do infinite mischief, concealing themselves by day in the ground, and marauding at night. Thermometer 72° at two p.m.

2nd. — One of our agricultural meetings was held this day, only fourteen members, out of forty-five, were present ; our discussions were interesting, Another (special) meeting is to be held after the Governor's return from King George's Sound, to consider in what form our memorial, which has not been yet forwarded, should be put.

I exhibited a sample of turnips in a garden at the York settlement, was present at the admission of three new mem-bers, and dined with the society at our head inn on a good dinner with a pint of wine — bill five shillings.

4th. — On the morning of this day I came to Mr. B., a new settler, in time for family worship, and in the evening went to Mr. W.'s, where we had a clergyman for the evening service.

I have just heard of a tree which is at Fremantle, bearing fruit which answers for preserves and pies ; it is said to resemble an apple, with a thick pulp and rough kernel. Hayrick completely finished. Our wheat was cut during my absence ; it was a small patch, but yielded well, and would have been admirable, but for the trespasses of cows and pigs ; indeed, there was more on this patch in tlie garden than on the two acres, to which the pigs unfortunately found their way, and where they spent many of their leisure hours, while we thought they were at home. There is, however, excellent wheat this season in the colony. Would that I had some one interested in my welfare to assist me here ! my men are careless of every thing not directly relating to their own advantage. I cannot well attend to gardening, farming, fishing, hunting, grazing, fencing, building, boating, exploring, and marketing.

After the expiration of the time which my servants have to remain with me, I should be glad to have others bound for five years, and would advance their passage money, giving them £5 a year with clothes and diet, or £10 a year without clothing ; but retaining in my hands their wages until the passage money be cleared, and with a contract that their servitude should continue until this debt be fully discharged — a bonus of two glasses of rum per day. Mr. B. is advancing the passage money to servants, and giving £10 for the first year, and £40 for each of the two next ; repaying himself the money advanced. I want a carpenter sadly, but must wait until I become (if ever) rich enough to employ one; until then, I must make my own doors and window shutters, be they ever so rude.

On the lower part of my meadow flat there is a hollow, with water in it during winter ; it is now dry from evaporation, and become a rich compost, which I have dug up and planted with potatoes.

6th. — The young sow has six young ones : I have now twenty-two, old and young ; and all, except one, are the offspring of the sow which I bought out of the Cleopatra, besides six which I sold.


If you have not written by the mail which is at Sydney, how I shall be disappointed ! Always recollect that mails are made up for this, periodically, and sent via Sydney, the Cape, or India, far more frequently than by direct conveyance, If you wish lo send a package (shoes, for instance), you must send it direct : post pay your letters to London, whence they will be forwarded at a very cheap rate. I still am of opinion that O. would do well here ; the way is now smoothed for him, and a well-managed dairy would yield him ample means of livelihood. He should purchase cows at the Cape. This day I got £3 for my Cape sheep ; at Van Diemen's Land one could be purchased for 5s., and at the Cape (fat) for 6s.

7th. — Great visitings among the neighbouring servants ; seven or eight of them patrolling about ; and all this is sure to end in drunkenness and mischief — they talk of forming a club! They have too much control over their masters already ; and club-law would be a terrible exercise and increase of their power.

The indefatigable little warbler, or razor-grinder, is singing its sweet notes at nine o'clock p.m., by beautiful moonlight ; it is a very fearless little bird, associating with all the farm and domestic animals, watching attentively for flies, at which it springs with unerring aim, twittering out every now and then, by way of interlude or for the sake of good digestion, some of its sweetest notes.

9th. — Had a harvest-home, or churn, as it is here termed, this roasting day — I fear there is little butter in the churn for me. I shall have nearly as much produce from about twenty square yards in the garden, as from the tillage farm of two acres. One of our most experienced farmers has assured me, that it will not answer to cultivate on an extended scale, under the existing circumstances of the colony, from the dearness of labour, &c. : three acres altogether, will be the maximum of my tillage. Summer is our worst season, as vegetation on the dry grounds is then at a stand, and there are few facilities for irrigation. Nine months of our year are like your best summers, and the remaining three are very warm ; a land breeze, however, springs up every night at about ten o'clock, and blows very fresh, making a grand roaring in the trees. Thermometer now (nine o'clock P.M.) 84°— was 94° at two.

10th. — Pigs, pigs, pigs — an addition of six — total, twenty-eight.

I wrote shortly after my arrival here, recommending a speculation in slop clothes, Irish pork, and butter ; if a cargo of it had arrived here about or before this time, it would have been very profitable to the owners. There has been no butter — any price could have been got for it. Pork, as I have already stated, has been selling for ten guineas per barrel ; porter would also sell well.

I am sorry to state that two men were drowned in Melville Water last Tuesday, in consequence of intoxication — the bane of this country as of Ireland. I have been threshing to-day with new (patent it ought to be) machinery, viz., the bars of a ladder. The grain is good, but the head is small. More pigs to-day — total 32. They are a very troublesome stock.

Killed two cockatoos at one shot, and caught a small turtle. After these exploits, I tried to make a door, and with much labour planed one side, and shall put it up in this state to- morrow. Time is so precious that I cannot afford any portion of it for planing the other side.

I find that a surprising number of persons on their way to this settlement have been frightened out of their intentions by the people at the Cape, who seem to act as if they thought every injury wliich they inflict on us were a positive gain to themselves. Some people (whom we are much better with- out) have left this place without giving it a fair trial. We want quiet, hard-working, practical people — not gentlemen, nor adventurers : by gentlemen, here, I mean those who consider themselves degraded by pursuing any useful occupation. Let such stay away : better to leave their room than their company.

I have finished my door, and actually ornamented the show side with the aid of a bead-plane ; and ground some of my own wheat in my steel mill, which grinds well and fast. I had been apprehensive on finding my store of flour so low, but now I have as much as relieves me from all danger of want. Flour is at present 7d. per pound ; but the usual price, when there is a supply from the Cape or Van Diemen's Land, is 3d. per pound.

Towards this morning I was aroused by the sound of a boat, in which E arrived, on his way to Mr. Tanner's to parade the soldiers there, in order to recognise some who had committed an outrage. He and Mr. Dale took beds with me. This making of beds must surprise you, — I managed it easily enough ; having three matrasses, we have only to stretch one for each guest on the floor, with sheets and blankets. The colonising system (like "misery,") "makes us acquainted with strange beds" as well as with "strange bed-fellows."

I could not hang my new door —reason why — the door- posts are crooked. I shall have sad and warm work at them. Ther. 90°.

How different my rural life from that which I had imagined it would be ! Instead of being demi-savage and romantic, it is civilised (often ceremonious) and uniform; with less of privation and much more of occupation for mind and body than I had anticipated. But where are all the flocks and herds ? — Where ?

It cost me £32 to get a cow and a calf, and the cow is dead. Sheep are £3 each ; so that it would take all my capital to possess a flock — even less than the patriarch's — such as would afford the keeping of a shepherd. From one sow I have had thirty pigs — the only stock which has multiplied with me — and a much larger number I could not support. It is easy for a person at home to say, "You can keep pigs and poultry without limit as to numbers," but they must be fed in summer at considerable expense ; and as our fences are generally bad, the pigs eat down the wheat and destroy the gardens, and the poultry soon devour their own value in grain. These are among our checks ; however, I am giving you the worst side of the picture — the features of the reversed one you will trace through the sketching lines of my whole journal.

The truth is, I hate high colouring in these cases, which may mislead, and therefore strip the portraiture of all ornament and exhibit the naked truth, "which when unadorned is adorned the most." An awful responsibility would rest on me were I to hold out inducements to any one, when success depends so much on the taste, physical adaptation, amount of capital, &c It costs a considerable sum to bring out and to support the emigrant until he can support himself. Land must be purchased — if from government at 5s. an acre ; and if servants be brought out, the expense of maintaining them is considerable ; and what can a solitary individual do if he do not bring them ? Two or three stout hard-working brothers, or a father with a family able and willing to assist, with some moTiey, are sure of establisliing themselves in rough comfort and plenty in a very few years ; but there must be no squeamishness as to fare. In short, it is a plodding, matter-of-fact, and hard-working sort of life, until you become settled ; with very little of the romance and adventure about it which is so tempting and alluring to your minds. Yet it has its pleasures too ; but people should prepare themselves for what it really is, and therefore I show more of the unfavourable side, and expose the truth in its most undisguised and un- flattering state, leaving people to draw their own inferences. There is one point which I recommend to every one coming out ; namely, the purchase of cattle from the Cape. Good ponies are very reasonable there also.

M'Dermott's stock has long since arrived. His wooden houses were rather late, but some have been sold for £100. He lives about three miles from this, and breakfasted with me this morning.

The excellent crops that have been harvested this year (equalling if not exceeding the best in England), have inspired us all with confidence ; but, from want of labourers and cattle, few have cultivated extensively. Mr. Brockman has had fifteen acres in culture — a great quantity, under existing circumstances — and he as well as others have happily experienced that the sandy soil, at first despised, produces as well as stiff clay soil, and with infinitely less trouble. The present prices of hay are £5 here ; £8 at Perth ; and £10 per ton at Fremantle.

You will have had, before this reaches you, all the information you sought as to the Avon Kiver. I fear that there is no large navigable river on this coast, as far as it extends. The Swan serves the purpose of a canal, but the frequent flats are obstacles ; these, however, may be deepened or avoided at some future day.

* * * * *

Jan. 6th, 1832. — This has been a busy day with me. I have put up the posts and wall-plates of a house, 23 feet by 10 — 6 feet in height, and shall fit up an additional apartment for servants. Nor is my domicile without ornament, as I have made a portico of black-boy sticks, in a very neat yet strong manner, arranged like wicker work, and then plaistered over with stiff well-tempered clay.

I have been calculating the expense of my little establishment since I occupied it. It is nearly as follows :

14 cwt. of meal - - - - - £50
1 ton of flour 30
Rum 10
Wine 6
Rice 6
Sugar 5
Coffee 4
Tea 1 10
Oil 3
Soap 2
Wages and clothes for servants 36
Clothes for myself 20

* I have here omitted a great part of the Journal as comparatively uninteresting, — Editor.

After adding wages and the value of garden vegetables, you may see the present expenses of a colonist here.

8th. — Dined with Mr. Mackie. His grant, with the new house and garden, are the pride of the colony. The house is prettily situated on a gently-rounded eminence, rising from an extensive meadow flat, on the bank of the river. The house, when completed, is to be flat-roofed with boards, pitched and caulked like the deck of a ship. He has great quantities of melons and cucumbers, which probably produce as much money as pays his steward's salary — £52 a-year — besides rations for a family of eleven persons. From the front of my little crib I can see into his hall door.

10th. — Opened my chest of books, which has been at Fremantle since my arrival ; they are in better condition than I could have expected after so long and close a confinement, and looked very like, and, by association of thoughts, reminded me of old friends. The collection of English grasses which Furlong gave me is a source of great amusement to me. The botanists here say, that though our grasses resemble many of the British sorts, there is some slight characteristic difference in each ; but such is the similarity, that I am justified in asserting that there are here several species of Poa, and we have the Holcus, and Avena. Thirty species have been enumerated on no very extensive space.

11th. — I have heard that a vessel was about to sail for Van Diemen's Land and take a mail, as I sat down beside a party who were talking despondingly about the want of flour, and of cattle, neglect of servants, and many other d6sagremens of this kind.

I have frequently spoken of the climate. I think it the very beau idéal of one. We are now in the hottest month of the year, enjoying a delicious breeze, with the thermometer at 77°. It is true that when there is neither breeze nor cloud to darken the sun's noontide rays, the heat is very great ; but this is not often the case. Since March last, the imagination could not conceive more delicious weather, the time of year considered. The Egyptian has arrived, and brought tidings of joy to many a family here, and many a beloved member has joined the emigrés who had preceded them ; but where, oh where are my friends ? I often ask myself, am I ever to see you again ? — Farewell !

G. F. M.



Jan. 12, 1832.

OUR colonists are complaining that their friends and connexions at home have made so little exertion to assist them through the first difficulties. It might have been obvious that an infant settlement could not altogether support itself independently of extrinsic aid. Vessels have not been encouraged to come here, and those that have arrived have brought scarcely any provisions. We have at present no more than a few weeks' supply of flour, and are totally without rice, maize, peas, barley, or oats : we may have as much wheat as may serve for six weeks, with great economy ; but it is already selling at 25s. per bushel. Vessels have been expected daily for the last three months, and we are now sick of hope. We have reason, however, to calculate on the arrival of the Sulphur, from Hobart Town, with provisions, before the end of the month : the David Owen and Swan River packets are daily expected from Hobart Town. The state of the colony at present is dispiriting ; but we hope it will not long continue so, and that we shall rise above every difficulty and discouragement. A helping hand is now greatly needed; and a little extra aid from the Government would enable us to procure working cattle, milch cows, and sheep, and would place us beyond the chance of poverty or privation. This is a country where there are few natural productions that are edible, but it produces crops inferior to none in England, and with less trouble : indeed the soil is capable of producing any crop, and its herbage is abundant for the support of cattle. I should not, perhaps, have touched on this point, had it not been the subject of conversation in a company which I have just left ; and, indeed, this point is the general topic of conversation in the colony at present. I fear my letter is calculated to give you an unfavourable impression of our situation; yet I am convinced, when the Government at home shall have been fully informed of our circumstances, that we shall receive such assistance as it will be consistent with good policy to grant.

21st. — I have been about fourteen months in the colony, and what a change everywhere here ! How much has been effected by the unassisted, unencouraged industry of a few individual settlers ! We are all eating the produce of our own fields, and how sweet our bread ! This is made in the simplest way — we grind the wheat in our own hand-mills, troubling neither flour-dressers nor millers, for a reason we have.

I had written thus far, and was going to bed, when a voice hailed for a boat from the other side of the river ; it was that of Captain Shaw, bringing the news from Perth that vessels had arrived.

22nd.— Sat up a great portion of last night reading all your letters, papers, &c. I regret that I did not keep a list of those which I sent to you, so as to refer to them, in the diplomatic way, by numbers, 1, 2, 3, &c. : I could then ascertain whether any had miscarried in transitu : I have let no opportunity pass without sending a letter of some sort, no matter how hurried.

A small vessel (the Eagle) has arrived from Hobart Town ; others are daily expected. By this vessel I have received your letters from the 16th to the 21st July, 1830. They are inexpressible cheering to my feelings, as they show the deep interest which all my friends take in my welfare. Before this time you must have received many from me, descriptive of myself, my feelings, and real situation, without the slightest attempt at colour, ornament, concealment, or disguise. This I promised, this I have performed hitherto, and every day gives me better hopes and prospects ; however, be the case as it may, I shall continue as I have begun. If any of my letters breathe a spirit of impatience, or betray any lurking anxiety or feverish discontent, pray forgive me, and attribute these expressions to the real cause — the natural anxiety of one separated totally from his relatives, the irritability of suspense, and the honest intention of showing myself to you just as I am. It would be very easy for me to dress up a tempting account : there are materials enough for the ground work ; but as I have no object to obtain, and no purpose to serve, but to inform you truly and minutely how I live and what I see (so that you may almost live with me, as it were, from day to day), I prefer giving you this unembellished journal. Many of those things which came from England by the David Owen have been left at Hobart Town. Mr. Tanner has been greatly disappointed on this account. By the way, I mentioned in a former letter that his brother-in-law, Mr. Viveash, had proceeded to Van Diemen's Land ; letters have been received from him which tend to prove that that boasted place is not a Paradise. Many people hurried away there without giving our colony a fair trial, or perhaps desirous of postponing the day of industrious labour as long as possible. Mr. Viveash is not one of these ; he possesses energy and capital ; yet, with these advantages, he writes that " if he were not so shackled by the purchase of the farm which he holds within ninety miles of Hobart Town, he would leave it and come here." He is seven miles from the nearest visiting neighbour, and he cannot send his flocks out without four men to protect them ; — neither do they multiply as he ex- pected, owing to mismanagement, casualties, or theft ; and the climate he describes as very variable. The thermometer is sometimes 125° in the day, and only 45° at night, and the distance inland very inconvenient. It has quite reconciled Mrs. Tanner to this place, where the society is good and the climate delightful.

23rd — Would you believe that I have a monkey in my room constantly, and placed on my table at dinner time ! ! ! This name is given here to a sort of earthen jar for holding water, and which from its porousness keeps the water cool by evaporation. * * I was going to bed when a soldier was sent to say that Captain Irwin, Mr. Lewis, Mr. Peel, and his son, had arrived at Captain Irwin's, on the other side of the river, and to know how many beds I could make up. I was able to accommodate two of the party.

25th. — The Messrs. Burgess were here this evening on their way from Fremantle ; their friends have sent them pork, beef, flour, rum, cheese, butter, and other things ; the pork they are selling at eight or nine guineas a cask ; flour at 10d. per lb. ; cheese, 2s. 6d. per lb. ; if a venture had been sent, as I recommended, it would have arrived probably at this time.

A sensation of despondency sometimes comes over me when I think of these high prices, the expense of clothing, and the high wages for servants, who, however, give me to understand, that if at the expiration of their stipulated period of service, I give them as much as another master would do, they will do me the honour of remaining with me ! However, perhaps, by that time you may lie able to supply me with a fresh importation. I should willingly pay the expenses of passage, &c. ; but it will be time enough at the end of this year to arrange this matter.

27th. — What have I been doing all day ? Sowing seeds of garden vegetables, grinding wheat, and keeping up fires to burn fallen trees.

It may appear a trifling job to burn a tree, but it is not so. I have been ten days trying to burn one, and only a third part is consumed yet.

On Monday evening I left my place with a fishing basket on my back to go to Perth by Guildford, but lost my way, but reached the latter place an hour after sunset. Next day called on the Meareses, and helped to put up their grand piano in its place, and was promised some music for my pains. Stayed to dine. In the evening intelligence came of the: Governor's arrival at Fremantle, whither I proceeded next day. Made some purchases at Fremantle. Paid £7 10s. for a cask of pork to Mr. Burgess.*

* Another considerable gap (which is the English word for hiatus, as I understand) occurs here. — Editor.

Feb. 17th. — I was on this day sworn in a commissioner of the civil court in Western Australia, which will open early next month. This court is almost without limit as to jurisdiction ; juries may be called for, if the parties will pay them ; an appeal lies to the Governor and Council in cases beyond a certain amount ; short forms to be used, with few technicalities. I have had rare work cutting down long declartions into small compass, making forms of conveyance, leases, and mortages, pruning of all redundancies, and reducing all to an alarmingly small size. You remember I had rather a taste for this, and 1 have entered on my occupation con amore.

21th. — Busy, in Perth, making arrangements with respect to the court ; and I have bought a town allotment in Perth, with a house partly built on it. The situation (on the river) is beautiful, and about £20 will be sufficient outlay for putting the house into repair : it will be valuable. The allotment is thirty-three yards wide, and ninety-nine yards long.

It cost £11 5s. 6d. to fence the front, with the regulation-post and rail fence made of mahogany ; the railing at the sides is of split wood. Bricks are to be had at £2 4s. a thousand, not far from the spot, and the charge for drawing them in bullock-carts is seven shillings an hour.

I left Perth on Saturday, and went to Guildford : the heat most oppressive. Remained at Whitefield's all night, and reached home this morning. For two days past the weather has been very warm, thermometer about 125° — this is the greatest heat we have felt this year ; yet the mornings are already cool. I have before told you that our neighbour, Mr. Brockman, has had the misfortune to have his house burned down by accident ; all his furniture, clothes, plate, linen, &c., are destroyed. The conflagration took place about ten days ago, but he has a small house repaired again for his accommodation.

March 4th. — Prices have risen to a very serious height just now, and there is consequently a great outcry in the colony. Some of our friends appear to think that we are so well off that we cannot possibly want for any thing ; and others probably imagine we are so far gone, that it is hopeless to send us anything ; so we fall between the two stools. Can you picture to yourself a new colony ? You cannot. It is impossible for one, in the midst of the luxurious refinements of the old country, to conceive the actual state of a new one. Not that there are intolerable hardships, nor even great privations ; but people's fancy will play them the trick of supposing that from throwing seed into the ground we can ensure a crop without any other trouble ; whereas our culture, and all oun operations, are most laborious : my two men have been now nearly a month looking for thatch and putting it on two houses, which are not near finished yet. As to breaking ground, it is easy when you have cattle ; but, generally speaking, we are not so provided. It occupies a man twenty days to break up an acre with a hoe, from its wild state, though this could be done easily with cattle. But, as I have already observed, we have few of them, and the neighbouring colonies will not send them, either from jealousy or fear ; and individually we cannot afford to charter vessels and import them, and we are not yet strong enough to form a company. What can we then do ? — two or three hundred head of cattle, and two or three thousand sheep, would be purchased by us, if they were sent by Government at a fair rate ; and this would establish the colony.

Last night the weather was so calm and warm that I left the windows open on going to bed ; but, after some time there sprang up such a cool and strong breeze that I was obliged to close them ; one excellence of our climate is, that there is none of that enervating heat at night which exhausts the constitution in India.

9th. — I have had two court days : twenty cases for trial.

I5th. — I sent a few lines to you by Hobart Town, in a small colonial vessel which left this about a fortnight since, for the purpose of procuring a supply of wheat and flour, of which we have been in great need. An unfounded rumour originating from interested motives, has affected us seriously. At Hobart Town, a report circulated that we had been abundantly supplied by two vessels from Calcutta ; in consequence, no supplies were shipped ; and the captain of the Sulphur, which was sent there to procure provisions, seems to have acted on the same report. The effect is, that we have been in great want of flour and wheat, and are exceedingly impatient for the arrival of vessels, many an anxious eye straining its gaze over the ocean.

16th. — The Helen schooner has arrived from Hobart Town on her way to the Mauritius : she can spare us twenty tons of flour, some wheat, and a few potatoes. You see some of the difficulties we labour under here at present ; yet we shall shortly have means established to provide regular supplies but in the meantime our markets must be liable to great fluctuations. "We daily look out for the Sulphur, Cornwallis, Nimrod, and the Jolly Rambler ; most of these may be here in one or two months, and then we shall have abundance,

I have been so occupied for some time, that I have been unable to keep up my journal, even irregularly. I shall try to recal some of the events that have occurred. My sitting days in the court have been Tuesdays and Fridays in each week — there were many arrangements to be made. I generally come up here on Saturday, and return on Monday ; and I have to walk the distance, which is nearly sixteen miles : the hours of sitting in the court are from ten to five. I have already sat four times : the average number of cases has been about fifteen each day ; some of them trifling, and some important and complicated ; the pleadings are oral ; the case is heard in a week after its commencement ; judgment is given immediately ; the costs of court in each case are very trifling ; and a man may have his case tried, judgment given, and execution and sale within a fortnight. No jury is empannelled in any case under £100, and then only if the parties choose to pay for it.

I have been this day busy getting trees burned, and ground prepared for a wheat crop. I shall have almost three acres broken up and under crop ; but I have not yet procured horses or oxen for my plough. We have been proposing to the Governor to import cattle, and we would guarantee him ; he is well inclined to assist us, but the means allowed him are very limited.

21st. — I was setting fire to some stumps of trees to-day, when a spark communicating with the grass, in a few minutes the whole scene appeared one sheet of living fire. It was in the heat of the day, and my exertions to extinguish it and to prevent its progress to the dry grass near the house were quite exhausting.

The vessel which has come from Van Diemen's Land has not delivered my letters yet : the impression is, that there are some on board which are suppressed until her cargo of flour is disposed of at high prices — to such tricks are we subject ; and every ejffort to keep us back seems to be resorted to by the people of that colony.

You speak of nets and other things arriving by Van Diemen's Land, or Sidney. I have not received them, and prob- ably never shall. * * * * »

April 4:th. — I got home a thousand bricks to-day, made on Mr. Bull's grant, near this, for there was not time to make them on my own. I pay 30s. per thousand for them. Fished a long time to-day without success ; yet I saw fish in plenty, but they would not take the bait ; and I have no nets. Went out with my gun to look for cockatoos, being particularly anxious for fresh meat ; but the birds were most wary, and I could not get near them. No two birds can be more different in outward appearance than crows and cockatoos, yet in their habits they are similar ; they go in flocks, call and give the alarm to one another, and fly off with a noise equal to that of a rookery.

5th. — The weather is now very delightful, thermometer 80°; spring is already commencing — and remember that our winter and spring are nearly the same. I heard the song of a sweet bird to-day : it was new to me. Will the season have ita wonted influence on me ? It is but within a very few years that I have been engaged in life as a man, and already I am set down as an old one.

April 7th. — Nine cases yesterday : one was for £230.

I was much amused by two Lascars, who came into the court for justice — I have not time to give you a full detail of their case ; it ended by one calling upon the other to take his oath, which he did by taking off his cap and speaking within it : " Me speak truth, my cap — all same me speak truth, my head — all same me speak truth; my body - me speak truth, my cap — me have my head cut off me speak lie, my cap— me go to ." Here he made a low salute, and pointed down — I looked at the other : " Are you satisfied ? " — he made a low obeisance, and both walked off together, having settled their lawsuit to their mutual satisfaction.

11th. — I lose all spirit when writing to you, and feel that my letters are lapsing into cold formality or peevish querulousness; but my situation must excuse me, for where is the overflowing of affection, the outpouring of unrestrained communication ? where the wonted relation of domestic anecdotes, identifying our feelings in mutual sympathy ? How my heart yearns after home!

"The sweet hours of social converse and instructive ease."

I am here an isolated man ! without parent, brother, sister, or friends, except those of yesterday — and in them I am most fortunate : how my heart pants at times for some old friend or companion, and some dear familiar face ! how devotedly could I attach myself to such an one ! But you in the midst of society, cannot understand this feeling of nostalgia, and may smile at it. I used to smile too, most incredulously, when I read of such a thing — of the poor Swiss, for instance, dying from a fatal longing after his beloved mountain home,

"Et moriens dulces reminiscitur Argos."

Who has not known and tasted the bitterness of this sensation, the throbbing, the aching, the hopeless despondency of the heart ? May you never experience this feeling ! for it is one which requires the indifference of a Stoic, or the patient resignation of a Christian, to endure without repining. I endeavour to obtain the latter quality, but fall lamentably short of it, and therefore apply myself to laborious occupation, as a diversion of the thoughts from painful contemplation. Did I hear from you regularly — were I thus made sure of your remembrance and your sympathies, my mind would be more at ease, or at least sustained by hope ; but now nearly a year* has gone by without any intelligeuce from home. I had hoped it would have been otherwise ; and I had reason to hope ; and I will still cling to hope, "even against hope."

* Accidents had detained letters from his affectionate family.

Crash ! crash ! a tree fallen ! — I have burned down three to-day, and expect to have two more consumed to-night.

12th. — On referring to the date of my last letter, you will find that we were uneasy about the scarcity of provisions; but I have this day heard of the arrival of the Merope from Van Diemen's Land, with flour and twenty barrels of pork ; and with, what is still more cheering to me, a settler of some importance — Major Nairn. The circumstance of his coming here is powerfully in favour of the superiority of this colony to that in Van Diemen's Land ; for he had been a long time there, had come here, liked the place, and bought a lot of land, and then gone back to Van Diemen's Land for stock — and here he is to live among us.

It is now approaching to our winter ; yet the weather is so mild that I am sitting without a coat, and in my undress ; have been out all day burning the stumps of trees, so no wonder for me to doff the outer garment ; the thermometer standing at 80°. James and John have learned to use the cross-cut saw, which enabled me to clear away, with the subsequent aid of fire, the gum trees, which are extremely hard and heavy, not unlike sycamore in colour, but much more ponderous.

l^th. — My thermometer has fallen this mornmg to 52°. I have been digging out potatoes — a miserable crop; but no wonder, for the seed was very wretched, and planted in a very dry spot, which will not answer in our dry summer. Thermometer up again to 62° ; lovely moonlight night.

Two pigs smothered by their mamma's awkwardness ; and Letty came in like the Trojan of old, "so dull, so dead in look, so woe-begone, and would have told me — " all my pork was out. But it is no joking matter, nor am I in a humour for heroics now, for it is a sad truth that my last bit of pork was boiled this day.

Oh, for some of that which you have in Dublin for twenty shillings per cwt. ! You, master Joseph, would think salt pork very sorry food, especially without cabbage, or any other vegetable; but we colonists think it sumptuous at this present moment. I am breakfasting on bread and coffee, without butter, milk, or eggs — but next year I hope to fare better : and as to the dinner of to-day, I shot three pigeons before breakfast. Our usual hour for dinner is one, a very natural time for eating. An additional blanket at night is now acceptable, although by day the thermometer is 72° ; and woollen clothes in the morning and the evening are agreeable.

23rd — Here has been an hiatus — valde deflendus — of a week ; but I have had nothing to enter in the log, except a walk to Guildford and Perth, where I had some trouble- some cases to settle in court. On Wednesday I purchased a cask of pork (price £10), and three bushels of wheat, and saw Major Nairn, who is in love with the climate, and on Saturday evening walked to Guildford, carrying not only my fishing-basket, but two hundred cabbage plants, which I got from the Governor's gardener : this morning I had them planted, and have just made up my mind to cover the two or three acres of wheat which I am about to sow by the spade and shovel, as I have no cattle for the plough; — apropos of cattle : for the first time, I have killed a young pig for my own table ; and this, let me tell you, is an extravagant dish here.

2%th. — Mr. Brockman has made an exchange with me : I gave him three young pigs for eight bushels of wheat, worth fifteen shillings a bushel, which will afford me an ample supply of seed. A sad misfortune has occurred to me : my thermometer has fallen, and is irreparably broken to pieces ! It was a great comfort to me ; I looked at it every night since I left Ireland, when I was noting my journal. I cannot get one here at any price, and beg that you will send me one.

28th. — Nothing surprises me more than that we never baked our own bread at home. Nothing is more simple. The produce of an acre of wheat would supply your family for a year. A hand-mill, sieve, and metal oven are the only machinery required. There is no mystery in baking, where fraudulent adulterations are not particularly desired.

29th. — Read a sermon of Burder's this day ; and dined on four crows and a quail. The latter flew across the river from a fire which was spreading near it, and took refuge almost at my door, reversing the adage, and coming out of the fire into the frying-pan. It was a pity to shoot it, but . I drank tea in the evening with Mrs. Tanner, and promised to dine on Monday with Mr. and Mrs. Brown, who have informed me that Captain B., of the Merope, who has a farm in Van Diemen's Land, wishes to have a large grant on the Swan River — does not this promise much in favour of our colony?

30th. — I have contrived to mend the broken stock of a gun, and planted three hundred cabbage plants. Remarked at night that the cat lay with her back to the fire — a sure indication of storm; shut up my windows close, in the anticipation of it, and went to bed early.

May 1st. — The cat was right — dark morning, and much rain during the past night. Planted some potatoes in drills, and wished for some good seed of the apple species. Compelled by the rain to give up work, and fortunately shot a crow for dinner ; this stewed in soup with a tomato, is an excellent mess. Rain, rain, all day, which put me in mind of Ireland ; were it not for its effects on the land, I should never desire to see a drop of it, greatly preferring the driest weather, however hot.

Young Burgess called on me in the evening, after a hunting expedition, with an emu on his shoulder — a huge animal. He gave me a foot, which I intend to send to you : the dimensions of this foot are — from the heel to the nail of the middle toe, eight inches ; from the knee joint to the toe, twenty-two inches : it is a turkey's foot in shape, greatly magnified : the bird stands, I am told, eight feet high. I intend to try my own luck in emu hunting on Thursday, if the weather prove fine.

2nd. — Another day of frequent but not continued rain, accompanied with strong wind from the N.W. In the evening I sauntered out with my gun towards the hills ; saw two kangaroos at a distance, and was brought to a stand by a low sound, which I conjectured to have been the voice of natives, but happily discovered that it proceeded from large frogs, which now issue from their hiding places and utter their "dulcet sounds."

"Et veterem in limo Ranae cecinere querelam."

3rd. — Went to the hills in rear of my place in search of kangaroos with Mr. Burgess, jun. ; we had six dogs, and traversed a very picturesque glen, through which Colonel Latour's Brook, as it is called, winds its way.

This glen diverges into three distinct branches, apparently of no great extent ; but in this we may be mistaken, for these valleys frequently contract in some places and expand again beyond expectation. The sides of those we have just seen are very precipitous, and formed of granite, which in huge masses covers the bottom ; pools are here and there, but no continuous streams, I should suppose, in summer. The result of our sport was, one kangaroo, weighing thirty pounds, and an eagle. We hung the kangaroo on a tree until our return, and carried it home on our backs in rather a droll way. Fancy the legs round your neck, the thighs resting on your shoulders, the head dangling at your heels, and the tail bobbing over your head. We also caught a young kangaroo rat, which I have still alive ; it is soon a tame thing, very like a kangaroo in miniature; but with a head larger in proportion, and with hair or fur of coarser texture. We saw several old huts of natives; eleven in one place, seven in another, with fur and feathers strewed upon the ground.

4th. — The storm has entirely abated, and the day is mild. One of the peculiarities of this climate is said to be, that rainy weather never continues longer than three days in suc- cession ; it was so within my own experience last year.

In the evening sowed a little wheat in the garden where potatoes had been, and as a reward for my labour dined on steaks of kangaroo, and excellent soup made of the fore- quarter and tail, and afterwards enjoyed vocal music — I mean a frog concert.

5th. — Mr. Burgess tells me that he has purchased two bullocks at £25 each, and advises me to buy one ; but as I have only two acres more to plough, it is better to wait until the next season. Mr. Tanner has purchased eighty-two sheep at 33s. each ; they are considered worth the money, though in very poor condition after their voyage from Van Diemen's Land. I myself offered in vain £50 the other day for seventeen merinos.

10th, — Nothing very particular or new has occurred within these few days past, excepting a third attempt at a newspaper here in manuscript. It is a rare specimen, and somewhat costly, price 3s. 6d. I ought to have before recorded the shooting of bitterns, pigeons, and parrots, in a hunting excursion with Mackie and Stone, on the margin of a lake which is ten miles in circumference, where we saw swans and ducks in abundance, but could not get near them. However, we had a dinner for six shillings each, of wild ducks, besides pudding and cheese, with three bottles of wine, at a house of entertainment near the lakes. This sounds grandly. But as a set-off, there are but fifteen casks of pork in the whole colony, and they ask £14 for one of them. You should send pork from Ireland ; it can never come at an unseasonable time.

We have had great discussions about the establishment of a bank; a prospectus has been submitted to the Governor, soliciting an advance of £5000 on security of twenty-five solvent and responsible individuals ; but his Excellency has not the power of meeting our wants and wishes, and suggests the expediency of raising the required capital by subscription among the colonists. There is a good opening here for the application of capital by moneyed men, who would receive very high discount. If the Governor could advance money to settlers on discount of bills at 5 per cent., the colony would be served in an inconceivable degree, settlers being now obliged to borrow, sometimes at 25 per cent, interest!

12th. — Great excitement has prevailed among us this morning, a loud report having been heard at a very early hour, supposed to come from a ship hourly expected with supplies. Pshaw ! it was only the accidental blowing up of a flask of gunpowder.

Some of the offices which Government had built at Perth are to be sold to settlers, and more commodious ones built at Perth, with a church, forming nearly one side of a handsome square. We are getting on.

15th. — The men have finished the wheat sowing, dibbling it in with forks, and I have shot a whole brood of teal on the river. The Cornwallis has arrived with wheat, flour, potatoes, and eighty-five sheep ; the latter engaged by Mr. M'Dermot at 25s. a head. I have offered to give two bullocks.

18th. — This has been a day of unintermitting rain, and the swelling of the river indicates a storm from the N.W. Probably the wind impels the sea into the river before we perceive its force ; and thus the rising of the water, which appears to us as the prognostic of the N.W. wind, is in reality but the effect. Being prevented by the badness of the weather from going out, I have been engaged in building occupations within, and amused at the gambol motions of a little kangaroo, which I took the other day out of its mother's pouch as she was running from a hunting party. The poor little thing attaches itself to my foot, and hops along with me wherever I go ; "passibiis cequis ; " its bed is in my old cloth slipper. Apropos, an arrival of shoes from Van Diemen's Land.

2.1st. — A passing traveller called out this morning that there was a turkey in the plain above. Such a hint was not to be despised; three of us accordingly sallied out, just in time to see the bird flying away. We followed, and saw some natives, who disappeared on our approach. We deemed it prudent not to be too curious, being in such matters pretty much of Falstaff's mind, that " the better part of valour is discretion." After this unsuccessful sally, I worked in the garden very busily, sowing turnips in drills, and planted fifty-six pounds of potatoes. At times I feel very happy here; and if it were not from the want of my own family and old companions, I should be always so, as my occupations are of a healthy, happy, and innocent nature.

23rd. — What have been the events of this day ? Robert was making a window frame,

"Nunc has, nunc, illas mutat, reficitque fenestras."

Johnny whitewashing, and James burning weeds. I got an acre of wheat harrowed in by a friend's bullocks, not like the " Beatus ille " of Horace, who,

" Patema rura bobus exercet suis ; "

and then went kangaroo hunting, without success, and drank tea with Mr. Burgess, who gave me a young snake, which is now in the bottle of preserves.

24th. — Gardening. Bathed twice in the river to cool myself in the midst of the terrible winter. Robert declares his inability to finish the window sashes. I have now two acres of wheat, — of oats, and nearly an acre in garden under turnips, cabbages, rape, potatoes, carrots, borecole, radishes, spinach, peas, lettuces, mustard, onions, tomatos, and almonds, and hope to have another acre of wheat and one of barley, besides some portion under maize and millet, at an expense of £3 per acre for breaking up the land with hired teams, but more probably I shall substitute my own young cattle. Mr. T, was with me this day; he seems to think that we should send home a strong memorial with respect to our state, and that the charge of 5s. an acre on this colony, while in its infant state, is too heavy a drag on its exertions. This settlement is, however, rapidly rising in strength and comfort. Hotels and lodgings are to be had — shelter and food for the stranger. This was not the case at first with our settlers, who suffered severe privations, and who in many cases expended their strength and substance in preparation for others, who are now reaping the benefit of the first sacrifices.

Some of our colonists, who have returned from Launceston, report that town to be inferior to Fremantle, which has undoubtedly improved considerably, comfortable stone houses rising in all directions. Water has been found in abundance, and the sand is discovered to possess most fertilising properties. It seems to rest upon a stratum of limestone at no great depth, and this substance, though until lately despised, is now highly valued. An hotel has been built, and the accommodations which it affords, as to bed and board, are good, and moderate in charge.

If there were adequate capital to stock and till the soil around it, the capabilities of improvement are considerable ; and if we had the means of developing our own resources, we should undoubtedly be a flourishing colony in a few years. Even as it is, we have advanced exceedingly. Did ever a colony make such a struggle as ours has done, without extraneous assistance ? Sidney and Van Diemen's Land were aided by forced labour, and stimulated by Government expenditure ; but we have had no such support ; we have relied solely on our own efforts ; and yet under the most discouraging circumstances are prospering.

" Sperat infestis metuit secundis
Alteram sortem bene praeparatum

26th. — The ground crisped with frost in the morning ; but the temperature of the air in the succeeding part of the day delightful, like a day in September or October with you, when the sun shines clearly. It is, indeed a lovely climate ; and if we can struggle on through our first difficulties (and friends and foes sometimes bear hard against us), we shall be happy.

By the delay of the Sulphur during four months, our pockets have been prettily picked in purchasing wheat at 35s. (nay, even 40s.) a bushel, when we ought to have it had for 10s. ; and every other article dear in proportion. She was ordered to be here on the 1st of February, but has not arrived yet. Fresh meat brings 1s. 10d. per pound ; and yet in Ire- land you often want a market for your pork. If you had taken my advice about shipping off a lot of it —

Irish produce — pork, butter, cheese, and oatmeal — is always sure of a market here.

I have to tell you that my house in Perth is finished : it cost me, including the grant, above £100 ; and would bring £20 a year.

28th. — While sitting after tea with Mr. Tanner, last night, we heard firing from guns loaded with ball — for we have learned to distinguish very accurately. — An officer was with us ; and as we set out to learn the cause, a soldier came up to inform him that the barrack was attacked by fifty natives : we hurried onwards and heard much noise, but saw no natives. They had retreated ; and it is doubtful whether their advance had been with any hostile intention.

June 5th. — Worked in the garden transplanting turnips and sowing seeds. I have lost two young pigs, and have now only seventeen — one bull, three oxen, one heifer (soon to calve), and a goat. What would Robinson Crusoe have been without the latter ?

I cut down several trees, and split rails for fencing-in a cattle-pen, twenty-eight feet square ; with a thatched house, twenty-eight feet by ten feet, forming one side of it. This house, experience has taught me, is essentially necessary, as I lost my cow last winter by not having shelter for her when she calved. There is great pleasure in viewing the gradual improvement of a wilderness :

" Now 'midst the desert, fruitful fields arise,
That crown'd with tufted trees and springing com,
Like verdant isles the sable waste adorn ;
The forest wonders at the unusual grain,
And secret transports touch the conscious swain."

But we labour rather for posterity : however, so it is with every one who is the artificer of his own fortune. I can look forward to having, at no very distant period, orange groves and vineyards — and really this grant of mine is a pretty spot ; and I am quite fond of it.

Have I ever before enumerated my building and garden appendages ? — They consist of a dwelling-house, kitchen, and servants' room ; cattle-pens, sheds, pig-yards, and fowl-house ; garden and field, fenced.

The river runs within seventy or eighty yards of the house, and is yet salt ; but the frost will freshen it. We shall have in this settlement this year 435 acres under grain (last year 160), producing on an average fifteen bushels per acre ; and probably shall be soon independent of imported corn. Some lands yield abundantly ; a small patch on Captain Irwin's flat produced last year (sown in October and reaped in December) at the rate of 48s. a bushel per acre, an amazing produce, without manure or fallowing ; it was merely dug up and sown immediately after. Few lands, however, are so good: perhaps twenty bushels would be a safe average to calculate on.

15th. — The Sulphur has arrived ; the cause of the delay was the impossibility of procuring wheat — a right good reason. On Friday last my court was crowded with persons eager to hear the first cause tried before a jury in this colony : it was an action of defamation, brought by one merchant against another, and the damages were laid at £1000. Eeady written speeches were delivered, and many points were raised. The foreman was Mr. Andrews, a most respectable and wealthy merchant, and altogether the jury was of a superior grade. The trial occupied two days, and, after some deliberation, ended in a verdict for 39l. damages.

That and the succeeding day (9th) were very wet ; thunder and lightning and some heavy hail-stones accompanied the rain on Sunday, however, it cleared up again. In the evening I enjoyed a delightful walk to Guildford ; and before I left it on Monday, was the proud possessor of thirty-four Merino sheep and ten lambs, originally from the stock of Mr. Trimmer, near London, price £6o ; and I also bought a heifer for £25, and bullock-yokes, chains, &c., &c., for £3, from a gentleman who is about returning in the Sulphur. My carpenter has been most busily idle in making a small pen for cattle — this, with two tables and three stools, are all that I have from him after a month's work ! A good, handy rough kind of a carpenter, able and willing to work, is much wanted here.

I have now brought up my arrears to the present date (15th), and have to add that I was called this day to attend an inquest on the body of a man who was shot last night. It appeared that the natives had yesterday driven away some cattle, and had been tracked up the river by a party of ten colonists, who overtook them at night when asleep.

Although our people shouted out when they approached, none of the natives stirred, either from sleep or terror ; at length, one of their dogs ran out of a hut, when guns were levelled at him, three of which only went off — the contents of one unfortunately struck a man of our own party in the head, and killed him.

Principles of humanity prevented the slaughter of all the natives there ; of whom one, however, was shot in the confusion. The spears, knives, and other weapons, with bags and cloaks were taken as legitimate booty. Some of their spears and knives are barbed or serrated with bits of glass, which must wound severely. Robertson tells us, in his History of America, that the natives of that country used " lances," whose heads were armed with flint.

16th. — All my pigs are missing. I greatly fear that the natives, who killed sixteen of them in my neighbourhood, have taken away or killed mine also. To add to my probable loss, one of my lambs has been so much torn by a native dog, that I have been obliged to kill it.

18th. — Yesterday, the Governor did me the honour of calling at my place : he informed me that a settler was killed by the natives on the Canning River, on the same day that the row occurred here.

23rd. — I closed my last letter only yesterday morning in Perth, to go by the Cornwallis, and have little to note in my diary of this or the three or four preceding days, unless the killing of a lamb (the first of my flock) for my dinner, be deemed worthy of a place in it.

26th. — This day I have been at Guildford, attending a meeting of settlers to take into consideration what is to be done about the natives, whose depredations are truly alarming and disheartening. The meeting was well attended, and strong resolutions were entered into expressive of the opinion that settlers must abandon the colony, if they be not protected in their property. I had the consolation of ascertaining, what before was only problematical, that my missing pigs were wounded in the bush by the natives. This, of course, made me sympathise with my fellow-sufferers, and assist in putting certain resolutions into shape, previously to their being presented to the Governor.

27th. — On coming home I find that six of my best pigs are still missing, and that of those which have returned to me, two are wounded ; whether severely or not, Johnny, who handed me the bulletin, does not mention. Hermitage, so lately in the most perfect tranquility, is now in high excitement.

" Ardet inexcita Auson a atque immobilis ante."

My warlike propensities are so much excited that I have arranged my affairs, as the phrase goes (thinking of you to the last), and am preparing to watch and attack the natives, and kill, burn, blow up, or otherwise destroy the enemy, as may be most practicable.

28th. — Mr. Irwin and Mr. Shaw, and two soldiers accompanied me this night in a search after the natives. After a search of two hours, we found, horresco referens, the bloody HEAD — of one of the pigs — which I had intended to kill in a decent and peaceable manner myself, for my own eating, if these wicked natives had not saved me the trouble. The wretches have destroyed £3 worth of my swine's-flesh altogether ; but after all, perhaps these uninformed creatures think that they have as good a right to our swine as we have to their kangaroos ; and the reasoning, if such there be, may be plausible enough : however, if we had caught them, flagrante delicto— in the act of slaughtering them — I would not answer for the force of it.

We have very few soldiers to protect us ; and if our men be employed in watching natives, what is to become of the colony ? Our labours must then be intermitted :

" Squalent abductis arva colonis,
Et curvse rigidum falees conflantur in ensem."

We are informed that the militaiy are not to be called out except in the case of a systematic attack. But suppose this to be made at the head of the Swan, and one of the soldiers to be sent to Perth for orders; it is scarcely possible that the soldiers could come out to the point of attack within twelve hours — and what is to become in the meantime of the family attacked ? When I speak of the necessity of soldiers to protect us, I do not mean that we ourselves are in much personal danger ; but our cattle are killed and taken away, if our servants are not continually watching them. I have been congratulated on escaping from a spear thrown by the natives through the window.* This was a second attack : the first occurred twelve months ago, and I believe that I mentioned it to you. This affair, you will say, has something of personal danger in it.

* The editor has seen this spear — a very rude implement, now in possession of Mr. Joseph Moore.

July 1st. — This has been an unpleasant day (wet), and I have felt lonely. There was a severe frost yesterday morning, such as I did not expect to experience — the ice being half an inch thick in a wooden dish which was outside the house. I fear that it has injured my potatoes.

27id. — A very lovely day. Walked to Perth, where we had a meeting of the settlers, and great speechifying and discussion ; the result of which was, a resolution to request that the Governor would proceed to England as our representative, to state and explain to the home Government many points which could best be represented in a viva voce communication. His Excellency obligingly met the general wishes of the assembled settlers.

4th. — Sessions have been held and three persons sentenced to transportation.

5th. — I have this day read part of Mr. Dale's journal # of an excursion in the neighbourhood of King George's Sound, and will copy and send it to you if I have time ; but it fills upwards of two hundred pages of a journal book. My

# Subsequently published. — Editor.

opinion on reading it is, that the tract of country from this to King George's Sound, may be advantageously located when the time shall arrive (and anive it will) that this colony becomes the fashion ; that is, when people shall have ceased to abuse us, and when Government shall have rendered us more effective aid. If my land had not been taken in this quarter, 1 should have chosen it there ; but here I have as much as I can manage, perhaps more, as the location duties are heavy, and require great exertions to discharge.

7th. — The Governor's pigs have been speared too ; there have been nearly as many killed as would have supported the whole colony during the winter ; and now we have no meat.

8th — Divine service at Mr. Irwin's, where, as is usual with me, I spent the evening.

9th. — The ground white from frost ; not so last year. I find that we must not plant potatoes so early in future. I have been trussing hay for the market at Fremantle, where the consumer or rather the owner of the consumer, pays smartly for it ! The hay itself brings £6 at my own door, and the freight costs £8 per ton — £14 per ton ! Salt meat is not to be had ; fresh meat costs 1s. 8d., and fresh butter 7s. per pound. These prices will soon drain the resources of some of the settlers. Earthed up my potatoes, in hopes of saving them from the frost, and then by way of pastime shot a brace of ducks. Laid out a bank and ditch for an enclosure, marked out some ground for ploughing, and sawed down a few trees. This has been a lovely cool day, and the winter is gliding away insensibly. You would consider it a delightful summer.

16th. — This is like a March day in Ireland, and I experience the novel sensation of cold feet.

The goat has had two kids ; a pig is nearly fit to kill ; a cask of pork has arrived at my house, and I have wheat and vegetables coming in, and the goat gives me a little milk, and the hens are beginning to lay, so that I am getting out of all danger of starvation. My plough is at work for the first time, and answers remarkably well. I paid two pounds for two pair of shoes this day; one pair for James, the other for myself. My Bluchers were completely worn out, and I have not had a dry foot for some time. I paid £17 12s. 6d. for forty-seven gallons of rum, and £18 for a cask of wine.

A native has wounded a soldier on the Murray River with a spear, in a very treacherous way ; but the man is recovering. It is said that the natives have had a severe retaliation, five being killed and many wounded.

18th. — The air is already fragrant with many flowers and shrubs coming into bloom ; what will it not be when we have (as unquestionably we shall have) groves of oranges, limes, almonds, peaches, apples, &c. ! We only want the plants ; but sailors are careless of them on their passage hither, and a very small quantity of salt water kills them.

27th. — This has been a day of very active occupation with me. I first brought home my two cows from Mr. Tanner's, and my thirty-three sheep from another neighbour; then ploughed, sowed, and harrowed-in two acres of wheat, and sold a sow for £5, to be paid in hurdles, shoes and ploughing — no money according to our system of barter. This sow had been among the wounded pigs, but perfectly recovered. Escorted my little flock of sheep to the flat, keeping a sharp look-out for natives, with a good supply of balls in my pocket, but saw none of them : nor was I fasting altogether on this day, having had two eggs and some goat's butter at breakfast. But my cow, like Mrs. Shandy's, "puts off calving terribly." I shall soon have cauliflowers and turnips for dinner ; in short, we shall all soon have an abundance of everything; and as to wheat, it will be so plentiful that we must see about mills of some kind or other. Steam machinery would be too expensive, and water power in most places cannot be commanded, as there are few continuous streams ; but wind mills will yet be in general use. There has been but one experiment of the latter kind, and it haa succeeded well.

30th. — Some of the settlers have met to take into consideration Mr. Lyon's plan for civilising the natives. I wish they were convinced of the evil of their pig-killing ways ; "but," as M'Leod says in "Ennui," " I doubt if it will be very easy." On returning from the house at which the "grand palaver" was held, I found great difficulty in crossing the river, which was much swollen by the rains, particularly as the night was very dark.

31st. — Admired my little flock of sheep greatly, and thought the tinkling of their bells most musical. Have I ever before mentioned that our cows and sheep are furnished with bells, not for the mere sake of the tinkling sound, delightful as it is in the stillness of evening, but as indispensable for guiding us through the woods to the places where the cattle are grazing ? Without them we should be sadly perplexed, from the difficulty of providing herdsmen to watch their ramblings. Send me some bells, English spades, and prongs, by the first opportunity. I want a flute sadly, mine was broken on the passage ; and this day, when I took up one which an itinerant schoolmaster left in my kitchen, I found that my fingers had lost their wonted familiarity with it. Cut a drain to convey water from a low piece of ground, and planted some turnips on a piece of land covered with wood ashes from some trees which had been recently burned. Got a chest of tea, which came by the Sulphur, and cost about 2s. a pound ; but it is execrable stuff, smelling like musty hay, and of course unfit for use.

August 1st. — Cut cauliflowers for dinner, and killed a pig weighing 112 lbs. Cut him up, salted, and packed him in a cask : this is one which I saved from the natives.

There is no domestic animal more useful here than the goat ; if I were again coming out I should bring a score of goats from the Cape ; they are cheap, have frequently two at a birth, are more easily fed and managed than cows, and are not so liable to accidents. My goat has had four kids in one year.

2nd. — A vernal feel in the air. There is something inexpressibly pleasing in the renovation of nature ; every budding flower which this genial climate brings early to our view, I look upon as a messenger to notify the approach of more joyous days. Every thing perceptibly vegetates already, and the pleasure of witnessing the growth of plants on my own land awakens within me a spirit of energetic interest which otherwise would fail. Not to be idle or too much in the ruminating mood, I dropped turnip or rape seed wherever the ashes of a burnt tree were scattered ; and I have no doubt that a careful shepherd, having his employer's interest at heart, might in this way, while tending his sheep, be most profitably employed. Mine (when I get him) shall have an axe to cut down brushwood and small trees, which he can afterwards amuse himself by burning. Thus will he clear patches for me, and bring them into fertility and productiveness for the flock under his care. A little here and there of artificial green food in the midst of a wilderness of coarse grass, will be a rich and beneficial treat to the sheep.

I hear that the Sulphur is ordered home ; if so, and I can see one of her oflficers to take it, I shall send you a box of curiosities, consisting of specimens of shrubs, flowers, and grasses in a kind of hortus siccus; spears, cockatoos, and feathers ; a variety of skins, snakes, centipedes, &c. ; but the box is not made yet. I shall, however, make one in a very rough way, and you can get it cleaned and planed afterwards. All the odds and ends which I have in my room at this moment form a very whimsical and incongruous assemblage. Among many others there are four bags of flour, two ditto of wheat, one ditto of oats, a chest of tea, a box of sugar ; spears, guns, pistols ; the feet and feathers of kangaroos and emus; clothes, books, and old shoes. I am now quite reconciled to the irregularities of a settler's life, and can sit as contentedly among these things as if they were the handsomest paintings, or the most elegant articles of furniture arranged in the most fashionable order.

3rd. — The crows have been attacking my newly-sown wheat. Their character for depredations of this kind is just as bad as in England or Ireland. I must shoot some of the rogues, pour encourager les autres.

I had an agreeable surprise to-day; Letty produced two prints of butter made from the goat's milk; and, notwithstanding this deterioration of the milk, or abstraction of their allowance, the two kids are thriving. I shall write for two more of them to the Cape ; there they will cost about ten shillings each, and here they are worth from £3 to £5 each. I shall have a mare also from the same place, which will cost only £6 or £7, though her value here will be from £50 to £70.

6th. — I was induced to leave my plough this day for the sake of training my young dog at the kangaroo chase, and caught one after a long run. Have I ever detailed this chase to you ? I believe not. You advance silently, watching in every direction, and when you see a kangaroo, you immediately run in the direction of him, hallooing on the dogs, which follow the game by view as far as the ground is clear. The sportsmen then wait patiently, half an hour or an hour, until the return of the dogs, which is sooner or later according to the length of the chase. The dogs are examined in the mouth to see if they have fur or blood, or the smack of kangaroo, which is something like that of bay leaf : if the indications of murder be upon them, they are desired to "show" the game, and in "showing" it the excellence of the dog is exhibited. One of ours being desired to " show," set off at a trot. We all followed at the same pace in a straight line for a mile, at the termination of which he brought us to the dead kangaroo. But I expect some lucky day to be at a nobler hunt than this — a bull chase — as a wild bull was caught and killed the other day. The meat, (sold at Is. 6d. per lb.), produced nearly £50; and a great sensation has been created by a rumour that thirty-six head of wild cattle has been seen. I doubt the truth of the report. Really this kangaroo-hunting is very important to the settlers in their present circumstances. Some of my friends have had fresh meat of this animal for three months together, when it would have required three casks of pork, at £10 each, to have supplied their establishment during the same period. Thus have their dogs saved them £30.

9th. — I have been preparing a statement of expenditure upon my grant, for the purpose of getting the fee-simple of it confirmed to me : the amount required is £675. The account has been submitted to two magistrates for approval, and has been drawn up according to a prescribed form. My expenditure amounts to £1306 13s. ; the items are, buildings, £300 ; tillage £96 ; enclosures, £59 3s. : drains, £10 ; garden, £20 ; clearing, £206 ; and under the head of " miscellaneous," live stock, £245 10s. ; crops, £210 ; machines, tools, implements, and iron work, £100 ; tent used at first settling, £10 ; wells, £10 ; improvement of pasture by manure, £30 ; wharf, £10 — total, £1306 13s. I cleared to-day, with a good American axe, eleven hundred yards of a vista through the bush on my lower boundary line, and had entertained great hopes that a valley through which the Susannah River (Latour's Brook) issues from the hills, was on my share ; but on getting a view through the vista, I fear that it is not. However, the brook traverses my grant twice, and makes the back ground valuable.

A soldier coming up yesterday from Perth was attacked by natives ; he says that he shot two of them. It will be prudent on my part, when I set out to-morrow morning at daybreak, to arm myself with a double-barrelled gun and ball cartridges.

August 21st. — Here is a sad hiatus ! partly from absence, partly from occupation. All the foregoing had been written in hopes of my sending it by the Sulphur, but I have been disappointed ; it must remain for a future opportunity. I resume my journal.

10th. — I reached Perth without an adventure, and found that the Governor had gone on board the Sulphur, which was standing out to sea ; so that I had no chance of delivering my box on board.

14ith. — I have had a tremendous-looking list of law cases to dispose of : one was for upwards of £2000 — the parties, a Van Diemen's Land merchant and his agent. The town (Perth) is improving greatly. Buildings are in progress, and palings being put up in front of the allotments. £200 has been offered for my house, which I have refused ; but have let it, in preference, at the rate of £15 a year. I shall leave home for two or three days, as I am pressed by Captain Irwin to witness the ceremony of swearing him in, as Lieutenant Governor, and also to attend a meeting about the establishment of a bank on Saturday.

22nd. — Here I am again quietly at home, after my rambles, admiring a fine ewe lamb (a cross between the Merino and Leicester), and cutting away shrubs (but leaving the trees) to clear a space of ground between me and Mr. Tanner. This will allow free circulation of air, prevent the natives from lurking about me, and improve the growth and quality of the grass. Nor were other matters neglected : I transplanted cauliflowers, Swedish turnips, strawberries, almonds, and put down some peach-stones ; after which I dined on an opposum (very like a rabbit, though not so tender) which I shot in a gum tree during my morning's work in the wood ; and washed it down with some excellent home-brewed beer.

24th. — Finished opening an uninterrupted line, about a mile in length, across my winter grant ; planted thyme, sowed coriander and red pepper seed, and planted almond trees six feet high (which I obtained from a gardener in Perth, at one shilling a piece), twelve sets of sugar-cane, strawberry plants, some Cape gooseberry and rose-tree cuttings, and a few slips of the Cape or Hottentot fig. After all these useful operations, Letty brought me some butter, the first produce of my young cow's milk.

25th. — You will suppose that we are not addicted to the indiscretion of very early marriages, when I state that this day I met a grand cortege escorting a sexagenerian man and woman on the high road to matrimony. The bridegroom elect was mounted on his master's horse, and the bride rode behind him.

"Their nuptial bed may smiling concord dress,
And Venus still the sober union bless ;
Mingled with age may mutual love and truth
To their dim eyes recall the bloom of youth."

I have been clearing brushwood away at such a rate that the very natives will not know the place when they see it again. May it be long until they do see it ! — The old plague of servants again.

One of Mr. Tanner's has been sent to gaol for refusing to work ; many are out of employment, yet demand as high wages as ever : fifteen shillings a hundred for slitting paling, and thirty shillings a month, besides diet, for a boy-man, or hobble-de-hoy. Some of the improvident mechanics at Perth give at the rate of 4s. 6d. and 5s. a dozen for eggs sent there by the settlers at the head of the river.

21th. — The weather now is of a delightful temperature ; I bathed at sunset last night, after having previously warmed myself well by cutting down trees — you know that bathing when warm is an old and favourite practice of mine. "We now say that winter is over.

"Frigora mitescunt Zephyris."

29th. — Our discussions about the proposed bank have been renewed. Numerous borrowers, but no lenders ! I have decided against becoming a shareholder ; and am convinced of the advantage which every one here would derive by leaving £50 or £100 every year at home, to be expended in such investments as he might direct. These would bring a return of at least 100 per cent.

31st. — James came to me this morning to know what is to be done for his eye, which was a little sore the other day — the blockhead got at my medicine chest, when I was at Perth, and applied a blister to it.

Sept. 1st. — A wet and stormy day, such as it was on the 30th ult., and very like the weather which we experienced a week after this time last year, when we commenced our expedition over the hills. The river is now higher than I have ever before seen it ; but far from the elevation which those who were here in 1829 speak of ; yet everything is growing rapidly, and this morning I heard the notes of at least six different species of birds. It has been assumed and believed that there are no singing birds in Australia : those which I have heard do not fully deserve to be so classed ; but some of their notes are very sweet, so much so that I give them credit for being songsters.

4th. — Busied all this day and yesterday in the garden (which has been rather neglected for some time) planting Caffre corn in rows a yard apart, maize and peas, breaking up some fresh ground, and preparing beds for melons, vegetable-marrow, pumpkins, and cucumbers. Our seasons differ greatly from those of Sydney ; there is there a little rain more or less in every month. Showers commence here in April, and become more frequent and heavy until July ; and decrease until October. We are always sure of dry weather for our hay and grain harvest in the latter end of that month, and the two succeeding ones. The spring this year is much more backward than last year, on account of the frosts. Last season, before this time, I had dug and sold potatoes ; but now (though they were planted as early) I have not any ripe.

Sydney, in the sixth year of its establishment, cost the Government £161,000 for that year. For this colony, £18,000 per annum is the allowance ; but we hope for more encouragement.

8th. — Crossing the river after breakfast, on my way to Mr. Bull's, I had to walk across a tree, up to my middle in the water — this was more wetting than I had calculated on. On reaching the other side, I had to take off my trowsers and wring the wet out of them, and then sit in the sun in Highland costume, until they were dry : afterwards I dined at Mr. Tanner's. To-morrow I shall visit Guildford, to attend an agricultural meeting ; and it is probable that I shall not be at home again for some days, as Tuesday next will be my court day.

I have just heard that H.M.S. Challenger, Captain Freemantle, has arrived from India, on her way from thence to Hobart's Town, Sydney, New Zealand, Otaheite, Pitcairn Islands, and South America; and that she has landed a seasonable supply of provisions.

Since Colonel Hanson left this, he has published in India a pamphlet, which I hope soon to see.

9th. — This letter, or diary, or whatever else you may please to call it, I shall dispatch by the Challenger to Hobart's Town, whence it will be forwarded, though it is difficult to say precisely when it may reach you ; but in the hope that no accident will attend its transmission, I continue my journal.

Our Lieutenant Governor (Captain Irwin), Mr. and Mrs. Browne, and Captain Freemantle, made an excursion recently to the head of the river, in order to give the latter gentleman an opportunity of seeing the country : he was greatly delighted with it, and the weather was very favourable. Captain Freemantle went on the same day to his ship, and sailed the next morning, taking with him a select party of three convicts, whom we have transported from this, and sent to Van Diemen's Land.

14th. — The weather for some days has been extremely fine, so that we feared the rain was all over ; but this day, towards evening, the wind became very strong, which brought on heavy rain. I have planted, since it dried up, melon, cucumber, and pumpkin seeds : the melon seed is from one which weighed fifteen pounds ; and the parent cucumber weighed four pounds. Our turnips are running to seed this year ; and this is a general complaint here : we must renew our seed from home. Send me some seeds of early York and sugar-loaf, flat Dutch or drum-head cabbages, Swedish and white Norfolk turnip, cauliflower, and mangel-wurzel.

I do not know to which part of your letters to address myself first. Surely I must have already answered or anticipated all your queries. You ask, "of what is the thatch of our houses composed :" every one uses whatever suitable material is most easily procured in his neighbourhood. I used long sedge and bulrushes, some straw, and the tops of the grass-tree ; battens or wattles, like laths, are nailed at regular distances across the rafters; tlie thatch is laid on these, and tied or sewed down with a long needle and rope yarn. The bark of trees has been tried for thatch, and it answers pretty well, if carefully applied. Mr. Brown has an outside covering of it, about fourteen inches in thickness, over a shingled roof, to keep out heat, but it is expensive You inquire, " of what quality is my land on the Swan ?" This is a very general and comprehensive question. I forget how many thousand varieties of earth old Evelyn reckons : I will not say there are so many varieties on my land, yet it varies considerably. I can give you a section of it.* On the alluvial land, the grass-wattle and the gum-trees flourish; on another portion, the herbage is of inferior quality, and the trees are consequently of a dwarfish and shrubby nature : one of these looks and smells like white-thorn, and has a white flower, but not of the same shape — I believe it to be of the Mespilus species. It is called here, generally, by the English appellative, the May-thorn. The third division has a shrubby covering, and produces the red-gum, white-gum, broom, wattle, and grass trees.

* Mr. Moore frequently amused himself by sketuhing diagrams, plans, &c. These are here omitted. — Editor.

I have acquired some knowledge of the indications of soil : mahogany is indicative of sandy land ; red gum, of stiff cold clay ; wattle, of moisture ; and the broom and dwarf grass tree, of what we term shrubby herbage.

The next question you ask is about " water," — I have only found one spring good for any purpose, except washing — this water is found two feet under the surface, on a level with the river : plenty of water could be had by digging for it, but none of my people understand this, and I was anxious to avoid the expense of sinking a well. The river water is brackish here only about two months in the year, in April and May, as you may see by my journals. I have thought it worth while to get some water from a fine gushing spring on the other side, for washing.

Your next observations apply to my grant on the Avon, and recommend King George's Sound, or Geograph Bay, where you observe there are said to be "valleys of the richest soil imaginable." I will not quarrel with this description, not having seen the place ; but from what I have seen, and from all I can collect from those who have been there, and read from those who have described it, I fear there cannot be any great extent of good land on the coast. A rich spot or two there may be ; but as far as observation has gone, the general opinion seems to be that there is no extensive tract of good land till you have receded some distance from the coast. Mr. Peel's lot on the Murray is, I believe, an exception to this rule, as it is reported to continue good to the sea-side. Probably you will see published by Governor Stirling the journal of an expedition undertaken by Captain Bannister from this to King George's Sound, when he and his party lost their reckoning and their way, and did not arrive there till after seven weeks and three days. The place at which they bivouacked (about the 25th December, 1831) is deemed the best description of country which has been yet discovered. Galway, a man who is splitting timber here now, was of the party : he says, "all the country looked like a great field of oats before harvest;" — (kangaroo grass has very much that appearance). This was upon a river of pools, nearly in the line of a contemplated road between this and King George's Sound ; but it is also very far inland. I doubt whether an extensive grazing tract may be found nearer to water-carriage, or more convenient, that at York, where part of my ground is. It seems likely that a settlement may be established there shortly; for already the nucleus of it is formed ; therefore, after having relinquished the grant which I had further to the south of the Avon, I was glad to get hold of any near York. That which I have, of 5000 acres, belonged to one who has abandoned the colony ; the remaining part I took on a river, supposed to be the issuing of the Avon from the hills on the western plain : I chose this lot because the ground is good, which is more than I knew of any other place at that time ; it is not above forty miles from this, and may be reached without either crossing or touching upon the mountains. Time pressed, and I was obliged to make some selection, or lose my opportunity.

Land now is not to be given or exchanged by Government ; it must be purchased, at not less than five shillings an acre — a sad loss to us. It is very difficult to save meat here in spring and autumn, much more so than in the heat of summer ; the "blow-flies" are not so busy then, or perhaps they are encouraged by the moisture generated at the other seasons. When we have any considerable quantity of fresh meat (which is not often the case) we put it in pickle. Winter meat keeps very well. "Game?" — We have ducks — the wild turkey bird of the bustard kind — and quails; and the gallinule, or water-hen ; and there may be many other game birds unknown to us, as they have so many places of concealment.

The cockatoos are gregarious and migratory : at some periods of the year few are to be seen ; at other times, they are seen in large and frequent flocks — I have heard of fifty kangaroos together ; and have seen fifteen in company. We have rats and mice too ; the largest of the former I have met here was about the size of a "cub" rat with you, but not so rough in the hair ; in every other respect apparently the same ; where they came from I leave others to determine or dispute about. Wild dogs are the next "game" you start in your letter. They are not numerous, and are seldom seen in daylight. Since my flock has come home, however, I hear of them more frequently.

James went to the landing-place, a few nights ago, on hearing a noise in the boat, when a wild dog rushed out of it and ran off. The natives sometimes domesticate them, and there seems to be almost as great a variety of them here as with you ; some are like little black and white collies ; many of them yellow and large ; our dogs howl whenever one of them comes near the house.

You wish to know the size and appearance of the trees here. They are of all sizes. Sometimes you see one like an old father, with his family of striplings around him. The colour of the foliage is green, the appearance of the bark various. To begin with our most valuable timber — the mahogany; — its bark is of a reddish brown colour, and runs in continuous slips from top to bottom. The red gum tree has a rough scaly bark, of a dusky brown or reddish colour. The white or blue gums (there seems to be a confusion about the names), have a bark not unlike that of beach, of a light slate-colour, and smooth ; some on the high ground have a tinge of a rusty colour mixed with French white. And the banksia has a hard, grey, gravelly-looking bark, formed of little rough particles. Can you imagine a tree composed of coarse granite ? — such is the banksia. The wattle — what shall I compare it to ? the Portugal laurel is the nearest in resemblance that I can think of. We have also the swamp or the oak (casuarina), and the cabbage or beef-wood tree, with a splendid orange blossom. These are our principal trees and large shrubs ; the three first bear seed-vessels like acorns. The banksia is also called honeysuckle tree, from a sweet- tasting substance which is contained in its flowering cone. The wattle bears seed like a long pea-pod. There are vines bearing grapes in the botanical garden. The casuarina is excellent timber for the lathe, and our mahogany is beautiful for furniture : specimens of it have been sent home. The bark of the wattle, and of others, is good for tanning ; the red gum tree produces gum in abundance ; the broom tree, zamia, grass tree, wattle, hakea, and others, also produce gum like the Arabic. The large grass tree (zanthoria hastilis), yields a powerful cement ; you will see it on the stone hatchets which I send you. There may be many other things of which we have not yet found out the peculiar properties.

Many persons are trying to salt fish, which are very numerous in the river about and below Perth, as you must have seen by one of my letters, in which I mentioned our having taken 10,000 at one draught of the seine; these are of the kind called herrings, but do not look very like them ; they make a noise when out of the water, and on that account are also called trumpeters. The rack, or king fish, is as large as salmon ; the snapper, or bream (a deep-sided fish, not unlike the roach), the mullet, a thick-shouldered, blunt- headed fish, the silver fish (perch), and the guard fish, sometimes come up the river. There is another species, somewhat of the nature of an eel, with a sharp spine which it can erect at pleasure ; this is caught only in the fresh water, and is called a cobbler ; a kind resembling it in salt water is named cat-fish. Perch will take no bait except the shrimps which are found about stumps of trees and logs of timber in the river. The snake-necked turtle sucks your bait off most ingeniously. We have the cray-fish from two to six inches long, and clams in abundance. These are all the productions of our river as far as we are yet acquainted with them. There are crabs in the salt water, different in shape from yours, and so very daring, that they have seized me by the foot frequently when pushing boats over the flats. Neither lobsters nor oysters have been found, though the shells of the latter are very numerous about the flats and Melville Water. Of the natives I have not heard or seen any thing of late, yet we do not trust our cattle in any distant place with less than two herds, and the settlers over the hills have a few soldiers allowed them for their protection. White ants are troublesome ; these usually carry on their operations under the cover of a hard clay mound, which can with difiiculty be entered even by the force of a hatchet. You see nothing outside to indicate their presence but a little brown streak of clay — the covered way by which they make their approaches; they never volunteer their appearance

24th. — I have hired two Irish men to split palings, at 10s. a hundred (the paling is four feet six inches long, and from four to six inches broad) ; they commenced this morning, and have already cut a tree three feet six inches in diameter, cross cut one length, split it into convenient sizes by wedges, and are now splitting out the paling with a knife, as you may have seen laths split. The tree is of the red gum species, and splits well, each pale from half an inch to an inch thick. Experienced men sometimes split from 200 to 300 a day, so they can earn a good deal of money ; but on the other hand they buy their provisions from their employers.

I have always considered my own countrymen peculiarly happy in hitting off and applying a metaphor, though its frequent confusion is, perhaps, the principal cause of the bulls so liberally attributed to them: an instance of the ready application of a very whimsical metaphor amused me this morning.

"Hah, my joker," exclaimed Paddy Burn, as he drove a wedge home with peculiar effect into a large block of the tree," "Are you making him laugh, Paddy? " said Jack Galway. " Laugh, is it," rejoined Paddy, "by my troth I'm making him split his sides laughing." This is genuine humour.

Mr. M'Dermott has been here to-day, and wanted me to buy Van Diemen's Land sheep at £3 a piece. I am putting down about half a rood of maize (Indian corn) to try it once more, and shall have about a rood of Caffre corn ; it will bring in the ground if it does nothing else. It is surprising how rapidly the ground here becomes baked on the top into a hard crust, which young vegetable fibres can scarcely penetrate. On raking and breaking it, we found several Indian corn shoots quite doubled under it, without being able to force their way through. Some of my strawberry plants are in blossom. My neighbours are brewing beer from sugar ; less than one pound to a gallon will do ; and have this article at 3d. to 4d. per lb. People talk of giving beer to servants instead of spirits, as the Government has seen the impolicy of forcing settlers to give regulated rations of spirits as well as of provisions.

27th. — The two Messrs. Burgess crossed the river here this morning, "kangarooing; " I accompanied them. We saw four kangaroos and five wallabees, and got three chases ; but the dogs killed only one wallabee, weighing sixteen pounds.

28th. — The superstition which the ancients had about trees gushing out blood when pointed at by the axe, may have been originated from the observation, that gum trees emit, when wounded, a stream of reddish fluid of a consist- ence not unlike thick blood.* I got a considerable quantity of it to-day from the veins of a tree which I rolled up in my hands like pitch ; — I shall send it in the next box.

* Ater et alterius sequitur de cortice sanguis.

There are a hundred plants, flowers, shrubs, &c., that I have not the names of, nor do I know how to describe them. One very abundant plant is called wild carrot : we have the dock, penny-royal, trefoil, sorrel, rib grass, fern, flax (native), which is pretty abundant, burnet, yarrow, sow-thistle, moss (the hygrocrocis), sedum, buttercup, eringo, wyay or native yarn, davisia, and several blue, white, red, and yellow climbers and creepers, anigozanthus, orobus solis, chrysanthemum, primroses, daisies, rockets, orchis, cardinal, sweet pea, and a beautiful purple flower, which looks as if it were trimmed with lace, and called here the lace flower, and many others.

I sometimes think of making a hortus siccus of all these flowers ; but they are too transient, and I am so much occupied, that I have not hitherto been able to accomplish it. Many beautiful shrubs and flowers are now in bloom, of which I must mention the black wattle, which bears a yellow blossom resembling that of the laburnum at a distance, but much finer. The hills are generally of the granite formation ; but they are frequently covered with vegetation and trees up to their very summits. At this time of the year, spring, you find very luxuriant grass on them. Mr. Drummond says he counted fifty-four varieties of native grasses, most of them perennial ; but the most abundant grass is annual: he says there are many varieties of the British genera, but that few, if any, of the species are similar.

This is a healthy climate ; the heat is well suited to me, and 1 do not perceive it has enervating effects on any one. The mornings, evenings, and nights, are always cool enough ; and very often the land and sea breezes (the latter particularly) make even the middle of the day in Midsummer quite cool.

Oct. 4th. — I shot and skinned a bittern this day ; it is the ghost of a bird, its body not so large as that of a pigeon, yet it measures from the point of the bill to the tip of the toes, as the skin now hangs, no less than two feet eight inches ; it is, in fact, a great long tube of feathers. Mr, Browne made me an offer of a mare for £50, which I accepted ; and I rode from his house on the first horse (for every mare is a horse) which has called me master in this colony.

5th. — On my return home, after remaining at Mr. Brockman's last night, in consequence of flood in the river, I found my men washing the sheep preparatory to shearing. As to the weather in general, we have had much more rain and cold this winter than we experienced last year. September and October seem to be the months of flood, for although there may be more rain in the earlier months, yet the thirsty soil then absorbs it ; but now it is satisfied even to saturation, and every drop tends to the swelling overflow of our river.

Viewed my wheat on the land where I had potatoes last year : it is upwards of five feet high. Got a good specimen of a red root, which must have singular properties, as both pigs and cockatoos seem to be fond of it, — have planted cucumber seed and melon to-day, and got potatoes dug. The splitters finished one tree, and have commenced another, which they managed to let fall upon a tent I had put up for them — it has been woefully torn. In one of your letters you speak of lining the boxes with tin ; it is useful on the voyage to keep out cock-roaches and vermin ; and it is very useful here to keep out mice and white ants, which are destructive if not well watched. I should have lost considerably but for the lining of tin ; the white ants entered at the bottom of a chest, crept up the sides, and got under the tin at one corner where it did not fit welL I bought a tinned chest to-day to keep sugar in, and there issues from it a constant stream of small black ants across the floor to a hole on the other side of the room, each carrying a grain of the sugar : these are so minute that you scarcely notice them ; but by treading, burning, and scalding, I have nearly banished them.

Dined to-day with Mr. Burgess on a "wallabee," the result of our own chase ; it was roasted whole, and stuffed, and tasted not unlike hare. We have some artichokes looking strong and luxuriant, much more so than any I recollect to have seen at home. Beans are podding well, though the general opinion here is that they will not succeed with us as a crop.

29th. — Yoked my team this morning and harrowed the wheat in the flat ground, which had been rather roughly broken up. I think it will answer, though it appears a rude process to subject grown wheat to. I have two, or perhaps three acres ready for the plough, that is, cleared from black boys (dwarf grass trees), which are grubbed out of it; the root of these is a knobby woody hemp, with roots very like heather.

I have just finished dinner (one o'clock) — every thing at table was the produce of the farm; corned mutton, green peas, new potatoes, sugarloaf cabbage, radishes, and lettuce. Afterwards I superintended the burning of trees on the ground, which we shall commence to plough on Monday. Our practice, after the trees have been consumed, is to plough the ashes in, and let the ground lie fallow. I have been greatly puzzled in laying out the boundary line between Lamb and myself, my pocket compass being incorrect. We are much in want of assistance from the Surveyor's Office ; being left to mark out the lines ourselves, we may have laid the foundation of much future litigation. The settlers could lay the lines themselves if they had good instruments, but even those in the Surveyor's Office are not to be depended on.

Sunday, 30th. — 1 recollect we sometimes were annoyed at home with a host of kitchen visitors on Sundays, but hardly expected this nuisance here : there have been nineteen here to-day with my servants ; the last only passed at nine at night, and I have just heard a sound which indicates the approach of another visitor by no means welcome, namely, a native dog. I have been watching for him, but fear to shoot some of my neighbour's dogs by mistake in the dark.

Referring to your letter of the 22nd December, 1831, inquiring about tobacco. — It grows well here, but requires too much labour to pay as a crop in our present state ; at a future time it may do well.

As to coming here — I am still reluctant in giving advice to any one on the subject. It is a serious responsibility to hold out strong inducement, when success depends so much upon the taste, bodily fitness, and preparation for it. To come here costs much ; a considerable sum also is further necessary to support you until you can maintain yourself. Land must be paid for, if from Government at the rate of 5s. an acre. If you bring servants the expense of keeping them is considerable, and without them what can a single individual effect? Indentured servants become masters, No matter what damage they do, how careless they are, sober or drunken, idle or industrious, impudent or respectful, well or ill, you must keep them and satisfy every demand on the instant or off they go to a magistrate and make a complaint. "Sir, I want a hat, a coat, waistcoat, a shirt, trowsers, stockings," and anything, or everything, they please, not to say shoes, of which they will wear a pair in two months. If the master replies, "I'll get you what you want when I go next time to town " (or whatever he thinks most conciliatory), the rejoinder is, '' But I want it now, and I'll not work till I get it." I do not say that this has actually occurred with me ; but I give it as a fair specimen of the habit of indentured servants here.

Two or three stout hard-working brothers, or a father with a grown family, able and willing to assist him, with some money to establish themselves in rough comfort and plenty, would be independent in a few years ; but there must be no squeamishness as to food, nor daintiness as to luxuries ; it is a plodding matter-of-fact business-like and hard- working life, until you get yourself established ; with very little of that romance and adventure about it which is so tempting and alluring to your minds. Yet it has its pleasures ; but it is quite right that people should prepare themselves for what it really is. I am still unwilling to recommend emigration to any one ; for the sort of life is so different from that at home, that many might be discontented with it, and blame the adviser instead of themselves. I had made up my mind, to endure every kind of hardship and privation for three years at least. Yet here, at the end of two years, I live almost as well as I could wish, and certainly lead a healthier and happier and less anxious life, now that the first struggle is over. As to the relative eligibility of this place and America, pray consult the " Quarterly," especially that number in which there is discussion about the relative advantages ; I forget in which number it is ; and in the first number of the Transactions of the Geographical Society, you will also find something on the subject. If our Government succeeds in getting the purchase-fee of five shillings an acre taken off for a few years, then settlers will come here more readily. This cannot for a long time be much of a commercial, or any thing but an agricultural or pastoral settlement, as there are no large navigable rivers traversing the country, and affording an outlet from the interior by water.

Nov. 1st. — Leaving my little team at work to-day, I went out with the youngest Mr. Burgess to look for a kangaroo and had a fine chase after one ; the dogs killed it within 200 yards of us, in a stream of water ; my puppy barked and bit, and pulled, and did what he could ; but it was the first he had seen killed, and we could not expect more at his coup d'essai. He promises well ; we carried the kangaroo on our backs, turn about, for seven miles ; this was a matter of some toil, for it weighed eighty pounds : however, I shall have some days' fresh provisions. On our way home, I shot a


duck on the wing, and found that it had a nest with ten eggs. As it was not mortally wounded, I brought duck and eggs with me, and have her now sitting in a cage.

2nd. — A day of high wind, from N.E., with occasional heavy showers of rain, faint thunder and lightning ; yet my little team ploughed from breakfast till dinner-time one third of an acre.

Do you recollect my having mentioned, some time ago, the murder of an outsettler on the Canning River by the natives ? One of these, called Ya-gan, identified (on oath by a boy who escaped) as the principal actor, who took the spears from his companions and deliberately drove them one by one into the deceased (who had become entangled in a hedge while trying to escape), has been taken. The Government offered a reward for the apprehension of this Ya-gan, and some days ago he and two others, almost equally concerned, were seized by two boatmen, and brought to Perth : they had been fishing, and were enticed into the boat and there secured ; they have been sent to Carnac, where they are to suffer solitary confinement and be taught our language. One of them escaped by swimming and diving across the river, where it is fully a mile in breadth.

4th. — Walked to Perth, where I found Captain Irwin ; went with him to survey the canal and intended plans for deepening a passage, to avoid the flats in the river ; in the shallows I caught two mullets with my hands.

About this day two years we came to the colony. — What a change now ! It looks like a settled country : rural sights and sounds every where ; houses, crops, flocks, herds, fences ; cows lowing, dogs barking, cocks crowing, and geese cackling.

I have added to my stock, having just purchased nineteen ewes, at 50s. per pair ; the breed is the compound produce of Leicester and Merino and Van Diemen's Land ; and five ewe lambs at 35s. I have now fifty-nine sheep, which cost me £121.


5th. — My mare strayed away yesterday evening ; and I got a thorough drenching while looking in vain for her. This day I found her among a tract of black-wattle trees. Without another servant, I cannot manage to keep all my present stock. I already feel les embarras des richesses. Just as 1 found the mare, I missed the sheep this evening, and had a hunt for them and my cows, which were quarrelling afterwards all night, and breaking down their stalls and plaister. Two cattle-keepers, one for cows and the other for sheep, are expensive but unavoidable. This evening has become very wet and cold, accompanied by thunder, lightning, and gusts of wind roaring in the trees like the shouts of an agitated multitude ; yet I walked through a hollow in search of bitterns, water hens, or anything else to fire at. This pool of water (in Lamb's and Wright's grants) is about 400 yards broad: there is water in it, perhaps from June to January; tall flags, bulrushes, and coarse grasses grew in it; some almost so high as to conceal a person walking in it. I shot a cockatoo !

6th. — The natives, who are confined on Carnac Island, have given a rude sketch of some part of the country : they make Lennard's brook identical with the Avon, and represent some large river flowing to the N.W., which has different names in different districts ; but they do not seem to know whence it arises, nor where it debouches into the sea ; they also sketch a large unexplored lake, or cul-de-sac, to the north, in the interior, but are not able to give any idea of the distances or relative situations of them. It is doubtful yet how far this can be depended on, for the person who sought the information may have given the clue ; and as they are expert mimics perhaps they were but echoing back his suggestions.

8th. — Mr. Revely's mill is in forwardness ; the water-wheel upright with horizontal shaft. He is cutting most excellent granite millstones in the hills behind this place. I have not mentioned the weather for the last week: —


Warm on the 12th and 13th. Cooler on the 14th. Clouds and a breeze on the morning of the 16th, which ended in rain that night. Cold, with occasional showers, on the 17th; thunder in the evening. The 18th fine again: and I should have mentioned that on Thursday, the Lieutenant Governor (Irwin), Messrs. Rowe, Morgan, R. Browne, Dale, and some others, set out on an excursion over the hills to York. I had intended to go with them, but business prevented me : they are all mounted ; another party speaks of going to the Upper Murray district, as they call that of which Captain Bannister reported so favourably. Drawing logs in the early part of the day ; got melon seeds sown, and several beds arranged in the garden. Soon after dinner I received Captain Irvin here ; he is greatly delighted with the lands over the hill, and says there is a fine reach of the river, or deep reservoir; opposite his grant. He tells me that the natives that were imprisoned on Carnac Island have completely outwitted their guards ; a boat was incautiously suffered to remain at the island before night, when they managed to get into it, and were miles ofif before their escape was discovered ; and as there was no boat for pursuit, they reached the land. Their boat was found at Woodman's Point, with one oar ; but no natives have been seen since. This occurrence is extremely provoking, as a knowledge of their language would soon have been acquired by us ; and they were rapidly learning to make themselves intelligible. I understand they were very accurate in describing the rivers which lie to the north. Mr. Lyon, who superintended the native prisoners at Carnac, says they describe several rivers to the north; one of them large, and abounding with fish ; but they could not be understood in their description of distances. It seems that the land is all parcelled out into districts among themselves, and that they rarely travel far from their own homes. The chief of this district is called "Worragonga" : Ya-gan is the son of Worragonga. I write this from recollection; but it is no great matter if I should have made a false heraldry in blazoning his pedigree.

20th. — After dinner, I took a cruise of observation round the neighbouring farms. The crops look remarkably well this year ; my wheat is the earliest here (nothing like early sowing, especially on the uplands). Took tea at Mr. Bull's, and afterwards called where a mill is at work. A messenger brought me a great letter with an awful looking seal : it con- tained a pamphlet from Colonel Hanson, which he published in India, about this country and Van Diemen's Land. He seems greatly delighted with the society of this place in comparison with that of the other colony, and recommends it to his Indian friends, as far superior in every respect : perhaps a copy may find its way to England. I know not what delay this vessel may make, and must get my journals ready.

27th. — I have got most of my potatoes dug and put into a pit, with a good covering of clay ; sold some at 5d. a pound. Am at a stand with my hay for want of a cart. All my pigs have disappeared; spent this evening in an unsuccessful search after them — my mare also cannot be found.

28th. — This day is the commencement of my harvest; got some beautiful wheat cut down — it does one's heart good to see the great sheaves set up in shocks. Only a small patch has been cut (twenty-two yards by twelve) where it was most ripe, and upon this small space there are five large shocks, each containing twelve sheaves ; the ears are large and full : it will probably yield at the rate of forty bushels an acre.

The Trimmers have laid the foundation of a fortune by having a flock of prime Merinos brought from England ; they have now about five hundred over the hills. A prime Merino ram and half a dozen Merino ewes soon increase, and improve other breeds. M'Dermot procured, at great expense, a few prime Saxony sheep, which he says are far superior to any other kind.

Saturday, Dec. 1st. — Prepared a threshing floor ; got some


wheat threshed — very fine grain, and yielding well ; but many ears are too green, which arises from the mixture of seed. Planted some potatoes in low ground for experiment; also transplanted some cabbages, mangel-wurzel, and red beet. I fear the seed which you sent is not good ; Edward has tried some of the cabbage-seed without success : it probably fermented on the passage.

9th. — I only closed my last despatches for you yesterday, to go by Van Diemen's Land ; it is possible that this letter may reach you first, as there may yet be a more direct conveyance. I have heard that a soldier's, wife has been wounded by a spear from the natives in the Canning River — the first time they have molested a woman (a bad trait), and this outrage is likely to bring on general hostility.

Bread from our new wheat is excellent ; my little mill grinds well ; but hand-mills are tedious and laborious. I examined the mill which Mr. R[eveley] is putting up at Perth, and am surprised that the same plan is not adopted at home ; he says it is the common construction of mills in Italy, that its machinery is less expensive, and that it requires less water than those we have been accustomed to. The water passes from the reservoir through a wooden trunk about a foot square, sixty or seventy yards long, at the end of which is a copper tube two and a half inches in diameter, through which the water gushes. There is great pleasure in every approach we make towards our own support.

10th. — In sinking a well, we have found water at the depth of twelve feet ; the strata are vegetable mould, blue and black clays, white or dun-coloured clay, buff coloured or loamy clay, yellowish sandy loam, and dun-coloured loamy sand, on which they were working when the water first appeared.

I have been obliged to have another servant to attend the cows.

11th. — A baker came this morning for some wheat, and obviously wanted to make a large profit. I would not supply him, except with a few bushels for his own use, at 4d. per


pound cleared. We are badly off for broad sharp hooks, which are better than sickles ; send me some by the next vessel. Few persons have had bread for some time past here; so that I eat some new bread and fresh-churned butter-milk with great goût to-day.

12th. — The dogs killed a long-tailed, yellow-spotted guana, and a black one : the first had eggs. I shot a quail and a white cockatoo, and after this sport went to dine with Mackie, having to swim across the river as my boat was not at my side of it. On my return, I looked out for my boat, when lo, being at cross purposes, it had changed sides again ; I had to swim the second time — how fortunate that there are neither alligators nor sharks in the river !

13th. — Captain Irwin dined with me this day, and while we were at dinner several of my friends popped in. I understand that a petition has been sent to council from Fremantle, praying that the court should be held alternately there and in Perth.

16th. — A boat came up bringing news of the arrival of a small schooner (the Governor Bourke), in which I returned, but did not arrive at Perth till nine at night on Monday. I took down with me some new wheat, the first in the market ; sold one bushel for £1 ; which some praised, and others blamed me for selling so cheap. I sold at the same time, eight pounds of butter, at 3s. per pound, and could not help marvelling at the small size of the luxury which sold for 24s., compared with the bulk of the necessary, which only brought 20s. Much money might be made of a dairy here.

18th. — I went to the postmaster's, hardly expecting letters; but imagine my delight and surprize at getting letters from my dear father and you, of dates from the 1st of August to the 29th of November, 1831, and half-a-dozen papers of different dates — one so late as the 10th of March, 1832. I have had letters irom you of later dates before, but these explain many allusions and circumstances in the subsequent


letters which I was not clear about. I walked up to Guildford, though the day was excessively warm, and intended to have reached home by night to con over my letters in undisturbed comfort ; but being wearied, I was forced to accept a bed on the way ; but reached home for breakfast the following morning with a good appetite for it.

One word about health. You seem to consider that we must be very bilious here, and that we must consequently use much medicine. I have not taken any medicine whatever since I left Ireland, nor have I required it ; so much for this climate.

It is fortunate that some of my letters reached you before Captain S. and his mate (who were never higher than Perth, if so far) arrived in Dublin, else you would have been unhappy about my situation here. What was Fremantle then ? a bare, barren-looking district of sandy coast ; the shrubs cut down for fire-wood, the herbage trodden bare, a few wooden houses, many ragged-looking tents and contrivances for habitations, — our hotel, a poor public house, into which every one crowded, — our colony, a few cheerless dissatisfied people with gloomy looks, plodding their way through the sand from hut to hut to drink grog, and grumble out their discontents to each other ; a stranger (a sailor in particular) could not admire tlie settlement. Now there is a town laid out in regular streets of stone houses with low walls, and in some places palisades in front ; two or three large well kept inns or hotels, in which you can get clean beds and good private rooms. The soil there is loam resting upon a stratum of easily worked limestone, and possessing a fertility almost exceeding belief, with abundant water near the surface. You inquire, "if there be any fish in the rivers," I thought I had mentioned my having assisted in taking ten thousand at one haul near Perth ; up here they are not numerous, or rather I cannot take them without a net : you say, "winter will bring them;" remember I have often called


this a topsy turvy country as compared with home ; the fish are abundant in the river in summer when the salt water makes its way up at Guildford ; the people on one occasion were actually astonished at the noise of the fish leaping and rushing up the river in multitudes, and this I must have mentioned in my Journal, for I have, ever since my arrival given you a pretty copious narrative of my own life, which, though not dressed up and embellished to entertain others, yet gives you a true and homely picture of a working settler in his every day clothes. You may expect with certainty a publication from Governor Stirling, or under his authority, which will supersede the necessity of giving private communications to the public. I have transmitted to you my only journal in notes, rude, unfinished, and disjointed, as transactions occurred. In your letters you inquire with respect to the new colony in South Australia ; your arguments about it are mere theory. You wonder at our difficulty in crossing the hills, and attribute it to their height ; I have explained that also : — suppose it not one hill, but a continuation of hilly country for 45 or 50 miles ; and you will see that it required great perseverance to penetrate beyond them ; there appeared no end to them; Dale was the first who succeeded ; after repeated excursions he got a glimpse of Mount Bakewell at a distance — a remarkable mountain, and higher than the rest ; he pressed for it as a land-mark, and was rewarded by finding the Avon at its base ; this river was then in its flooded state, which naturally led him to believe it much more important than it is ; indeed all were disappointed with respect to the river, but the country has stood the test of examination, and fulfilled the expectations of the most sanguine.

You write "of snows melting from a mountain ten thousand feet high to the south ; there is no such elevation here, you might strike a cipher off the number. However, the hills are higher there than with us. At King George's


Sound they have very little frost ; but I am not certain about snow. I do not think there is as much good soil there as here ; but I must not decry it, not having been there, and of course knowing nothing of it from personal observation. We have received a French book "on the Penal Colonies of Great Britain," written by M. Ernest de Blosseville, who sent a copy "to the Hon. Secretary of the Literary Society at Perth, Swan River ; " — unfortunately there is no such person to acknowledge his civilities. I have not yet had time to read the book. He wishes some one here to write a critique, but we have something else to do besides writing or scribbling essays ; we are all waiting anxiously until the despatches shall have arrived announcing the Governor's reception in England, for upon this depends our speedy or remote success.

22nd. — I have sold two more bushels of wheat, twenty shillings per bushel and I have just been looking at a market note in an Irish paper ; some of the prices put in a juxta-position with ours, remind us of our new state ; eggs with you four-pence per dozen, with us four-pence each ; butter eight-pence per pound of sixteen ounces, with us one shilling a pound ; potatoes three-half-pence a stone, with us five-pence per pound ; beef and mutton three- pence per pound, with us one shilling and six-pence; nails* are now selling at a shilling a pound; scales, weights, and beams in great demand; ploughs and timber, chains, metal pots, scythe blades, reaping hooks (strong broad sharp ones). I lately paid three shillings each for very indifferent sickles; potato forks and riddles are extremely scarce; a few sash planes, ploughshares, camp covers, frying pans, cow and sheep bells, knives, some Britannia metal tea pots, zinc milk dishes and pails, buttons for windows are wanted — these hints may be useful. Got my oats and wheat

* Were these in the market note ? if so, they were probably intended for exportation to those colonies where ostriches breakfast on them. — Editor.


put into ricks to-day, and shall turn the cattle on the stubble. This day was very warm, but in the evening I was forced to put on my coat ; that is my only thermometer — coat heat.

23rd. — News ; the Cornwallis has arrived ; there is a mare on board for me.

25th. — Christmas-day; this morning I received a letter from Mr. * * * saying that another mail had been discovered on board the vessel from Sydney, and I got no less than seven other letters and twenty-seven newspapers. This is a Christmas-box indeed, and a Christmas trick too, or rather a frequent and inexcusable one, to keep back the mail until the cargo is disposed of, lest something might appear to spoil the market. I am quite bewildered to know which letter I shall turn to first ; I have dipped into all — my ideas are in confusion ; it will take some time to let my mind settle into clear tranquility.

I thank God for the good health you all seem to enjoy, and I thank you all from my heart for your affectionate remembrances.

After service to-day, I went to Mr. F's to eat my Christmas dinner ; there were Mr. and Mrs. Shaw, Mr. E., Messrs. Burgess, and your humble servant. I have heard that the Jolly Rambler has also arrived from Sydney — there may be more news for me, — what a glutton I am becoming !

26th. — Have been reading over all your last letters a second time ; they appear to have come from Sydney to the Cape, and thence here ; we have had few vessels from Sydney ; some of my letters must have gone astray, as you seem only to have heard incidentally about the spear thrown at me by the natives, and some other affairs which have been nearly forgotten by me. I must now tell you about the spear. One day (as children's tales commence) I was standing in the parlour between two windows, when I was startled by a smart heavy blow on the window frame at my left side ; thinking it was a practical joke of some passing


friend, I went out leisurely and was surprized to see two natives running away. On looking at the window, I found the point of a spear buried about two inches in the corner of the window frame ; the spear lay under the window. I was, as you may suppose, more satisfied to see it there than sticking in my side, for which it seemed well aimed. This occurred long ago, and I have never seen a native here since ; it was the celebrated Ya-gan, who so complimented me.

27th. — This has been one of the hottest days I have experienced in this climate ; yet I was out kangaroo hunting from six in the morning till three with Mr. Burgess, and walked nearly eighteen miles, carrying gunpowder flask and shot belt. If we did not carry a kangaroo into the bargain it was for a particular reason ; there was no shelter and little shade, yet we never ceased walking except to rest the dogs a little, and I have often found it as hot grouse shooting in Ireland. The thermometer would not (there) have stood within many degrees as high as here, but that is not a true criterion of heat. In this climate the temperature at night is always pleasant and cool, sometimes even cold : by pleasant, I mean that degree of heat which is agreeable ; by cool, that which obliges you to put on warmer clothing ; by cold, that which requires a fire, or exercise to make you comfortable. The nights here when the heat compels you to throw off all covering except the sheet, are not of more frequent occurrence than in England.

The marked difference between this climate and that of India is, that the nights there are as insupportable as the days, without any bracing intermission from heat. I have just stated what they are here.

Saw nine native huts to-day framed of the bark of a tree, such as I sent you ; each hut had its fire ; there were the organic remains of kangaroos and other animals, and two or three broken spears and shavings, as if they had been


repairing them : we saw many of their footsteps, but were well pleased to find those who had impressed them "not at home."

29th, — Captain Irwin has come up to spend a day or two at this place : he is very fond of rural life, and talks of remaining here half the week. I bathed at nine o'clock at night.

Late arrivals have again lowered the prices of provisions — meat particularly. One of our merchants is selling salt beef at 4 1/2d. a pound at Fremautle, wine 5s. 6d. per gallon ; and clothes and shoes have fallen in price, in consequence of recent importations.

Jan. 1st, 1833. — One year seems to be distinct from another ; yet where is the boundary ? — They touch each other so nearly that we can hardly separate them. The last moment of last year was remarkable for being unusually cold, though the midst of our summer. I assure you I looked at the kitchen-fire very longingly last night before bed-time. Some of my oats, which have been cut, were seven feet high, well headed, and heavy : they were produced upon ground merely ploughed over once, and harrowed without manure. A ewe has lambed to-day; there are now sixty-two sheep and lambs in all : two or three have gone blind, but from what cause I know not. Somebody in Sydney threatens to send a cargo of sheep and cows here — I hope he will — but when ?

My men requested a bottle of rum for new year's night. I sent it; and they are now enjoying themselves over it. Some questions have already arisen here about executions. No person can be got to act as sheriff. You could scarce believe what legal intricacies are familiar here, in this early stage of the settlement. Though it is a new country, settlers retain all their old manners, habits, prejudices, and notions of a sturdy, free, commercial, litigious people.

2nd. — Another cool cloudy day : we had no such weather


last summer. I walked this evening back to the Darling ranges, looking for a kangaroo : found only one ; but the dog did not get a fair start. I had, however, the satisfac-tion of viewing an extensive prospect of interminable woods. Mount Eliza, which at Perth looks high, was scarcely observable from the spot where I stood. Saw a fire on the great plain of Quartania, to the south.

4th. — Killed a kangaroo, a crow, and two pigeons yesterday. I suppose you think a crow very despicable as food ; but I think it excellent. This day, however, I feasted at Mr. Irwin's, with a pretty large party ; at which we had geese, fowls, and various vegetables, with a variety of wine — claret included. This I mention merely to note the improvement in our colonial comforts.

6th. — This has been a very warm day; the men were obliged to lie by three hours in the middle of the day.

On reading the papers during this interval of rest, I perceived an account of hurricanes in the West Indies killing four thousand people; inundations in the East Indies destroying ten thousand ; and in Ireland several deaths by lightning, and murders by the peasantry. When I read of these horrors (especially in Ireland), I congratulate myself:

" Non quia vexari quenquam est jucunda voluptas,
Sed quibus ipse malis careas, quia cernere suave est."

As yet we have been happily exempt, in this blessed climate, from these visitations, physical or moral.

14th. — Here is the interval of a week; the busiest and most harassing which I have had since my arrival.

You are aware of my holding a court twice a week ; but this week I have been obliged to sit from Tuesday to Saturday, day after day, commencing at ten, and sitting some days until seven ; for people are as fond of litigation here as in the parent state. One jury case took up a whole day : it was an action for a conspiracy and assault, and against eight defendants, each of whom addressed the court ; damages laid at £500.


The suit was brought by a Sydney man, who had chartered a vessel; verdict for defendants. Another action by the same man against Henderson, (captain of the Cornwallis), for running against his boat ; damages laid at £500 ; verdict 40s. There were several other serious and nice actions ; two were by part owners of a ship, for £500 each, shares of profits made in several voyages. I am tired of law, and in need of rest. No wonder, as I have been sleeping for a week on a brick floor, with a carpet bag for a pillow. Got the well dug about two feet deeper, and sunk a barrel in it ; the water is cool and delicious at the depth of about sixteen feet. Found a diamond snake round a tree, it was almost five feet long ; skinned it, and have the skin in a bottle.

17th. — Went to some swampy ground full of springs to look for ducks ; shot a brace, besides a water hen and a cockatoo. I was actually driven out of the swamps by leeches, several of them sticking to my legs. I cannot compare these swamps to any marshes with which you are familiar; perhaps a tract of ground covered with old willows and green weeds, with here and there open spaces of deeper water, is the nearest resemblance I can supply. Fine receptacles for wild ducks, of which the dogs sprung up a dozen to-day ; but I was so hemmed in by the trees, that I could not get a shot ; and not having room to look about me, I slipped up to the neck in a hole ; wetted my powder-flask, but kept my gun dry: so terminated the day's sport. My new men going to turn out for higher wages, though one gets £2 per month as shepherd, and the other £1 per month as cowherd; the former may go, especially as the sheep which I expected from Sydney have not arrived ; nor do the good people either there or at Van Diemen's Land appear in a hurry to send them, which is provoking, as a little exertion in this way, by Government or individuals, would soon render us an independent colony.



February 17th, 1833. — On board the Schooner Ellen, off Cape Naluraliste, Western Australia.

When there is most to record, it frequently happens that there are less means and fewer opportunities of doing it I have led so busy a life since I last wrote, that I scarcely know what lee way I have made, nor how to bring it up. On Tuesday the 5th, I had no fewer than fifty cases in my list to dispose of ; and these I got through on Wednesday evening. On the Thursday I made a fruitless effort to get down to Fremantle, but by delays and adverse winds was obliged to turn back. We had a New Zealander in the. boat, and I took much interest in acquiring information from him relative to his country, which I obtained through the instrumentality of Captain Liddle of the Thistle, who speaks the New Zealand language. It appears that this man had fled from his master, and come off in a trading ship, — a common practice. His manner, language, and appearance differed very much from my preconceived notions of the ferocity and cannibalism of the New Zealanders ; and yet he acknowledges without hesitation the latter horrifying propensity and practice in propria persona. The countenance of this man, however, is pleasing and good-humoured; his manners obliging; his language very soft, even to effeminacy ; his person large and full ; and his limbs rounded and smooth : his name is Ech-to-to.


On pointing out to him one of the plants of this country resembling New Zealand flax, he called it Am-su-rah, and said it was the same sort of plant, but smaller than that of his country. I shall not bore you with my imperfect attempts at his vocabulary further than to say, that his word expressive of dissent (synonymous with our " no ") is ca-oo-ue (the oo sounded like the French eu) ; and that the word "woman" he expressed by "wyena" (mind — not " hyena ").


The boxes of clothes have arrived; but those of a dress description are not in demand : indeed it would be incongruous to embark new settlers in the fopperies of dress, or to divert them in any way (beyond moderate recreation and the enjoyment of limited society) from the habits of their industry, and the objects of their emigration. — Luxuries will come too soon ; let them be preceded by comforts. When industry shall have facilitated the means of procuring a subsistence, the leisure thus obtained may be employed in extending the circle of our pleasures.

On the 10th I rode to Guildford ; walked thence to Perth, which I did not leave until the 12th ; at Mr. Leake's, and enjoyed the grand piano which Mrs. Leake, who had recently arrived, had brought with her.

The two natives of King George's Sound (who are on their return) were greatly delighted with the music ; they danced the kangaroo dance, and did everything in their power to show that they were pleased and grateful — " tank you mem, very pretty." * Their dance appeared to be in imitation of the

* Savages in every part of the globe have a strong passion for dancing. Robertson the historian gives an interesting account of the love for this pastime evinced by the native Americans ; and Raynal enters into a philosophical detail of the subject in his work on the East and West Indies. It is somewhat remarkable (observes the latter), that in the first ages of the world, and among savage nations, dancing should be an imitative art ; and that it should have lost that characteristic in civilised countries, where it seems to be reduced to a set of uniform steps without meaning, &c. Raynal, vol. v., page 65. — Editor.


chase of the kangaroo, the motions of the animal, and the panting and gestures of the person in chase. This dance was divided into different scenes or parts ; the movements differing a little in each part: sometimes the dancers approached each other, then receded traversed and changed sides, with a corresponding variation in gesture and exclama- tion. At intervals they called out "get away, get away," and at each pause, " beraway, beraway," which latter word one of them explained in this way: — white man say "hip, hip, hurra," black man say, " beraway, beraway." During the entire dance, they make a violent panting noise, hegh, hegh, hegh, hogha, hogha, hogha; these sounds guttural. Afterwards they seated themselves in arm-chairs, with the greatest self-complacency, and drank tea.

Their visit has been of great service, for many natives subsequently came into Perth and Fremantle, and intimated their desire to live on friendly terms, and to refrain from offering injury to us or our cattle. Gallypert thus describes his interview with them — me wonka (tell) black man pear white man cow, white man yeep (sheep), white man kill black man ; — black man no pear (spear) cow, no pear yeep, white man give black man jacket, towlyer, yerk (shirt) and bikket (biscuit) plenty ; black man wonka (say) no pear no more.

On the 15th, we came on board the schooner in which I had undertaken to accompany the Lieutenant-Governor on a tour of inspection to Port Augusta and King George's Sound ; and sailed on the following morning with a fair wind.

We had reached Cape Naturaliste, when the wind headed us, and obliged us to run back to Garden Island ; where we went ashore on the evening of the 15th, and enjoyed a bivouac, in preference to our quarters on shipboard.

I wish you had a peep at us as we lay in the bush, with a canopy of trees over us — our supper, fish (speared for us by the natives), with the accompaniment of crabs of our own catching.


On the 16th, we re-embarked; but the wind being still unfavourable, we anchored under shelter of Carnac Island, where we passed a most delightful day, rambling about the rocks, catching crabs with pointed sticks. Our men took some young mutton birds in the holes in which they burrow like rabbits ; and the natives of our party begged hard to remain all night, in order to catch the old ones in their holes, which they do not enter before nightfall ; but, as we intended to sail with the first of the land breeze, we made them sleep with ourselves on board, much to their regret.

17th. — A fine breeze all day : we were running parallel to the coast, but at a considerable distance, to clear Cape Naturaliste.

I8th. — Abreast of the Cape ; which is neither high nor bluff. The coast ten miles distant. We can perceive cattle in the valleys, and the first ridge of bare-looking hills in the back ground. Two fires are perceptible.

19th. — We are now opposite the part of the coast to which you seem to have turned your attention. It is bold and rocky, reminding me greatly of the Irish coast — more to be admired for the picturesque than trusted for its safety. It is probable that there may be many nooks, sounds, or bays, affording shelter, but they are not yet known.

It is a work of time, expense, and difficulty to explore the windings of a coast ; more an object for Government to accomplish, than for an individual to undertake. You conjecture that this is a desirable part of the continent to select for a settlement, but it may be long before this place shall be located, and a solitary settler would labour under many disadvantages in his isolation.

It would be very injudicious to choose an uninhabited district, when there are so many places here in whicli we can have the protection and comfort of society. A Robinson Crusoe kind of life may do very well in romance, but will not be pleasant in reality.


This must be obvious for many reasons ; and as we are now going with a nine-knot breeze and a heaving sea, I shall not be at the trouble of scribbling any thing in proof of it.

Last night the wind became unfavourable as we were rounding Cape Lewin, but on standing out a little we got a fair breeze off land, and so held our course, purposing to call at Fort Augusta on our return.

26th. — We have been on shore for a week, and have now set sail again, having seen much that is interesting, but without an opportunity of recording it, until now ; and even now you must be satisfied with a rapid sketch from recollection.

Early on the morning of the 20th, we rounded Bald Head, the promontory which forms the western head-land of the deep bay of King George's Sound, which appeared to me like Lough Swilly, and I greatly enjoyed the scene. We then proceeded N. and W. through the entrance into Prince's Royal Harbour, and at nine o'clock anchored opposite the settlement there, and on the succeeding morning were welcomed on shore by the clamouring "allalo" (how d'ye do) of a dozen natives, who expressed the greatest joy at seeing their friends Maryate and Gallypert again. This day was passed by the Lieutenant-Governor in examining stores, and other official duties. I called on Messrs. Morley, Cheyne, Littleton, and some others, from whom we received the greatest kindness during our stay.

On Friday we went by boat, from Prince's Royal Harbour, across the Sound, up Oyster Harbour, to a farm lately occupied by Mr. Henty, on the King River, and here enjoyed a rich treat of some of the fine oysters, from the abundance of which the harbour is so named ; then proceeded thence to the Calgan River, which we ascended about six miles, but the navigation becoming impeded by barriers of rocks, we halted to bivouac round a cheerful fire, under a canopy of red gum trees, and were composing ourselves for the night, when Eye-nan (a native who had accompanied us) suddenly jumped up


exclaiming, "Wigh (a snake*) no good, no good." By torch- light, we killed a snake, which had been on the foot of this native, who signified to us that the bite would not be of serious injury, "men dik little," would make him a little sick. Next morning we walked higher up the river, which was here a running stream about twenty-five yards broad, crossed in several places by ledges of rock, where the natives had constructed ingenious weirs for taking fish, which appeared to be abundant. The scenery here is romantic, the soil on the banks tolerably good; but I understand that it does not continue so to any great distance. We returned down the river, and again indulged in an oyster feast, and proceeded to a small island, which a solitary convict had once attempted to cultivate. The effects of his toil appear in the grapes, cabbages, &c., which have now grown wild.

At five we reached the settlement, where we dined with Doctor Littleton, Next day I visited the farm before breakfast with Captain Irwin, for the purpose of selecting a suburban grant in the vicinity. The farm is a tract of ground partly of clay, and partly of loamy quality, about a mile and a half from the settlement, where there are some acres of ground under cultivation, which have produced good wheat this year. I went out a second time, accompanied by a surveyor, and chose two lots of four acres each, one for Captain Irwin, the other for myself; the soil is peaty, with a small portion of sand. Can you imagine a sandy bog ? If so, you may have a notion of this soil.

24th. — On this day (Sunday) many of the natives # came into the barrack during divine service, of whom some remained all the time, and conducted themselves with great decorum. On Monday they were drawn up in line, and

* Latet anguis in herb4. DOYLE, Jun.

# Vide Appendix. M—2


addressed in the following speech by Mr. Morley, the store- keeper, while we all looked most ludicrously grave.

Now now twonk, Gubbernor wonka me wonka black fellow,
Now attend, the Governor desires me to tell the black man

black fellow pear white man white men
if the the black man spear the white man the white men

poot. Black fellow queeple no good. Black
will shoot them. If a black man steal it is not good. If a black

fellow peer black fellow no good Black fellow
man spear a black man it is not good. If the black man

plenty shake hand black fellow, no black fellow no queeple,
be friendly with the black man, if the black man do not steal,

black fellow give him white man wallabees, wood come here,
if the black man give the white man wallabees, bring wood,

water come here, white man plenty shake hand black man,
and bring water, white man will befriend the black man,

plenty give it him bikket, plenty ehtah, plenty
and give him plenty of biscuits, plenty to eat, and give him

blanket, arrack, tomahawk. Now now Gubbernor wonka me
blankets, rice, tomahawk. Now the Governor desires me

give it him one guy black fellow one guy knaif.
to give each black man one knife.

A knife was then suspended by a riband round the neck of each ; thus ended the ceremony, and they were dismissed, a set of wealthy and happy mortals.



Hermitage, Swan River, March 9.

Here is a wide chasm in my diary, which I fear I shall not be able to close satisfactorily. Between hurry and bustle on land, (not to speak of a little squeamishness at sea), my various occupations since I have landed, and interruptions at home, I have got most hopelessly into arrear; yet 1 liope to bring it up.

On the 26th ult. we left George's Sound at sunrise, Doctor Littleton, Mr. Cheyne, (with whom I had lived there), Mr. Morley, and Mr. M'Cleod, of the G3rd, accompanying our original party, until we got into the Sound. We anchored in riinder's Bay, and on the 28th went to Mr. Morley's house, which is prettily situated on the Blackwood, near its mouth. Here, on the floor of an uninhabited house, we spread our mat trasses and cloaks, and with the aid of a good fire made ourselves very comfortable.

The weather, during the whole period of our excursion, was about the temperature of an English spring ; indeed, it is said that the thermometer at King George's Sound seldom rises above 82°.

March 1st. — We advanced up the Blackwood, and got fast on the fiats, which we had some trouble to push over ; there is a passage, but we missed it. On these Hats we saw numbers of ducks, and upwards of a hundred swans — a good classical


omen.* The river above is deep and wide, the banks on either side rich and thickly covered with timber, principally red gum and mahogany. We ascended about twenty- two miles, returned to the same point next morning, and slept at Mr. Russel's. From this we walked to the settlement, about four miles, through thick forest, with a dense luxuri- ance of underwood, through which a pathway leading to the Vasse river has been recently cut. Most of the colonists here speak of going to settle at the Vasse when they can procure sheep, the land there being described as open and grassy, on a substratum of limestone. If this be so, it must be a fine tract of pasture land, continuing, in all probability, of the same quality to the Murray River. Yet this was thought at first a poor sandy district !

The river is inconsiderable, its mouth blocked up, and with- out shelter on the bay ; but it has many advantages. We had some intention of walking to it from the Blackwood, while the vessel was going round, (she could have picked us up there) ; but as that part was so recently explored, and so well laid down in charts, it did not possess sufficiently the interest of novelty to induce us to take a step which might have been attended with many inconveniences, if the ship should have been prevented from coming round in time. I did not mention that we brought six natives, at their urgent request, from King George's Sound, to visit Swan River ; but as we were preparing to embark, one of them was missing. On search- ing for him I suddenly found myself among a large body of natives, who, seeing me hesitate, called out " abba," an ex- pression of friendly salutation. I immediately joined them, and found our runaway among the number: he declared his intention of remaining some time on a visit with them, and then going by land to King George's Sound : as they were


* Mr. Moore probably alludes to this passage : — " Oycnus in auguriis nautis gratissimus ales." — Dotle, J an.



numerous, well armed and powerful, yet good-humoured-look- ing men, we deemed it prudent to proceed without them. If he should reach his tribe in safety, the circumstance may be of great service to us, as he may be the means of opening a friendly intercourse between us and the natives of this dis- trict. Whales frequent King George's Sound. Mr. Lukin who went with us to examine the Sound, in order to ascer- tain whether it be adapted to the whale-fishing, considers it highly eligible for that purpose, and intends to attempt it immediately.

I hope he will succeed ; it would be a chief means of giv- ing stability to the colony. I trust that we shall yet be en- abled to avail ourselves of the advantages, quce larga profuTidit fcecundo Natura sinu. As we were working out of Augusta Bay, we saw many seals of the most valuable species upon the rocky islands of Cape Lewin : in truth, this colony only requires that its natural advantages should be turned to ac- count, in order to vie with any other.

It was the intention of Captain Irwin to call at Vasse ; and he also contemplated a visit to the Murray River, for the purpose of inspecting that outport, but a foul wind frustrated these purposes.

A river called the Donnelly, fresh at the mouth, and hav- ing ten feet of water at the bar, is said to have been seen by Mr. Preston, falling into the sea, about thirty miles east of Augusta. If this be the case (which I doubt) it differs very much from every other known river in this climate ; to coun- teract the force of the salt water at the mouth, it must have a powerful stream. 1 was anxious to persuade Captain Irwin to trace it; but as the captain of the Mien informed us that his boats were not calculated for such service, we were ob- liged to relinquish the attempt, and leave to others the fame of exploring it.

It was not until the evening of the 3rd that we cleared Fiinder's Bay, off Augusta; next day we arrived at Fremantle



about noon, and in the evening reached Perth, where I was detained until Thursday (the 7th).

On my arrival at home I found everything right. The servants informed me that they had never seen such heavy torrents of flooding rain since their arrival in the colony : this wetting has prepared the arid soil for crops ; and I shall im- mediately plant potatoes. We have always had some rain in March, but not so much as on the late occasion, Indeed, we are only now acquiring knowledge of the seasons and the method of managing our crops.

13th. — On this day I sat on the bench from ten until six, in a crowded court. I had a list of forty-two cases for argu- ment, questions of cost, &c.

14:th. — On the bench again all day.

15th. — Ditto. Our colonists are becoming fonder of law every day. Besides the excitement of litigation, three houses have been destroyed by fire. As they were constructed of inflammable materials, every thing which they contained of furniture and clothes was totally consumed.

During the progress of the conflagration, the Swan River natives had a row among themselves, and speared two of their own women and one man very severely. Yet this occasion afforded me strong indication of the good feeling of these people ; for I never before witnessed more genuine sensibility than was manifested by the husband of one of the women (a very young and pretty one, however) ; though wounded him- self, he bore her in his arms to the hospital, and sat beside her all day, supporting her on his bosom. I hope that they will all recover; though some of their wounds are 'deep. The cause of the outrage has not been ascertained.

I was preparing to come away on Friday, when a messen- ger arrived to inform me that the natives had set fire to Mr. Shaw's hay, and driven away my sheep. The report I did not f ally credit ; and on arriving at home, found that the rumour regarding the abstraction of my sheep had originated



in their having stayed away during the night, while under the care of a black man whom I now have with me ; they re- turned like dutiful truants in the morning.

Captain Irwin, and Captain Ellis, superintendent of the native tribes, have investigated the particulars of what had occurred relative to the hay, to discover whether it had been destroyed designedly by the natives, or by accident. I rode with these gentlemen to the spot, about three miles distant ; it appeared that the fire was not accidental, for three ricks, at a distance from each other, were consumed by unconnected fires. We have, in consequence, a post of soldiers overlook- ing the plain on which the mischief was committed.

l^th. — At an early hour tliis morning 1 had a visit from seven natives ; and seventeen more came in the course of the day. I have hired a new shepherd at £2 per month, and have had a litter of nine pigs ! These have been my last domestic changes of great importance.

I'^th. — While wandering about to-day with a gun on my shoulder, 1 met a gentleman who informed that the natives killed a valuable mare belonging to Air. Tanner, at Wood- bridge, yesterday, in revenge it is supposed, for some imagin- ary cause of offence. The same people were perceived on Friday behind my place (soon after the hay was destroyed) on the look out, in all probability, for my flock ; but I keep a steady watch, and shall take my gun with me every day, and observe the precaution of putting a brace of pistols in my belt. We have been on good terms with them every where, so that 1 cannot imagine the occasion of this mis- chievous outbreak.

'21st. — I have been trying to burst asunder the stump of a tree in front of the house ; and I shall then be able to make the ground slope gently from the verandah to the river ; but 1 sadly want some of you to assist me in my landscape gar- dening ; I have been for two days burning brushwood and grass ')uar the house, as a preventive against fire. This has



a paradoxical sound ; but the removal of the mflammable material is a certain security from conflagration in the cleared quarter, and the young grasses are benefited by this process.

After being occupied seven hours in this way, I had several visitors in the evening — among them many ladies. In fact, we see more of our friends here in a week, than you do in a month at home.

Ilfid. — Sad chapter of accidents to be recorded ; knocked my head against an angular beam, and cut it through my hat; my dog Carlo jumped at my nose and bit it, by way of show- ing his affection ; and I afterwards cut myself under the eye by the recoil of a hammer ; then burned my tlinnib and scraped my hand in moving a burning log ; and, by way of grand finale, burned my great toe through my shoe.

2^rd. — A boat-load of visitors — male and female — enough to terrify any bachelor out of his wits. Mr. Kingsford, an experienced miller, lately come out, after searching in vain for an eligible mill site with water power, now proposes to cut a deep trench, and lay a pipe from some lagoons behind Perth into the town, to afford him a supply of water. There are some of these lagoons eight miles in circumference, and at no great distance, which he thinks have a communication with each other through the sandy soil, or which may be made to communicate by unexpensive cuts. Mr. K. seems prejudiced against a windmill ; nor does he think that Mr. Kevely's horizontal one can succeed ; and insists that more can be done by gravity than by impulse.

2Uh. — I have just hired a thresher, paying him Is. 6d. a bushel : he threshes five or six bushels a day, so he earns high wages. My wheat is good, and yields well. I wanted to hire a boy also, but his former master would not give him a certificate, because he had left him without previous warning : this is a wholesome check, which was resolved on at an agri- cultural meeting, greatly to the annoyance of some of the servants of the colony. While I was at breakfast, the mes-



senger of tlie Civil Court at Perth came with affidavits, &c., to support an application for a writ against the captain of a vessel, who is about to leave tlie colony, while there are some unsettled questions of law affecting him. This is one of the few cases in which there is an arrest in civil matters here ; and the writ can only be issued by myself.

The same messenger also brought intelligence that a ship had arrived from Hobart Town, but without a mail. This appeared so strange that I determined to ride down and in- quire for myself. True enough — not a single letter, parcel, or package has she brought — nothing but her own freight of cattle, flour, and pot;itoes. Tliere is some mystery which we cannot as yet develope ; but the general opinion is, either that another vessel had sailed before her, and had not yet arrived, or that one was about to follow, which would inter- fere with her market.

28^A. — Went to dine with Mr. Shaw, and had a drive home with Mr. and Mrs. Brockman in a kind of dog-cart. I killed a fine sheep this morning — the tirst which I have regularly slaughtered for sale: it is small, 11 lbs. a quarter — but I should not be ashamed to compare it with any mutton in your market. The carpenter and thresher purchased a side at Is. 6d. a pound. It was one of those for which I gave £2 10s., but as I have been paying a shepherd ever since, my profit is not very considerable.

Perth, March 2>Qth. — A man has arrived in breathless haste to announce that the Mer&pe, chartered by Major Nairn, had arrived. Soon afterwards the mail was brought in ; but I cannot express my mortification at not receiving a letter ; but in the envelope of one to Captain Irwin lay your letter, dated Nov. 1831, and another from Mrs. Logan, who had forwarded it. I shall start for Fremantle to-morrow, to ascertain if the articles mentioned in your letter are on board, and if they can be exchanged for sheep, of which the Merope has brought 358 ; but I know not if they be for sale. She ha^ also



imported eleven horses, fifteen head of black cattle, twenty goats, fifty tons of potatoes, twenty-five tons of flour, and 200 bushels of seed- wheat ; and the other vessel is freighted with forty tons of flour, and some potatoes ; and both have beef and pork.

I shall now enumerate my own stock : —

Sheep (old and young) ... 66

Cows 8

Horses 2

Pigs 21

Goats 3

Fowls 24

Ducks 5

Dogs 3

Cats 6

It is rumoured that another vessel (the Georgina) is also coming out with stock, and that one from Sydney is bringing out 1,000 sheep. If these grand expectations be realised, we shall soon have stock in abundance, and plenty of seed- wheat and potatoes.

April 5th. — I went last Tuesday to Fremantie, to see about the chest, pork, &c. ; but they have not been landed from the vessel. This is provoking ; for, with most feminine curiosity, I longed to open the chest and inspect its contents. By some untoward chance it got into the commissary store at Hobart Town, and Major Nairn had great trouble in effecting its liberation.

***** * .

To-morrow I must go to Perth ; my judicial duties there being important.


You know that I have never suffered myself to shut my eyes to the difficulties and inconveniences of my situation ; but rather forced myself to contemplate them in their sternest aspect. The certainty may be painful ; but why



should I struggle to conceal from myself that all my former scenes must henceforth be but as a dream of the days that are gone ? Here is my lot cast, Between us there is a gulf fixed (oh how wide !) which few have resolution to cross : yet it is nothing when attempted. It is an excitement, a novelty, a sensation worth the purchasing.

To a first settler, the uncertainty of the how, the when, the where, the everything, connected with his prospects, is distracting; but to those coming out to join their friends, what is there but pleasure ? I really believe that most persons would think it a change for the better. But it is, as I have more than once observed, too great a responsibility to advise the change.

There are now no difficulties in the way of emigration compared with those which the original settlers encountered. We have houses to shelter in, beds to sleep on, inns to quarter at, — meat and bread. But as to any of yourselves emigrating — how could you leave property, business, friends to lead the life of a rustic ? Could you enjoy such a condition, so widely differing from your present habits and occupations ? It is kind in you to talk of coming out here, to keep me in spirits ; but I know the impracticability of it. If any of you have definite intentions on the subject, write, and demand whatever specific information you desire.

I begin to fear that I am bound to this place for life, or for a very long period ; but this is the first time I have dared to express the conviction, even to myself, and I must not

dwell on it.


The Merope is about to sail. If I should not be able to write more in this packet, accept my concluding prayer, that God may bless you all with health and happiness, and receive the assurance of the health, contentment, and probable prosperity of your affectionate brother,

Geoege Moobe.




April 15th, 1833. — I have received your letters and devoured them ; have been buried in newspapers, busied in unpacking, airing, &c., and altogether bewildered, with the variety of occupations and amusements which have come upon me all at once, in addition to my ordinary avocations. I cannot bring my mind to a state of sober regularity without going back a little, getting on my old track, and so habituating myself, by degrees, to the novelties of the road.*

I had just opened the chest on Saturday, when Mr. Mackie came for dinner ; and soon after arrived Captain Irwin, to whom I handed his letters, which were packed up along with mine, and we made a regular evening's feast, whilst Mackie, in the meantime, picked fragments of old news out of the papers.

My first feelings are those of humiliation and shame — for having entertained even a passing doubt of the strength and constancy of your affections, and deep regret at the consciousness of being so undeserving of the affectionate terms in which you all express yourselves, and of the kind

• The chest had been sent, via Van Diemen's Land, in the latter end of 1831, but did not reach . its destination by that rout till April, 1833. It contained the letters of nearly twelve months ; and owing to his not having received them before, our emigrant complained in some of his letters of haying been neglected by his friends.



and considerate acts by which those expressions are con- firmed and realised.

I sat down several times since to write, but could not arrange my ideas ; T wanted to say something particular to each of you ; I still wisli it ; but how to do justice to my own feelings and your affections ! * * * *

*♦» * ***»

The chest was admirably packed and secured, but the moths forced an entrance ; and I am sorry to say their taste led them to some of the choisest morsels. It is remarkable that they do not appear to have touched anything of blue coloured cloth ; that of olive colour has suffered wofully : a very handsome olive coat, which you sent me, has been sadly riddled by them, and 1 am not chemist enough to unriddle the cause of this preference. This, however, is all the material damage ; but some of the light-coloured jackets have been deprived of their colour by damp, wherever it seems to have reached them.

I have already tried the fishing nets — without success — the trammel net is the only killing one in this part of the river.

19th. — I have sketched for you on paper a sort of section view of what my house is intended to be. It appears almost concealed by the verandah, like a man with a broad-brimmed hat drawn down over his face ; but in this climate, shade in summer, and shelter in winter, are equally desirable. When the verandah shall have been made all round, I can enjoy a walk of 164 feet under it.

I have been busy laying out my boundary lines, and chaining my grant, which is more than half a mile in breadth along the river, and running several miles back. Mr. Wells came here in the evening, and I sold him six young pigs just weaned, at 15s. apiece, to be paid in wheat, delivered on my account, to the Government stores, at 13s. per bushel, to repay the advances which were some time ago made to us, in



proportion to the quantity of ground in cultivation, and which were to be paid in colonial wheat, at 15s. per bushel : it costs nearly 10s. to grow it here, at the present price of labour.

20th. — A fire appeared in progress towards Hermitage to-day; and while I was busy watching it, three natives came to me : however, they did no harm, but went quietly away after I had given them some bread. All my men were absent kangaroo hunting, but without success. I have, however, myself caught a little turtle (about half the size of my hand) in the net — this is the extent of my success in fishing.

I got a bill to-day from our blacksmith for odds and ends, which I hardly knew of, amounting to nearly £3. Oh, for our ould Irish UacJcsmith ! what would he say to 6s. for sharpening the plough-share, and 5s. for pointing a crow- bar ? I sent my praam to a carpenter for repairs, and when it came back it was all split and rent with nails, and it sunk in consequence the same day : for this job the said carpenter had the modesty to ask 30s. He is the same man who wanted from me £7 for mending the wheels of my cart, and putting a bullock-pole to it, without the iron work, which would, perhaps, cost me £3 more.

I have now two carpenters (including Eobert) making gates, which will cost me £3 10s. ; twenty-four hurdles have just cost me £7 4s. ; think of these prices !

2bth. — My people begin to grumble at not getting meat more than once, and only two glasses of rum in the day ; but I find it quite enough to give them that allowance, and tell them that I shall not alter my system at present, and that in October, when their time of service with me will have concluded, they may better their condition if they can.

If hops were to be had here, I should try to brew some beer, which would be wholesomer than rum.

I had flattered myself, that, with the help of time and philosophy, the headlong current of my feelings would have



been moderated and lowered down even to sluggishness ; but some passing* thought to-day opened a flood-gate which let them rush in upon me like an overwhelming current. I re- membered the scenes of home, and the hour of parting, with a painful minuteness of detail, and a vividness of reality, which fell little short of reality itself. Vain philosophy ! how easily and readily poor human nature resumes its sway when she finds you sleeping on your post ! I wish some of you were here ; I wish all of you were here : — no ; 'tis a selfish wish ; this life would not do for any of you. You would be obliged to forget, or at least dispense with, many comforts and refine- ments altogether ; you must endeavour to lose the recollection of your former home, and if possible, of your former friends and feelings. What a task ! how difficult ! how impossible ! yet otherwise no emigrant can be contented and happy here ;

* The following lines naturally suggest themselves here. — Editob.

" But ever and anon of griefs subdued

There comes a token like a scorpion's sting, Scarce seen, but with fresh bitterness imbued ;

And slight withal may be the things which bring

Back on the heart the weight which it would fling Aside for ever : it may be a sound —

A tone of music — summer's eve — or spring — A flower — the wind — the ocean — which shall wound, Striking the electric chain wherewith we are darkly bound.

" And how and why we know not, nor can trace

Home to its cloud this lightning of the mind ; But feel the shock renew'd, nor can efface

The blight and blackening which it leaves behind,

Which out of things familiar, undesign'd When least we deem of such, calls up to view

The spectres whom no exorcism can bind, The cold — the changed — perchance the dead — anew The moum'd, the loved, the lost — too many ! yet how few ! "

Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.




he must not look back after having put his hand to the plough. Imagination paints this sunny clime as the land of fruits ; so it is ! but time, labour, money, skill, and judgment, must combine to raise them. The land of pastoral ease and sim- plicity ; so it may be ! but the flocks and herds must first be acquired ; here again money ! money ! The land of agricul- ture and smiling harvests ; true, it may be ! but money is the manure to set them growing.

" Oh cives, cives quaerenda est pecunia primum."

A little will do to set things going, if managed judiciously, and persevering with skill and activity. Servants are so scarce and consequential, that we must serve ourselves as far as possible ; so that a fine gentleman has no business here. I read your plan, last night, for supplying us with workmen ; we have many projects among ourselves, but can do Kttle in this respect, unless Government assist us. I should like to make some arrangement about getting out some of your labourers ; but we are, at present in suspense, every day ex- pecting to hear from England the result of the personal appli- cation of Governor Stirling* ; we scarce know on what ground we stand, whether we shall be better or worse. However, in a month or two we shall know our probable fate. 1 am pre- pared for any vicissitudes of fortune.

I wished tliis morning for you, father, to aid me in keeping

the servants in working order ; for you, J , and W , to

advise and plan improvements, sowings, plantings, gardenings;

for you, S , to contrive machinery and woodwork ; and for

you, my dear sisters, to arrange the housekeeping department, and snuggify things; but you could not make things snug here, for I have as yet neither press nor table that you would call

* When this letter was written, the colonists were uncertain whether they were to receive any further assistance from the British Government, or to be left to themselves. It has been determined, however, to support the colony, as appears from a letter of Sir James Stirling, written in England. See the copy of this letter in Appendix.



such. " Why do you not get carpenters ? " you say. Answer " They are idle or inactive in proportion to the exorbitance of their charge, (10s. a day), and you can hardly notice a day's work." This is a regular grumble ; so it is, and I must claim the privilege of an Englishman to grumble. But I conclude by saying that the weather at this season is the very 'perfection of weather, warm days, cool nights, and dewy mornings.

To-day I got security for some money due to me, and have the power of selling a grant if not paid within a given time. There is a sliort-cut mode of mortgaging land here, which will make it change hands with rapidity. However, as we have nothing to do with the old feudal reasons for making laud unalienable, I don't see why we should not render it as trans- ferable as any other property. I dug up a few new potatoes, which had remained deep sown in the ground since last season; they are good.

Another ship from Van Diemen's Land, the Eagle, with provisions and a general cargo ; only a few sheep, and these for slaughter.

In the evening Mr. * * * came here on business. I do not well know what to think of him : he was a man of war (I don't mean a wooden one), his words are those of a man of peace ; he speaks at times as if he were averse to litigation, yet he is continually involved in it ; professing puerile sim- plicity, yet arguing with the casuistry of a Jesuit; a linguist; (he suddenly asked me the other day what I thought was the force of the particle " Eth," in the first verse of the Hebrew Bible ?) a great financier, who has proposed a desirable scheme of a bank which was to enrich us all, — the only requisite being that the Government should lend us £100,000 ! ! Yet with his varied talents, he is a mere boatman plying on our river.

27j;A. — Ten at night. I have drawn my chair near the/rg, and have thrown on an an additional log,* that I may write


" Lignum super foco larg^ reponens." — M. Doyle, Jun.

N — 2



toy journal luxuriously. A boat having come up the river to-day from Perth, I got ready twenty bushels of wheat, and sent it to the Government store, as the first instalment in payment for advances.

My debt amounts to not much. About £60 for beef, wheat oats, peas, oatmeal, tea and sugar. The advances were made at a time when these articles were scarcely to be had through any channel. We have had twelve months' credit, and it has been of the greatest assistance to us ; indeed I know not what many of us could have done without some such aid. By the way, you wrote that " oatmeal would not keep," — the Govern- ment meal is marked of the year 1829. I have a little of it yet, and it is as good as on the day it was exported. I believe there is some mode of packing it air-tight, and that this is the secret of its keeping so well.

I have observed, on a former occasion, that our wheat costs the grower 10s. per bushel; it has since been calculated at 15s. per bushel. Our neighbour, Mr. B., charges 4s. a bushel for grinding it; other expenses, of lost time, &c., are Is. per bushel more. If we send it to Perth, where it is ground for 2s. per bushel, the distance makes the expense equal to Mr. B's. charge ; or, if we grind it by hand, the time occupied, the first price of the mill, and its continued repairs, prevent any reduction in the expense of its manufacture. It occupied a very great part of the time of my two men, and they were constantly breaking the mill, which had cost me £5 ; so that you see our ground wheat (whole meal) costs about 28s. per cwt. I cannot help thinking of the beautiful fine American flour, some of which I bought at 13s. per cwt. As to oaten meal, none has ever been ground here, nor is it likely ; so that even for medical purposes it would be in demand with us, setting aside the Irish and Scotch in its favour. I am sure it would sell at from 25s. to 28s. per cwt.

I had sent James to borrow a seed riddle, and was on the look out for some pigs that were trying to circumvent the garden^



when I heard a jabbering, and lo ! ten natives were in the act of admiring them at the river-side. As I thought they might carry their admiration to the inconvenient extent of carrying them off, I slipped into the house and got my guns in readi- ness, and in a convenient situation for instant use. I then went out and engaged the unwelcome visitors in most edifying conversation, walking them up through the gate, and past the house, on to the high plain ahove ; and sending Johnny for bread, which I cut and distributed amongst them in due pro- portion, praying proper regard to old Yello-gonga, their chief. and to two of the fair sex by whom he was accompanied. I then shook hands with them, and bade them a most hearty farewell. They were very civil ; but, to say the truth, I have no great desire ever to see their amiable faces again. Amongst them I recognised " Aloley," the native whom I had in charge, on the day when we took seven prisoners, on my first coming to the colony. He did not seem to recognise me, nor did I recollect his face, until he told me his name, — one of the young women then present is his wife.

The next event was the finding one of the young pigs at the bottom of the well, rather past hope ; however, as it bled freely under the operation of the butcher's knife, it may not altogether be a dead loss. It was a nice pig, which I intended to keep ; but being of an inquiring nature, he went searching after truth (I suppose), which they say lies at the bottom of a well. It is well it is no worse.

I have sent off the six young pigs that were bought some time ago by Mr. Wells ; our family is therefore diminished, but we have still fourteen of the hog species.

SOth. — After dinner yesterday I set out to Eedcliff, a de- lightful ride, by an unaccustomed way, and saw several loca- tions higher up the Helena than I had before. Heard of two ships having been seen off the harbour — a matter of great excitement. Eode to Perth this morning, where I ascertained that the brig Dart had arrived from Sydney, bringing fifty



tons of floiir amongst other things. It is singular that, owing to monopoly, everything keeps up a high price yet. The enormous sum of £25 per ton is demanded for potatoes, though they are rotting in the bags, people being unwilling to submit to such taxation, and the sellers refusing to lower , the price. Another vessel has touched here, and inquired of the pilot if England was at war with the Dutch. On being informed of our blissful state of ignorance, she proceeded on her way to Batavia.

I left Perth about four o'clock, and rode the back way, and arrived here with a glimmering of light (between twilight and moonlight), distance about fourteen English miles. Both horse and man (the nobler animal first) were very hungry, neither having eaten from an early breakfast hour. No letter in this vessel that I have heard of.

Four of my sheep have had lambs ;■ it is early yet, by six weeks, for this is the most trying season : we must manage better another time. My present shepherd is very attentive, but must not be interfered with in any way : he dresses the sheep frequently for the scab, which the new flock brought with them — spirits of turpentine and tobacco-water are his remedy.

After an early dinner, I rode back to the hills this day, to my northern boundary ; got on a high hill, with a level top, and had great difficulty in descending by another route : I was quite surprised to find how much of my time it occupied to reach the summit, and how much more rugged and higher it is than I had fancied.

The soil to the very highest points is reddish loam. There is very little mahogany on my grant ; and where there is any, it is much intermixed with red gums, which indicate that the sub-stratum is clay at no great depth. The trees are princi- pally white and red gum. Towards the tops of the hills we find grass (kangaroo and other sorts), lucerne (so called here), chrysanthemum, &c., &c.



I saw two kangaroos ; but it was when we were among the rocks, and they in the plains below. Juno stood on a jutting precipitous rock, and pointed them, a little frightened, yet half inclined to take a bound after them. Carlo had a run after a wallabee ; but it requires a practised dog to kill one, and he is yet inexperienced.

May 1st. — Some natives — seven men, one pretty young woman, and two boys — have been here. I gave them some wheat, but they wanted bread very much, and stayed with me for it half an hour, then went to Mr. Shaw's, thence to the barracks, where shots were fired to frighten them ; they were unarmed ; — I hope we shall not suffer for the indiscre- tion of the soldiers.

2nd. — Captain Irwin came here to-day, and instituted an inquiry into this unprovoked and causeless firing at the un- armed natives, and issued strict orders.

A murder was committed by the natives the day before yesterday, on the road between Fremantle and the Canning, in consequence of the following provocation. Some time ago, a man who had come from Van Diemen's Land, when escort- ing a cart to the house of Mr. Phillips, on the Canning, saw some unoffending natives in the way, " D — n the rascals," said he, " I'll show you how we treat them in Van Diemen's Land," and immediately fired on them. That very cart, with two men who had been present at the transaction, was pass- ing near the same spot the day before yesterday, when they were met by about fifty natives, who had lain in ambush, and the two men were deprived of life so suddenly, that Mr. Phillips (who was accompanying other carts about two luin- dred yards behind) was hardly in time to see Ya-gan thrust a spear into one of them as he lay on the ground. A reward has been offered for the head of this Ya-gan, whether dead or alive ; and several others who were active in the affair, will probably be proclaimed also. A native was shot a few days since at Fremantle, in the act of breaking into a store at night.



In consequence of these horrible occurrences we have been very uneasy.

A party of natives have been at Mr. Bull's to-day again, and seem to impute blame to the soldiers alone.

Eain to-night — the first we have had for some time — it is very seasonable and refreshing.

3rd. — After breakfast I rode with Captain Irwin to lay out a line of road from the head of the river to Guildford. Messrs. Tanner, Peyton, and Mears called in the evening, and mentioned that the soldiers had shot a native, and taken three prisoners.

4:th, — Two natives came here to-day ; one of them is learn- ing to speak English, and is very intelligent. I discovered the naines of more than a dozen who were concerned in the recent murder ; among others, two sons of Ya-gan, Narah and WilHm, the latter a young imp not more than ten or eleven years of age : we are greatly in their power, and must keep on good terms with them, if possible. One of them had a number of frogs (which I think he called " dweep ") nicely packed up in the bark of the tea-tree, and tied with grass ; these he signified they roasted for food, with a long white root, growing like a parsnip, which they dig up in wet weather.

I have this day dismissed the sawyers, because, in addition to the stipulated price for sawing, they charged £3 for merely making a saw-pit, and felling a few trees.

I have been obliged to pay £2 for the woodwork of a pair of harrows ; so you see how mechanics may thrive here ; they are the sort of people to get on well, or those who have everything within themselves — a self-contained family, as it were, who can do without servants ; — the father to plan, the boys to execute, and the girls to cook, wash, and transact all the household affairs - these are the persons calculated for this place ; your gentleman will never do, unless he brings out a cheap, steady establishment, a capital to support it, and is willing to employ both himself and them in active labour.



A sad discovery — my rum cask is empty : I shall have to

pay £27 for refilling it ; and this will be only one year's sup- ply, even for my small establishment.

With you " grog " means a mixture of spirits and water, in the ratio of one to three, or one to four — no such thing here — it means unmixed ardent spirits. The habits which many of the English peasantry bring with them are ruinous ; and every man's expenditure seems to be regulated by the highest standard ; even men who but seldom taste meat at home, demand it here three times a day ; and now talk of beer in addition to their grog.

Killed a lamb to-day, about six months old, small, but good ; it weighed only six pounds a quarter.

hth. — After breakfast, Francis Whitfield, and shortly after ten natives, came here : among them were three women, such unlovely specimens of feminity as I never wish to see again. One of them carried a pretty chubby-faced boy on her back. Would that these visits, like angelic ones, were " few and far between," for they are a smart tax upon me, as I am obliged to distribute bread among the visitors. I try to make them understand that they should come only once a week, to levy their " black mail," as I call it ; but they do not, or vjill not, understand, my hints.

My shepherd (unconscionable dog) wants to get the head and pluck as a perquisite for killing sheep, and a glass of grog, besides one every wet day. I fear I must part with him, though he is an excellent herdsman.

12th. — Oh, I have had such a week of it ! — Sat in court on Tuesday from ten until it was dark, and so every successive day until Friday evening. There were forty-nine actions for trial, several motions for a new hearing, or for staying judg- ment, &c., &c. One law argument. Many of the other cases were of claims to a large amount ; one for £569, another for £2000 damages. I had got a cold and swelling in my neck just before I went to Perth, which was greatly increased by



sitting in court every day eight or nine hours, exposed to a draught of wind blowing about my head. I suffered great torture every evening, and passed sleepless nights, but fortu- nately did not feel pain during the day, probably on account of mental occupation. It was truly a relief to have the week over. I reached Eed Cliff yesterday in time for dinner, when I found a merry party : among them, Mr. and Mrs. Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Tanner, Mr. Drake, and Miss Parkes, Messrs. Yule, Erskine, and Dale.

I arrived at home this evening at nine o'clock ; so you perceive I have lost no time in pulling up my arrear of diary.

ISth. — Got another hundred of cabbages put down to-day, and had my potatoes moulded.

I must subjoin a list of articles which are essential to my little housekeeping, and which you can send out yearly, for we require annual remittances to keep up our stock, as our merchants do not themselves import, but buy up what arrives, which they sell out at exorbitant prices.

Four casks of pork ; five barrels of American flour, 200 lbs. each : one dress suit of black cloth, one pair of dress boots, one pair of walking ditto, one pair of dancing-shoes ; a web of coarse linen for ticking, ditto for sheets ; calico sheets, blankets, and counterpanes ; corduroy trowsers, slop shoes, jackets, and waistcoats ; and twelve coarse cotton check- shirts ; a small crate of crockery — strong delf — breakfast and dinner-services ; milk pans ; short worsted and cotton stock- ings. The crockery ware might be packed in grass. A little red clover seed will also be acceptable.

The articles named would not only enable me to keep out of the market myself, but to pay those servants whom I must employ and feed, at the rate of £60 per annum each, as cal- culated by colonial prices. We have no flannel, blankets, counterpanes, nor scarcely any woollen thing in the colony. All our friends at home seem to act on the same persuasion,



that in this climate there is no need of such things ; yet in our winter we require them as much as you do.

Some things are selUng for less money tlian at former periods, not because they are become more abundant, but- because money is more scarce.

14^/i. — The weather is now very pleasant, but the variance of temperature is rather too much : in the middle of the day it is warm, at night cold ; it is just the season for colds, on account of these vicissitudes.

I found several mushrooms to-day. Some natives have been here this evening — a family party — Yelloganga and his two wives, with the boys Parabang and " Nghnoonig." The latter word affords an instance of one of Lyon's " lost sounds;" and it would be a pity if ever it should be found again. Ngoonig, Nghnoonig — I cannot combine any form of letters which gives the sound correctly ; it sounds as if you were going to blow your nose — rather nasal, " I guess."

Got some Swedish turnip seed sown, and transplanted almond trees, and one little apple tree, which I reared from a pippin, Mr. Shaw came here this evening, took tea with me, and stayed until nine o'clock — a dark and frosty-feeling evening.

15^^. — There is very little specie here : and no private bill on England or elsewhere will be taken now, no matter how unexceptionable it may appear to be. Barter will do among ourselves, as we have plenty of property ; but having no ex- ports, we have but little specie to spare for the payment of any thing we procure from other countries. Emigrants should, therefore, bring out specie, which is now the best investment. Hitherto they have been laying out their capi- tal in goods and merchandise.

Ten able-bodied natives were here to-day, none of whom I had ever seen before, with the exception of one. — Sturdy beggars — they will not easily be refused.

Walked to Mr. Bull's this evening, and engaged two bushels



of seed barley, at 15s. per bushel, of 45 lbs. weight: this may make you stare; but these high prices are tlie difficulties first settlers have to contend with, until they can produce enough for the supply of the colony.

19th. — Dale came here yesterday and dined, then came Erskine, and afterwards Captain Irwin, who spent the even- ing with me : we had great discussions de omnibus rebus.

One of the parties which have been sent after Ya-gan have fallen in with some of the hostile tribe, and shot the brother of Midgegoroo, who is Ya-gan's father. Twenty-four natives made their appearance at the opposite side of the river, wish- ing to get across. I made signs that the boat was out of order, and that they must go round by the ford ; which gave me time to get some wheat ground, and coarse cakes made, which I distributed amongst them. I had previously taken care that all my arms and ammunition should be in readi- ness, but they were very quiet. Among them were two very well-looking young women, one of whom suckled her child, supporting its body under her arm, whilst its legs were in the bag which hung at her back. Weeip gave me a very good knife, with a wedge of quartz. I was almost alone when this party came ; but by good fortune a number of neighbours and runners happened to come immediately after.

20th. — Midgegoroo, one of the proclaimed natives, has been taken, and there is great perplexity as to what should be done with him : the populace cry loudly for his blood ; but the idea of shooting him with the cool formalities of execution, is re- volting: there is some intention of sending him into perpetual banishment.

22nd. — Midgegoroo, after having been fully indentified as a principal in three murders at least, has been sliot at the gaol-door, by a party of the military. We are all anxious to see how the others will conduct themselves after this execution, if they discover it; tliere were none of them present at it. His son had been sent on board the Ellen previously.



2Srd. — I came to Guildford to attend a meeting of agricul- turists, to take into consideration the state of the circulatincr medium; went thence to Mr. Tanner's to luncheon, and immediately afcer, suffered such pain in my head that I was obliged to set out for home, and have had a succession of hot poultices to my poor caput ever since. I am almost afraid to go to bed, for there I suffer exquisite pain, without obtaining even a little sleep.

24:th. — Oh ! what an interval ! I scarce know myself — torture unceasing and no sleep. I have been brought through so far ; but I fear this attack will be succeeded by others. My public duties require me to visit Perth on Monday week, and I fear my inability to leave home, for I am literally as weak as a child, and have no appetite. I missed my dear father's advice sadly, for never having been ill before, I do not know how to treat myself.

I have got my old chimney snugged up for the winter. My new room will be 18 feet by 15 feet, with two recesses on either side of the fire-place for book-shelves, side-board, or whatever you please: it will be lighted by two French windows, opening into a verandah six feet wide, which runs round the house ; and the lawn immediately in front will be green, I hope, all the year round, with lucerne, which I have sown in drills. The other seeds, which came in the chest by Van Diemen's Land, are all dead.

25th. — My men have unanimously declared against cocoa, which I lately bought for them during the present high price of tea : there is still, however, room for negociation on the disputed point. What a plague servants are !

My shepherd, as I have often said, is a queer fellow : only think of his having given £3 for a set of sheep-bells ; they are enchantingly musical, however, and the tinkling, as the sheep come home at night, is one of the most cheerful sounds I have ever heard. This man feels great pride in having his flock look well, and is very jealous of my being inquisitive about



tlliem. If I succeed in getting any of Downing's flock, I shall probably dispose of those among my old stock that are aged, as many of mine are ; some having been brought from Mr. Trimmer's flock in England at the commencement of the colony. Those of Downing's are the only sheep to be pur- chased now.

26^A. — A lovely day as to temperature. Mr. Yule and Mr. A. Trimmer called to see me, and stayed till two. Mr. Burgess came here in the evening, and took tea.

2^th. — Have had a long, angry, and wholly unexpected con- ference to-day with the very spirit of evil himself, I mean the notorious Ya-gan. On seeing several natives approach the house, I went towards them as usual, thinking they were my old friends. To my surprise, the first I met was Migo, whom I had known well at Perth, as the servant of Captain Ellis, and the friend of the chieftain Mundy. On looking round, I then saw Munday himself (who is proclaimed, with a price on his head) : this made me look still closer, and at last I saw Ya-gan standing a little aloof, scrutinising my countenance narrowly, and my manner of receiving them. I had been taxing Migo with having been present at the murder, which he energetically denied. When my eyes first fell upon Ya- gan, I said immediately " What name ? " They all answered " Boolgat." I said " No ; Ya-gan." At first he was inclined to persist in the assumed character ; but seeing that I knew him perfectly, he came forward, avowed himself, and entered into a long argument and defence of his conduct, in a way that I can hardly make intelligible to you ; and I confess he had almost as much of the argument as I had. Both parties seemed to consider us as respectively arguing the question. Ya-gan listened with respectful anxiety, and used bold and emphatic language and gi-aceful gesture, with abundant action; he delivered himself boldly. I did not understand him, but replied, " If white man queeple (steal), white man shoot white man ; if black man queeple, white man shoot black man ; if



black man no gydyell (kill) cow, no gydyell sheep, no gydyell pig, white man all same as brother to black man, shake hands plenty, co-rdbhery* plenty." Here I advanced with open hands to them, which all ran eagerly to grasp, save the moody chief himself. They had grouped around, evidently attending to the arguments on both sides with great interest, and glad of anything like a friendly termination. Ya-gan again stepped forward, and leaning familiarly with his left hand on my shoulder, while he gesticulated with his right, delivered a sort of recitative, looking earnestly at my face. I regret that I could not understand him, but I conjectured, from the tone and manner, that the purport was this : — " You came to our country ; you have driven us from our haunts, and disturbed us in our occupations : as we walk in our own country, we are fired upon by the white men ; why should the white men treat us so ? "

This reminded me of a chorus in a Greek tragedy ; and the other natives seemed to act as subordinate characters to Ya-gan. After a short interval, the chief approached again, and fixing his eyes as if he read my countenance, said inquir- ingly, " Midgegoroo shoot ? walk ?" (meaning was Midgegoroo dead or alive ?) I felt that the question was full of personal hazard to me, and gave no reply. Even Weeip came, and anxiously asked the same question, putting his finger to my ear, to know if I heard or understood him. I answered slowly, " White man angry, — Governor angry." However my men assured them that both Midgegoroo and his son were gone on board a ship. Ya-gan still continued to read my countenance, and when he could obtain no answer from me, he said with extraordinary vehemence of manner, dis- tinctness of utterance, and emphasis of tone, " White man shoot Midgegoroo, Ya-gan kill three " (holding up three


* I suppose we are to understand by this word " associate in friendship," — '• oo-robbery " to our ears conveys a somewhat discreditable meaning.



lingers). I said, " Ya-gan kill all white man, soldier man and every man kill Ya-gan." He scowled a look of daring defiance, and turned on his heel with an air of ineffable contempt. During the latter part of this conference, he held a beautifully tapered and exquisitely pointed spear, grasped like a stiletto, about fourteen inches from the point, while the shaft lay over his shoulder, with a seeming carelessness. He evidently suspected treachery, and was on his guard against it, taking care not to let my men press on him too closely, and keeping some of the natives between myself and them.

Nothing short of an overpowering force (which I did not possess), or a cold-blooded deliberate treachery (of which I was incapable), would have enabled me to have secured him as he then stood : it was, perhaps, my duty to have attempted his arrest, dead or alive ; however, consider the circumstances of my situation, — I had gone among them unarmed, little thinking that the " Wallace " of the tribe was there ; he did not relinquish his spear till he was certain of my pacific intentions ; and there were ten of them, and only three of us, — myself rather invalided.

I despatched a letter instantly to Mr. Bull, as a magistrate, apprising him of Ya-gan's vicinity. He went off for the soldiers ; and in the meantime this proclaimed and dangerous outlaw, with a price on his head, and threats (not idle) on his tongue, in sight of the military quarters, and of a magistrate's residence, hemmed in between three or four settlements, and almost in presence of a large force of armed men, was suffered to escape unmolested. The truth is, every one wishes him taken, but no one likes to be the captor. How could any person, unless a professed blood-hunter, spring upon a man in cold blood, and lead him to the death ? How could any one who has a heart fire upon him treacher- ously from a secure ambush, though he be an unfeeling and reckless savage ? There is something in his daring which one is forced to admire.



In the evening I heard a trampling of horses, and Captains Irwin and Dale arrived. I told the story; they both gal- lopped off immediately for the soldiers.

2Uh. — A party was out last night after Ya-gan, but without success.

The Government have sent a band of resolute men here to do their utmost to take him. The man who commands this party is called " Hunt," a most appropriate name. On one occasion he followed a party of natives for thirteen days and nights, thinking it was Ya-gan's tribe ; at last he got into such a situation that the natives attacked his party. He shot the most forward, who turned out to be Midgegoroo's brother. Hunt was a constable in London ; he has just been here to request I would send him word if Ya-gan appears again in this quarter : his party is to lie " perdu " at Mr. Bull's for some time.

2^th. — No appearance of the natives here to-day. I have heard that Ya-gan has been seen at a house four miles down the river, on the other side ; so that strong hopes are enter- tained of his being shortly taken.

Z\st. — I have just returned from Mr. Brockman's, where I have been all the morning, settling an arbitration affair which had been referred to Mr. Brockman and myself I hope we have finally settled it to the advantage and satisfaction of both parties; but I fear I have not served my health by exposure to the air.

While I was away the natives called at Hermitage, but not accompanied by Ya-gan. One of Midgegoroo's widows was among them, in great grief for the arrest of her son.

JwM 1st. — My shepherd has not ceased to tease me tiU I have consented to let him go to Perth, with a venture of ten sheep for sale. He is, I think, a trustworthy man ; but I shall soon see how he has succeeded.

My head does not get on so quickly as I expected; it ought to have been plaistered enough by this time ; my face



looks as if there had been not only jplaisteriTig, but white- washing.

2nd. — My shepherd set out for Perth with his sheep early this morning, and James reigns in his stead.

Old Yellogonga, with three women and children, came here to-day. They begged hard for some sugar. I gave them a little each. The old man asked me to allow him to go down to the house. I led him down, showed him the kitchen, and then my room, in which I had spread out my guns, pistols, &c. " No, no, no," he said ; " no, no." He was quite surprised and puzzled at the looking-glass, peeping over and behind it. After he was gone, Weeip and four others came, one of whom was Ya-gan's son, and it is probable that Ya-gan himself was not far away ; but aware of the danger of appearing. I am told they have since expressed their satisfaction at my conduct, saying, that "Mitzer Moore be very good man." Weeip has intimated that no injury shall be done in this neighbourhood ; and altogether we hope for peace from this friendly intercourse with them. Weeip to-day received a blanket, which Captain Trwin sent to him, — the women were very inquisitive about Midgegoroo and his son. About the former I still shook my head, and said, he " kill white man."

I told them that if they were quiet, and committed no injury, the boy would soon come back to them. They seem to have an idea of a spirit, " Goodjot," and another "Manjut ;" for when Naral asked me to-day how I got the wound in my head, I pointed upwards solemnly and said " Goodjot," inti- mating that it was a visitation from God ; he seemed to understand but said " Manjut," as if it came from an evil power. I feel a great interest in them, and hope they will be quiet, and continue friendly. It seems to gratify them greatly when we use their words, as I do whenever I can recollect one. They were trying to describe " sister," when I said " woora " (their own term), with which they were greatly pleased.



We have hopes they will not continue to be troublesome : increase of the white population would no doubt be the most effectual remedy against them ; but in our present state, fear of the evil may be the means of preventing the application of the remedy.

I do not gain strength rapidly, and have been weaker than before. I cannot bear exposure, and little exercise overcomes me ; but I must go to Perth to-morrow, — would I were back again!

Srd. — A second swelling in my head is coming on, above the former ; and yet my public duty obliges me to go to Perth. I must get through it as I can, and then come home and lay myself up " in ordinary " again."

We are now in a state of great suspense respecting the governor's mission, but a month or two must end it. You are, perhaps, now apprised of what is to be our fate ; I mean so far as the intention of the British Government is con- cerned: lose no opportunity of writing to me on this and other subjects, for hearing from you is my only consolation in this distant solitude ; for solitude such a condition as mine is, and must be.

The mail is just about to be made, via Mauritius. I can only add — love, love, love to you all.

George F. Moore.






Hermitage, Stvan River, Western Australia, June the 6th, 1833.

I CLOSED my last letters to you this day at Perth, at one o'clock, in a very hurried way, as I had known nothing of the sailing of the vessel until I had gone down to attend my duties at court ; it was fortunate that I had taken my journal with me, and every day's experience convinces me the more that this mode of writing a letter from day to day is the best I can adopt, though it may not be the most satisfactory to each of you individually ; the arrangement of separate letters I never can accomplish, however much I may desire it ; indeed they could be nothing but hurried pieces of unmean- ing or unsatisfactory scribbling, and could never by that mode convey to you the least notion of my own occupations and the real condition of the colony.

My fears were not altogether groundless, for my shepherd informs me that he misses one of the sheep which James had in his charge, and he attributes the loss to the natives ; but I have no clue to the truth : the native dogs prowl about like wolves, and might easily carry off a straggler from such a guardian as James. If the natives had been the delinquents, they would have taken more than one, in my opinion.

It may strike you as singular, that my servants do not send letters home. It arises partly from our knowing nothing of the sailing of the ships until it is too late, and greatly (I



am soiry to say) from their being too fond of playing cards, carousing, and singing, which makes them inattentive to any of their duties. I often ask them to write, yet they forget to do so ; I am obliged to say they seem to have very little care or solicitude about my affairs, and I have proportionably lost my interest for them : for the satisfaction of their friends, I will tell you how they live ; and let them judge between us. At early morning, they get a breakfast of bread and tea, with sugar and milk ; at midday, bread and meat, with flour pudding, and potatoes, or other vegetables, without restric- tion ; at evening, bread and tea — without limitation of allow- ance at this or any meal. They now get two glasses of wine, and one of rum, in the day, and they have abundance of clothing from head to foot. If this be not improvement in their condition, I know not what their condition was ; and yet they are dissatistied. * * * has grown a fine manly- looking youth ; but he is self-willed and passionate to a great degree, and fonder of his grog than any one of his age ought to be. You may, if you please, tell my opinion to his father, in a way least likely to distress his feelings. To the use of " grog " I attribute all my troubles with my people : we were compelled at first to give it, and immediately lost all control over our servants. I have great reason to be dissatisfied with mine ; for I feel that they are no longer my friends, as I fondly hoped they would be ; they care no more for me than for the merest stranger, and look upon me in no other light than that of one who is hound to feed and clothe them, and give them grog, and for whom they are not under obligation to do anything willingly — whose wishes, interests, and hap])iiiess, they need not regard, farther than as it suits their own conveni- ence. I am sorry to make such an expos4. I approach the subject with reluctance, dwell upon it with sorrow and pain, and shall never touch upon it again, unless forced by some very pecu- liar occurrence.

^th. — Mr. Bull has been here, on his return from the agri-



cultural meeting ; at which there was much discussion about banks, and natives, and taxes, but nothing done.

8^^. — Sowed some wheat, mangel wurzel, and turnips (broadcast), and got all harrowed in. Had the "honour" of a visit from ten natives ; among whom were two well-looking young women, with children at their backs. These were brought here and introduced by " Beelycomera," Weeip's son. On their going in the direction of our sheep, I was alarmed (as the shepherds had come to dinner), and wished them to cross the river ; but Beelycoomera took a piece of evyay* root and put it in the ground, and began to dig; then pointed where he wished to go. I told him my sheep were there, and expressed my fears ; which he removed by assurances that he would do no harm. They passed on. I put a pair of pistols in my pockets, and walking leisurely after them, found them busy digging. They were quite amused at my repeating the words which I had heard them sing at a corrohbery * * * I conveyed them to the ford over which I so often crossed myself on my first coming here, and bade them each by name " good bye," as well as I could : a youngster continued calling frequently " good bye," and kissing his hand.

Doodyeep, the girl whose name I mentioned in my last letter, has been married within these few days, and has been the occasion of a great corrohbery, which I have heard them speaking of. I suspect that Weeip is now on the Canning, by invitation, to eat the remainder of the sheep and goats they had stolen for the entertainment.

9 o'clock at night. — These plaguy natives have stolen one of my pigs. They are sad hypocrites : those very four who were here were, I suspect, privy to, if not active in, the theft. I had some suspicion on this point in the morning, but they assured me "No, no, Mitzer Moore; no, gyddyell;" — and pretended to be so very angry with some whom they named,

• I doubt the correctness of this word, which imfortunately is blotted in the original MS. — Ed.



that I believed them sincere. It is difficult to ascertain the

real fact. I wish it was either peace or war between us ; but

now we must not touch them, for by proclamation they are

declared under the protection of the law, as British subjects. ******

The British lucerne which I sowed, is coming up well : our native lucerne is like it in woody stem, but stronger ; its leaves are more like those of the pea, and taste like them ; it bears a pea-pod also, and has a red pea blossom. Ked clover thrives here better than white. A person who has got Col. Laton's grant, on the opposite side of the river (opposite J. H. Wright's), is parcelling it out to labourers, and there are already four different lots taken by persons of that class, from twenty to one hundred acres. This has cut up all his grant, for the whole frontage is given away ; but he is no farmer ; and as he intends keeping a store, it will answer his purpose. This subdivision of land will be very serviceable to our neighbourhood, as it will afford a supply of labour, and create a small demand for meat.

I have seen nothing of the natives since they killed the pig ; perhaps they wish to give themselves time to digest it, and me time to digest the loss of it. However, I feel inclined to apply to this loss what the Spanish proverb says to misfortune — " Ben vengas si vengas sola." I shall get off cheaply, when compared with last year, if I lose no more.

14:th. — Mr. Bull came this evening to consider what was to be done about the natives. He wishes still to exercise hospitality towards them ; and I agree with him, that if we do not make an effort to come to a friendly understanding and arrangement with them they will annoy us, for we are not able to drive them away so as to secure ourselves, with- out their extermination. Each tribe has its distinct ground ; and they will, of course, rather adhere to it, dispute its pos- session, and take their revenge on the intruders, then fall back on other tribes of their own countrymen, and fight their



way inch by inch with them. It is our interest to show them, first, that we set such a vahie on our stock as will make us resent and punish any aggression upon them ; and next, that we are so united together, " so much brothers," that any injury committed against one will be resisted by all. It was agreed at last, that on their coming to any of our houses, we should intimate our displeasure at what had been done — our determination to be friends for one month, and then to conti"nue so, if no mischief were done within this period of probation. If we all act on the same principle, it will show a combination and concert among us, which may make them respect individual property. In short, to teach them that we make common cause is our only safety, as it is our truest policy.

This is an experiment worth trying, at all events. We cannot be much surprised at their taking a pig or sheep which they find in the bush; for we know that, even in civilised life, the fear of well-understood laws, both human and divine, does not secure property in tempting situations* These savages consider a successful piece of theft as a laudable act, and estimate it according to the skill displayed in the accomplishment ; like the Spartans, who considered that the dishonour lay nut in the act of robbery, but in the discovery of it.

Hermitage, Swan Biver, 21st June, 1833. — It was but yes- terday I sent off my last journal letter to you, by the brig Dart, vid Mauritius. I perceive that the Saxony wool is now coming into great repute. M'Dermott has a few sheep of the finest breed, for which he expects a very high price. I look now upon the flock of sheep as a mere matter of profit, having lost that sort of domestic or family interest which I felt in the first year, when I had only a pig and a goat; but I still feel it with respect to my old pets. My ancient goat had three female kids to-day — five within a year ; there have been instances here of nine in one year. My pigs eat down



my cabbages and peas as fast as they recover, so that I find myself' induced to exchange them for sheep ; but I am un- willing to part altogether with the breed of my old Bessy, whom I brought out of the Cleopatra on my first arrival.

The natives have had some row among themselves : one of them has come to tell us that Ya-gan is the person who has been doiug all the mischief; that he killed my pig, and speared two of Mr. Burgess's ; and declares that he will kill cows, sheep, and every living thing he can come at ; if the white people will accompany my informant with a strong party, well armed, he will lead them within a short distance of Ya-gan, so as to take him. Now, whether they find Ya-gan interfering with their assumed privileges of plunder- ing us, or encroaching on their grounds, or are really in earnest in their desire to prevent mischief to our flocks, it is an opportunity that ought to be taken instant advantage of.

I have a piece of natural history for you, regarding the white ants.

These make their aiiproaches so stealthily under their covered ways, and, like the wise Dutch, at Antwerp, on a late occasion, so keep within their strong casemates as to be tolerably secure from observation, as well as annoyance. I had an opportunity lately of seeing some of their domestic arrangements, the description of which may interest you.

Upon the brow of a small rounded eminence there stood a sort of a pillar of clay, about five feet high, which liad once filled up the centre of a hollowed tree ; the shell of which had been from time to time broken and burned away. This pillar was the work of white ants. As it interfered with the working of the plough, I commenced l)reaking and digging it down ; not without some small curiosity. Numbers of centi- pedes were found about the outside, where pieces of the wood still remained. The clay, which was surprisingly stiff, hard, and dry, broke off in large fragments. At length, near the level of the sui'face of the ground, a rounded crust was un-



covered, looking like the crown of a dome. On breaking through this, the whole city of the ants was laid bare — a wonderful mass of cells, pillars, chambers, and passages. — The spade sunk perhaps two feet among the crisp and crack- ing ruins, which seemed formed either of the excavated rem- nants of the tree, or a thin shell-like cement of clay. The arrangement of the interior was singular: the central part had the appearance of innumerable small branching pillars, like the minutest stalactical formations, or like some of the smaller coralline productions. Towards the outer part, the materials assumed the appearance of thin laminae, about half the substance of a wafer, but most ingeniously disposed in the shape of a series of low elliptic arches, so placed that the centre of the arch below formed the resting-place for the abutment of the arch above. These abutments again formed sloping platforms for ascent to the higher apartments. In other places, I thought I could discern spiral ascents, not unlike geometrical staircases. The whole formed such an ingenious specimen of complicated architecture, and such an endless labyrinth of intricate passages, as could bid defiance alike to art and to Ariadne's clue : but even the affairs Of ants are subject to mutation. This great city was deserted — a few loiterers alone remained, to tell to what race it had formerly belonged. Their great store-houses had been ex- hausted — even the very roots had been laid under contribu- tion; till at last its myriads of inhabitants had emigrated en masse, to commence anew their operations in some other soil.

We have had a long discussion about establishing a paper currency among the agriculturists, in which was proposed, that each of a certain number, in proportion to iheir actual possessions, should be privileged to draw promissory notes payable in colonial produce at market rates. I am opposed to this, and see many objections to it ; but have not yet con- sidered the matter so fully as to state them definitely. Where



are we to draw the limit ? and how are we to ascertain the actual circumstances of any man ? How are we to avoid jealousies, feuds and mortifications ? Wliat nice distinctions will be necessary ? If the privilege be confined to men of real property, they will be but a favoured few, and who will take their notes but those of this particular class ? Will the captains of ships ? No ! — The merchants ? I doubt it ! Of what use Lo them would be " Three months after date, I promise to pay six pigs, a gander and a goose, &c., &c. ? "

I treated Doolup, one of our natives, with a ride on the mare to-day ; he sat well, and was martial looking ; his head adorned with red cockatoo feathers, his face with white paint.

I^th. — Weeip and Doolup have come here. I brought Weeip into ray room, and had a long conversation with him. He told me that he had dismissed Ya-gan from his grounds. While he was here, my dinner was brought in ; he paid the greatest attention to my manner of eating ; tasted the salt, and said " no good ; " was very inquisitive to know what the meat was. Kangaroo ? No. — Beef (cow bullock) ? No. — Pig ? No. — Sheep ? Yes, which he seemed hardly persuaded of. Doolup took such a fancy to his quarters, that he would not go away. I shot two wild ducks on the river, with which act of sports- manship he was greatly delighted. He has just taken tea, and is sitting quite at home with the men in the kitchen. Weeip did not know what to make of the milk he saw me drink. Was it moco (water) ? No. Grog (he had heard of grog at Bull's, and said it was " no good ") ? No.— Wine ? — No. Cow ? No. He was puzzled till I imitated sucking ; he at once understood me, and said " piccaimy cow ? yes ! yes ! yes ! " and seemed quite satisfied. He looked at the guns, pistuls, swords, bellows, tongs, &c., and now has much to talk and think about ; in short, he has acquired new ideas.

This has been a very wet day, with thunder and lightning. I fear we shall have a fiood this year like that in 1829 and X830,



Sunday. — Rain, rain, rain ; but it looks a little better this evening — river high. I have agreed to go to Perth with Weeip, when the rain ceases. The weather became milder last night, and continued so to-day, though there was some gentle rain. I thought we were likely to have it fine again, but this evening the wind is rising from the north-west (a bad sign).

Some natives have again been scraping up Edward's potatoes. I suspected some of our white people ; but after examining the footmarks, it is evident that they were not the rogues. The footmarks are all in one line, one before the other ; while a European's go in a double course the great toe of the natives is always in a straight line with his foot. The great toe of those wearing shoes turns in towards the others. A butcher came from Perth, but would not give me fifty shillings for one of my choicest sheep, though I know he makes four pounds of them. This is not fair to the grazier or to the public.

Ya-gan was seen to-day behind Dring's, on the other side of the river, and Edward's wife saw some of the natives busy at the potatoes in the middle of the day ; putting these things together, they show he is the delinquent,

I have been thinking it would be an excellent speculation to get out woollen weavers to make our coarse wool into blankets, and none but the fine qualities will be sent home ; none other would be much worth the expense. I have a quantity of coarse wool at this moment, and I know not what to make of it, I sold my merino-wool at one sliilling per pound ; there were only sixty pounds of it last year. It would require spinners and carders to carry my plan into effect, but I think it would be a profitable way of disposing of the wool.

^th. — Our pet natives have been playing their tricks to-day at Edward's Ground. They waited till after the dinner bell rang ; and when they thought all the people were at dinner, they came into the garden and scraped up the potatoes with



wonderful dexterity, but were suspected, and narrowly escaped injury by one man's firing too soon. I am sorry to say friend Weeip, and my body guard Doolup, are said to be among the number.

Qth. — My shepherd has given notice that he will leave me, if I do not give him three pounds a month, and four glasses of rum in the day. I refused to comply, so I suppose he will go.

lUh. — Called this morning on Mr. Harris, and there heard that Ya-gan had been shot at the head of the river ; and that a settler had been speared, and an inquest held. You may be sure I was uneasy, and rode home as fast as I could.

On Sunday, when Weeip came here, I charged him and Doolup with stealing the potatoes at Edward's ; he indig- nantly denied it, and ably proved an "alibi," in which he was confirmed by Mr. Bull. He has told since that Ya-gan was the person who was nearly shot then ; that the ball went through the hair at the back of his head.

\hth, — This has been a day differing in its incident from my usual routine. At breakfast time, two men of Mr. Bull's came for my praam, to take the body of a boy (killed by Ya- gan) across the river, to the burial ground near Mr. Shaw's, — of course I gave it. Soon after I went up to see Mrs. Shaws, and coming home I was witness to rather a ludicrous disaster; James, desiring to cross the river, and having no boat, put his clothes into a bucket and swam across, pushing it before him; but on reaching the middle of the river, he upset the bucket by awkwardness, and all his clothes, from his shirt to his shoe, went to the bottom : I could enjoy the joke better if I had not to pay for another suit.

After dinner I went to call on Mrs. Bull, and met the funeral of the deceased boy, named Keates, which I accom- panied to the grave. Mr. Shaw's eyes being delicate, I, for the first time in my life, was called on to read the burial service; the deceased was about eighteen years old; the



survivor, his companion, about thirteeen. The arrest of Ya- gan was man's work ! Boys unfortunately undertook it, with- out sufficient steadiness ; they were frightened at their own act, discharged their guns injudiciously, and ran away, by which the life of one of them was sacrificed.

l^th. — On Saturday I saw at Mr, Bull's the head of Ya-gan, which one of the men had cut off for the purpose of preserving. Possibly it may yet figure in some museum at home. I should have been glad to get it myself, as the features were not in the least changed. He must have died instantaneously. The other native was not yet dead when the party went to look after them ; the accidental passing of two soldiers frightened the natives (it is supposed), or they would have carried off the bodies,

Ya-gan had a very particular mark of tatooing extending over his right shoulder and down his back, by which many of the settlers recognised him. He wore a soldier's old coat under his kangaroo clock, to hide this mark, as he had been often warned of his danger. This peculiar cicatrice was flayed from the body by the man who is preserving the head, I have rudely sketched this " caput mortuum " of Ya-gan, which was ornamented with a twisted cord round the forehead.

l^th. — After dinner went up to Mr. Bull's in a boat to get seed wheat for two acres, which I shall still be able to ac- complish. I shall thus have eight acres of wheat, one of barley, one and a half of oats, and about the same quantity of potatoes, turnips, cabbages, &c., besides an acre and a quarter of lucerne. This will, I think, be ample for my supply. We want seed potatoes in the colony very much ; they grow at any season of the year, but succeed best if planted in March and September. I tasted some excellent beer which Bull is brewing.

2Uh. — The shepherd and James sat up all last night in the sheepfold, watching the native dog, and determined to ahoot it ; yet, with all their watching, when daylight came,



they found two lambs torn to pieces in the fold. What exquisite watchmen ! I have now 22G full-grown sheep, besides 9 blind ones, and 101 lambs.

29^A. — The shepherd has sent in word that if I buy a set of bells for him, he will stay with me. I have bought 20 sweet musical regularly tuned bells, with straps and buckles, at three shillings each. I have before mentioned the very pleasing tone of these bells ; it is delightful to hear them on a fine evening. Had a dish of turnips to-day ; — by the way, the last seeds you sent me were too old; those of mangel wurzel, parsnip, carrot, cabbage, and onion, failed altogether; the lucerne alone is growing ; the flower seeds do not show yet.

31st. — To my surprise, Mr. Whitfield brought me letters and papers this day. You say " there are so many that they will take me a month to digest !" you little know my powers of digestion in that way. I am a most insatiable glutton in such respects. It was dinner time to-day when I received them. I have already gormandised every syllable of all your letters, aye and washed them down with the whole contents of four newspapers which came along with them ; " my great revenge had stomach for them all." Thanks, thanks to Almighty God for the measure of health and mercy vouch- safed to you all, and may they be graciously continued ! My people have been spelling hard at their letters, and at some of the papers ; this part of the business devolves on Johnny, but there is generally a complaint that he cannot " make it out right," and an appeal to me.

By the way, my own letters are an odd medley ; I hope that no stranger* sees them. *****

* How astonished Mr. Moore will be when ho sees them so unceremoniously brought into print, and hears that they have been read, and, as I trust will be the case, by hundreds, or perhaps thousands of strangers. — Editob.



Occasional gaps or breaks in the continuity of dates may be perceived, but here is an extensive hiatus, which I cannot account for, and have no means of filling up. I have no sufficiently distinct recollection of the incidents of that period. The original letters are now in Australia ; some may have been lost or misplaced, or destroyed by untoward accident. Perhaps, even they may have possibly been omit- ted purposely by the caution of Sir Thomas. But I cannot at this distance of time imagine any sufficient reason for such by anything written at length in my Journal.

G. F. M.




To the tune of " Bachelor's fare."

Come, I'll describe you a native Karobberee : — Fancy some hundred or two group'd around, All determin'd to kick up a bobbery,

See in the middle that space of clear ground ; See the young men prepare — feathers stuck in their hair, Breasts ornamented with iigures in chalk ;

Look how their heads are all plaster'd with red. How they brandish their spears, and they strut in their walk. Fol-de-rol, lol-de-rol, fol-de-rol, lol-de-rol, Fol-de-rol, lol-de-rol, fol-de-rol, lay.

Thus, it may be said, they're a fine white and red.

As they stand painted like so many celts ; Look how their bodies all glisten and shine with oil.

Their hammers all stuck in their fur-twisted belts ; Look at those men about, keeping a sharp look out

After their wives, for some have two or three ; Each wife has a bag on, but no other rag on

Except a short cloak, reaching scarce to her knee. Fol-de-rol, &c.

Now they ply their heels, dancing in rounds and reels.

Fierce as if going to fight for their dear lives. While the bye standers, more brave than highlanders,

Beat time on their throwing-boards with their quartz knives. With their hegha and hegha, and hogha and hogha,

They grunt out and snort out their horrible tune ; Oh, how they dance it and round about prance it.

And make the dust fly in the light of the moon. Fol-de-rol, &c.

There are old men and young men, and short men and tall men,

And women and children, and liobble-de-hoys. While all the young lasses, as each dancer passes.

Keep stealing a peep at their favourite boys ; Then come sly glances, and little advances.

For dark though their skin is, their eye-beams are bright ; But lest you should tell us the ladies grow jealous.

Their dance being done now, we'll wish them good night. Fol-de-rol, &c.



Perth, February 1834.

Feb. 20th. — We have had rather an anxious week. The natives have become troublesome again, having killed two pigs of Mr. Shaw's, one sheep of Mr. Brockman's, also at- tempted (and nearly succeeded) in spearing his shepherd, and on one occasion my old acquaintance Moley, and, in addition, stabbed Nat Shaw in the thigh with a spear. Some of us have determined not to receive them in a friendly way again till we have got some amends on the evil doers, either by their own or by our endeavours. Meantime we are in doubt, and, to crown our anxieties, the country has been fired by the natives, and we have been obliged to use great efforts to save our houses and property. The flames are quite terrific and overwhelming when driven through rank vegetation by a strong wind. The weather has been excessively hot. My poor cattle are scarcely able to find a mouthful of food ; for- tunately the grant which was purchased from Mr. Wright was partially burned about two months ago, and has now nearly recovered.

21st. — Numbers of natives here to-day. One has been in- forming me of a large sheet of water, somewhere not far away, where there is abundance of game, a fine country, and several rivers to be seen. I rather doubt the latter, but think strongly of going to see it.

Monday, 24:th. — I have this day received a letter from you dated 2nd June (now eight months ago), which came by a little vessel from Launceston, brought by one of the Hentys. That you were all in good health, I feel truly thankful, for to say the truth, I open every letter with fear and trembling at



this distance of time and space. I think , should he

come out, is well fitted for the life of a settler, but there are many little inconveniences and annoyances here which it re- quires a schooled mind to eudure patiently : his presence will be a great comfort to me if he comes. I strongly suspect that the accounts of other places are exaggerated or highly coloured, that the advantages belonging to different places are nearer on a par than we think at first, and that " non omnia omnibus " holds good of place as well as person.

Monday, 3rd March. — Mackie came here on Saturday night and left me yesterday evening. We had great consultations about my holding the appointment (which had been offered to me) or not. Mr. Shaw called ; Dr. and Mr. Harris with Miss Harris, and Mr. Stone also.

I recollect in the calculations made for Van Diemen's Land or Sydney, of the profit and loss of a flock of sheep, that the shepherds were reckoned at £30, and I fancied it must be exaggeration, but I have my shepherd just now on easy terms (comparatively), and he costs me £71 8s. 6d. a year. I am greatly dissatisfied about our giants on this side the hills. They are not capable of supporting large flocks without cultivation to a greater extent than we can afford or manage at present ; this cuts short all our profits. At the very utmost that part of my grant on this side of the hills lying between the house and the hills would not support more, now, than 200 or 300 sheep. I am obliged to reduce my flock to nearly that number. Mr. Bland (who lies over the hills) has always about 700 of his own and others, but will not take a smaller number than about 100 into his charge. I wanted to send about 30 over, but he would not take them.

4:th. — Was passing one part of the river to-day and heard a great splash. Was not a little amused to see my new boy in the water with a lot of natives, boys and girls, having rare fun. They are a merry race when they have their belly full.



oth. — Eode to Guildford to hire a servant — a man and his son for 50s. a month.

6th. — Have been beset all day by natives. They pull the blossoms of the red gum tree (now in flower), steep them in water, and drink the water, which acquires a taste like sugar and water by this process. Some came here, bringing a young kangaroo dog of a fine breed. I had often (in my own mind) contemplated poisoning him. To my surprise, the natives called my attention suddenly to the dog, when I saw that some one had been beforehand with me. I told them all manner of stories about our dogs going mad, and that their bite was then fatal. They were greatly alarmed. I put my hand cautiously over his mouth, put him into the boat, and carried him to the other side of the river, where he soon died. They thought a snake had bit him. In the evening, there was a crying of natives at a distance. I ran with Weeip and some others to see. A number of strangers had arrived ; the child of one had died, and they must have some spearing match about it. I begged them not to throw spears, but it appeared to be a very friendly or ceremonious transaction — some spears having been thrown harmlessly. After a little, it was mentioned to the owner of the dog that it had died — that his dog was dead by the bite of a snake. He had not been at my place before during the day, and had not heard of it till then. Instantly, there was a change of scene — he and his brother seized their spears, and seemed about to com- mence in good earnest, when others threw their arms round them and held them with difficulty. Angry feeling seemed to spread among them : the vengeance of these two seemed directed against a woman, whose husband was held also. When I left them, one of the natives was walking round and round this woman, while two had placed themselves on either side of her, and walked round in a circle, so as to keep one still between his spear and her. It was a strange sight. I asked Weeip what it meant. He said the owner was a little



angry, and he would only spear her a little on the lower part of the leg. I have heard their voices very loud ever since. They will have troubled rest. All parties seemed to look upon me as a friend — though I confess I felt a little afraid at one time when they began to pronounce my name with gi'eat vehemence ; it was in asserting that I had seen the dog die of snake bite. I held Mauli for a while, when he first snatched his spear, till another came to the rescue. One part of the scene was singular — the mother of the child that had died clung to the knees of one old man and uttered a long weeping recitative, while he stood apparently unmoved ; at other times she threw herself on the bosom of another and wept out the same sort of droning song, which, from some detached words 1 caught, reminds me of the Irish keen, as a sort of address to the departed. It is ringing in my ears even now, while I write, at the distance of half a mile from them.

^th. — ^A very warm day. Some natives have been here before sunrise begging some grease to smear themselves for a battle. One of them was afterwards slightly wounded in the side by a spear. One young woman was speared through the arm and in the leg, and that was the extent of all the mighty business. I shot some birds for them and killed two at one shot, which raised a shout from both armies — about 40 men.

9^A-. — Again troubled with natives all day. Mr. Whitfield came here to breakfast. A Mr. Smith and his son called afterwards for information about the land up the river. There is a singular belief supposed to be general now among the natives that we are the spirits of their deceased friends, and they call many ))y the names of men long dead. Of one old man who is fast declining, they say that he will soon become a white man, and then he will have plenty of bread. They hold opinion with Pythagoras as Gratiano says, of the transmigration.

Fifty head of cattle have been seen at the Murray river, I



suppose that place will turn out to be our cow pasture plains — a fine river running most if not all the year ; yet this was not even known to exist at the settlement of this place. * * * A whaling vessel has put in here on account of some misunderstanding among the crew — some call it mutiny. l^th. — Here I am, just arrived alter a whole week's work and a walk to-night of 18 miles. I had twenty-three causes and about a dozen motions, &c. Two of the causes were for

libel ; in one, our old friend Mr. S , laid his damages at

£500, and got one farthing and a good lecture into the bargain. I got paid to-day for a pair of slippers by a piece of iron — hard cash ! and another wishes me to take a pig for some other things. Mr. B — — wants me to take a goose ! These are the modes of payment There is not any news ; but the natives are becoming everywhere more bold, the

•colonists more uneasy, the Government more puzzled, and I fear a rupture if the offending natives be not removed whole- sale to some island — which might be done.

Tuesday, March l^th. — Yesterday being " St. Patrick's Day in the morning," the Messrs. Burgess invited me to dine with them. A pleasant day it was, marked by one appropriate feature — they had tried and succeeded in distilling a small quantity of " potheen," which was our beverage.

This day I have had a number of natives here. I went to- night to their bivouac, which is close to this place. Some of them were busy sucking the honey water which they extracted from the flowers of the red gum tree; others baking their flour into cakes. They had two large native dogs. I have

,the natives much more about me than usual. I was much amused with the agility displayed by my pretty young friend Doodyep, yesterday, in climbing trees to gather the red gum blossoms. " By-and-bye, tumble down," she would cry, cling- ing to a branch by one arm, and playing all manner of antics. Her admiration of herself in the glass also was worthy of any moie civilised coquette. There is one thing we are greatly at



a loss for here, and that is a copper, or a large vessel for boiling, for brewing, for washing clothes, and many other requisites. They are very dear here — £6 for a small one.

Sunday, 2-ith. — Yesterday I closed a long letter to you, walked to Guildford in the evening, and slept at Mr. Tanner's, not having arrived there till a late hour. At Perth a novelty occurred, One of the natives, " Goodyak," was found in the act of stealing at Guildford, taken prisoner and brought to Perth, a solemn-looking investigation made, soldiers paraded, and, in the presence of the Governor, he got a good round dozen on the back, with a warning against worse. Just before leaving, news arrived that a vessel, the Aurazan, had arrived from Madras. Dreadful mortality there from cholera, only 25 men left alive of one regiment. It sounds like exaggeration, but such is the shape in which I heard it.

On Thursday last, I prepared myself to go into the bushi and see this " gabbee yandit " (freshwater lake) so often men- tioned, and, on Friday, after due preparation, Nat Shaw and iiiyself, accompanied by the native Tommy as our guide, set out, we thinking, in our simplicity, that it was about 14 miles or so distant, as the natives spoke of it as one day's journey, and that we should see it early next morning. We urged Tommy to his speed, and gave him a ride now and then, and at sunset we reached our destination with difficulty after ten hours riding, the distance being not less than 33 miles in a due IST. direction. It is a long winding valley of bays, swamps, and lakes, numbers of deep but shrunk-up pools of water, surrounded by tea-tree, spear-wattle, and bul- rush. There was grass on the borders, but the country had been recently burned. We slept alongside of a party of natives, who were rather indiflerent than friendly, and had not been much in communication with Europeans before. Our native took sick, and we left him with his friend whilst we made our way home by ourselves. On Saturday at 12 we returned. I was resting myself towards evening when a letter



from Mackie was handed in, saying that the Quebec had arrived with one of my brothers and his wife. Here was a fuss. Letty comes running : " Sir, which of them is it ? what will you do ? where will he stay ? where will you sleep ? " .and other questions which I could not answer. However, on Monday morning I posted down to Perth, found they had left that the day before, on their way to me ; wheeled about and rode home, and found that they had arrived a few minutes after I had left.

Friday, 2nd May. — The day before yesterday some natives were caught by the younger Burgess stealing wheat from his store in Mr. Tanner's house (near this). They seemed greatly inclined to come to a deadly rupture with him, but by great courage and presence of mind he kept them at bay till assist- ance came, when they made off. They came down to my place to grind their wheat as usual at my mill. I challenged some as stolen wheat (knowing nothing at the time of what had occurred above), and took it from them, as I have fre- quently done before. One of them, Yeedomira, raised his spear at me, saying I was a bad man. I immediately took down the mill and prevented any from grinding, and told Yeedomira he was a bad man, and that white men would shoot him. I little thought that his doom was so near him. As one of the most active against Burgess, he was this day taken prisoner by the soldiers, and in attempting to escape was shot dead.

Some of the Murray river tribe committed a most daring act near Perth a few days since — having gone to a mill lately erected by Mr. Shenton on the opposite side of the river from Perth. They seized Mr. Shenton and his servant, held them down, with spears at their breast, intimating that they would kill them if they made any alarm. Meantime they plundered the mill of all the wheat and flour. One of these men also has been shot. These are useful examples and requisite, for they begin to be very daring in their depredations.



SaHrday, Srd May. — Mr. Norcott, lieutenant of mounted police, came here to-day to say that he had seen the natives, and that they had desired him to tell all the white men that they were friendly and would take no revenge on us for what had occurred. He had not long gone when Nat Shaw came galloping to tell us to look out for ourselves and our stock, for the natives had just speared one of the soldiers. He galloped off for the Doctor. I have not heard since whether the man is dead or not. The soldier was standing alone at the Barracks, when a shower of spears was thrown in at the door ; one entered his abdomen. I went to shoot a duck to- day on the river ; and just as I had fired, while standing in the boat, the boy gave a pull with his oars, I fell on my back, and the gun fell overboard into the very middle of the river. Here was a. predicament ! I immediately stripped and dived, and, after a quarter of an hour's plunging and groping, I fortunately touched it with my foot and got it up.

Wednesday. — The poor soldier died yesterday (May 6). It appears that Weeip was the chief contriver of the murder, which was perpetrated in the most treacherous manner, after eating bread from the soldiers and shaking hands with them, to throw them off their guard. There were three soldiers there at the time, and a woman and child ; both of the latter had a narrow escape for their lives, the spears having touched the woman's arm and grazed the skin of the child's temple. The natives disappeared immediately before a shot could be fired. The spear which killed the man went right through his body, struck the wall against which he was sitting, and in some extraordinary way rebounded so as to fall out of his body. It was an armed spear, serrated near the point with pieces of quartz. We are all in indecision as to what is the best course to pursue. Our Government seems so nervous as not to know what to do, but I am sure no settler will now feel any compunction in putting Weeip or his associates to death if they could be found. They have all vanished now.



as if there were no such inhabitants in this part of the country.

Thursday. — Rode down to Perth. . On my way kept a good look out for natives. At one place seeing a dark object, skulking (as it were) from bush to bush, I came to a " stand still " of observation. My hand was on my pistol, and my heart " was in my mouth," when out started a great emu, to my great satisfaction.

The natives in summer set fire to the grass and dry herbage for the purpose of their hunting, and after the fire has passed over the ground, you could hardly find as much green food as would feed a rabbit, till the herbage has time to grow again. Over the hills the grants in that locality are less burned, being less frequented by white or black people. The climate, I should think, is rather moister there, for I hear of their having green grass throughout the summer. Few sorts here remain green, but it is surprising how soon all grass shoots out again when a little moisture comes ; and some sorts spring up in an incredibly short time even after the greatest fires.

Wednesday, 2&th. — I have just returned from Perth. There is little news by the Merope. We have a strange rumour afloat, of which no one can trace the origin, namely, that our Governor, Sir James Stirling, has been lost in a vessel which was wrecked in the Channel. They ex'pected to find him here.

Very bad harvests in Van Diemen's Land ; no assistance to be expected from that quarter. It is thought that one detachment of the 63rd will proceed to India by this vessel.

Friday, 28th. — Was obliged to send my sheep back again to the Edwards, not being able to keep them on my own grant, which has been so recently burnt. A native dog killed six chickens last night and almost killed the mother. They are a sad nuisance, like foxes. One of them in daylight to- day killed four geese of Edwards. I must try to make away



with them before lambing time. The nux vomica must have lost its strength ; it seems to have no effect on them.

Saturday, 2Mh. — Natives still quarrelling. Poor little Jucobang (my former protegee) — her child has died, and, I suppose to appease its manes, her husband speared in the thigh a nice little girl called Wulatneen. They are now busy digging the root of a broad sort of flag which grows in a swamp near this ; some people say that this makes sago, or rather arrowroot. I must examine. It is tasteless to me, being fibrous and farinaceous.

Sunday, 30^A. — Easter. Time was when it was a matter of religion (to say nothing of the pleasure) to eat numberless eggs on this day at the Bond's Glen, where father lived and my early life was spent. This morning I killed a lamb for our entertainment. The natives have been feasting on a sort of grub or worm which they find in numbers under the bark of the red gum trees. Those that I have had cut down pre- sent a fine store for them to have easy access to. The grub is a sort of long four-sided white worm or maggot, with a thick fiat square head and a small pair of strong brown forceps set on the end of the head.

Monday, 31st. — Mr. Butler is here. He has been out ex- ploring. Came to a lake not far from this in a N.N.W direction, towards the sea, which he reckons is 15 miles round, with good feeding about it and limestone soil.

Wednesday, April 2nd. — Got from the natives a piece of bread made of the root of the flag which they called yand- yett. It tastes like a cake of oatmeal. They peel the root, roast and pound it, and bake it. The root is as thick as your finger, and a foot long. Some say it is arrowroot, but I made nothing out of it by pouring boiling water on it and simmering,

Wednesday, Wi. — The Merope is about to sail for Madras, via Mauritius, and to take the detachment of the 63rd on to head quarters at Madras. I fortunately brought this letter down and now take the opportunity of a moment of repose.



June, 18<A. — To-day I have been busy preparing wheat for sowing. I am getting the holes of the drake riddle made a little larger, by pushing the alternate wires close together ; the drake or darnel did not pass through before * * * Acted as a shepherd for a little to-day ; there are now 84 lambs. What confusion of sounds and voices as the sheep are driven out ! Such bleating of lambs, such searching of the mothers for their young — such laughable mistakes — yet how soon discovered. A lamb is not very scrupulous, but will accommodate itself with almost any mother which will stand quiet. Not so the mother. Smelling, she soon detects and drives off the intruder, pushing it away unceremoniously with her head. Yet sometimes they commit mistakes, and take up with a wrong lamb, neglecting their own. I have no less than four instances of this among mine now, and we must rear them by hand.

Jum 19th. — To-day Mr. Shaw and I took a walk up to Mr. Brown's grant to see the land. Everything looks beau- tiful. There we met eight or nine natives ; among them were two of those connected with the death of the soldier, already referi'ed to. They had the daring to go to the soldiers and get some wheat there. Their object I suppose is to lull suspicion in order to catch Weeip. Coming back we saw two turkeys, but could not get near them. My shepherd came to me with gloomy looks this evening, and in that mood he does not restrain his tongue. We have had a row, and I think I shall discharge him * * * I have now in my flock 240 sheep, independent of lambs, which it is too soon to count yet. I rejoice that I did not send them to the Can- ning River to Mr. Phillips, for the natives have killed some of his lately, and some also have died from a complaint which has been in many places prevalent among sheep.

June 20th. — Bought a pitch kettle, chafing dish, and some figure brands to-day * * * A number of natives were here again this morning. I made them useful in shooting



crows on the wheat ground * * * The process of clean- ing wheat for sowing is very tedious — perhaps not more than three bushels per day is cleaned by means of the drake sieve. I shall try to make a screen on a small scale. I have about eight acres of wheat now sown, and about four acres of land ready for being sown. I am busy making ready a piece of ground for the mixed clover and grass seeds which you for- warded ; what you sent heretofore is looking well — when it grew on a suitable soil.

24:th. — Plagued all day with natives coming to get wheat ground. Made two of them useful in shooting at crows, and in the evening they brought me a duck which they had shot. * * * Capt. Ellis, Superintendent of Natives, came here this evening in search of some delinquents among them ; but though three of them were actually here at the time, he did not succeed in taking any. He intends to try and take Weeip to-night ; perhaps this might keep them off us for a little.

June 25^A.— Capt. Ellis has taken the natives Beelyimerra and Geear prisoners, and carried them to Perth to the great discomfiture of the other natives. Two of them have been with me all day, Tomghin and Winat. The former has made himself useful in the kitchen cleaning knives, sawing wood, etc. The latter went with me to shoot ducks and made him- self very useful also. I got a brace, and my native friend Bolatman shot one yesterday, so that we have a very accept- able supply of fresh meat. Tomghin has begged to be allowed to stay here to-night, and is amusing the party in the kitchen by imitating " white men dance."

Thursday, 26th. — Had several men out all day searching in vain for my bullocks. They have joined Mr. Bull's herd, as I have now been informed * * * "V\re have been much amused with Tomghin in the kitchen. After cleaning some brass candlesticks, a very dirty iron one was given him. He said it was "ugly old man." Lost a lamb last night, which was carried off by native dogs. A ewe and lamb are out



to-night, and I fear we shall have a bad account of them also. Planted seven vine cuttings to-day, and as many peaches, which seem to grow by cuttings also.

Friday, Tlth. — One of my best ewes was found dead to-day, torn by natives' dogs, I presume. I must count them all over,

to ascertain whether it is one of J 's or mine ; if it be one

of mine — which I suspect, from the relics of skin and bone — it was one of the largest of Van Diemen's Land ewes, and had a lamb yesterday, in which case they are much inclined to secrete themselves in a quiet place till the lamb is able to follow the mother ; and so the shepherd misses them * * * Have tried transplanting potatoes to a considerable extent this year. They are self-sown from what remains in the ground — not sufficient to fill the ground properly yet too valuable to be lost. In this way I shall have a good number of potatoes self-sown and otherwise — ^perhaps half an acre. If I could procure seed now I have manure to plant an acre, but they are selling at 6d. a pound and very few to be had at the price.

Saturday 2'^th. — The native Geear has been flogged; the other is detained. Those in this neighbourhood have again been stealing from a man called "Waller. I had upwards of twenty natives here to-day * * * Had a great piece of work branding sheep, but did not get the job finished. Counting my lambs I find there are 110 now, and 231 sheep in the fold. Several are to lamb yet * * * ♦ Cabbage, onion, &c., seeds do not come. Apropos, I broke a piece of virgin ground to-day, ground probably not stirred since the Creation, or the last terrestial convulsion. It is a common circumstance here, but what a singular train of ideas it leads the mind into ! Meau\vhile, it looks rich black deep vegetable mould. There is only about an acre of it together at that spot ; it is in a gentle hollow between two of those knolls of ground which I have so often described as forming a characteristic feature of this locality. * * *



Saturday, July 5tk. — The Eagle schooner has arrived from Sydney bringing some flour and some stock, but no meat, which is very scarce now in the colony. The captain of the ship (Pratt) has been often here before trading between this and Sydney, and he has now brought his wife and family to settle here. I think this fact speaks for itself. He gives a gloomy account of the Sydney colony.

We have been trying to rig out a fishing net as a trammel net, in hopes of catching some fish, but there is so much delay in getting up some corks and leads which are still in Fremantle that I fear the winter floods may prevent us. You possibly do not understand what a " trammel net," — or " wall-net " as others call it — is. I will describe it : a small meshed net, as long as you please but about 6 feet deep, is suspended per- pendicularly in the water by ropes and corks ; on either side of this net another net of the same length and depth is at- tached to the same ropes, but the mesh of these two outer nets is about six inches square, so that a fish coming up or down the river passes through the wide mesh of the nearest net without obstruction, strikes against the middle small- meshed net, and, pushing on a part of the middle net through the wide meshed net on the further side, it then gets itself entangled or detained in a purse or pocket which prevents

its return or escape * * * j^st fancy ! Mr. B ,

who lately got out some Irish beef to sell, asks now the moderate sum of twelve guineas a tierce for it. My men are all grumbling because I have ceased to give meat to them at breakfast whilst it is so scarce. Mr. Eobert Brock- man and Mr. N. Shaw have been here for tea this evening. * * * I noticed that one of my lambs had its stomach full of dry earth, I have often observed them eating clay ; perhaps it is for the salt which it contains.

I left this on Monday after an early dinner, and rode to Guildford, where I did not arrive till sunset. Had a cool but dark walk thence to Perth, as I sent the mare back



from Guildford for several reasons, one of which is that there is a ferry where you must pay a shilling; then, my stay in Perth is always uncertain, and horses are very badly taken care of there.

Friday, July 11. — To-day I find that a great sensation has been created in the colony by rumours which have come to us, only through the natives, of a vessel that was wrecked nearly six months ago (30 days journey, as they described it) to the North of this, — which is conjectured to be about Sharks Bay. Further enquiries have been made from the natives ; they say that " wayl-men " — men from a distance to the North — have told them of it, and that there are men and women and children still alive, inhabiting two larger and smaller tents made of poles and canvas ; that the ship is quite destroyed by the sea; and that a large quantity of money, like dollars, is lying on the shore. Here is a matter of most painful and absorbing interest. There have been great discussions among the members of the Government about what is the best course to pursue, in which discussions I have been in some respects a participator. An expedition by land with horses was first thought of, but, from the great price of horses, &c., it was found that it would require nearly £500 to equip such an expedition. It is now determined to send off a vessel direct to Sharks Bay, and thence to com- mence a search north and south along the coast — which is of such a nature that it cannot be approached from sea except at two or three points all the way up there. It is awful to contemplate the sufferings of the wretched survivors. All here have been anxious about them, and I myself have not been idle so far as my thoughts and powers went; but I shall explain this in due order.

In the midst of our discussions, I suggested the possibility of forwarding a letter to the sufferers by means of the natives, and to get the Government to authorise me to offer the libera- tion of Billymera (Weeip's son) who is now in prison, as an




inducement to any of them who would carry a letter there and bring an answer back. Full of this project I set out for home, but it was already night when I arrived at Guildford, and it began to rain very heavily ; so I stopped at Mr. Tan- ner's, having first made enquiries everywhere in that neigh- bourhood for any natives, and greatly desiring to see my old friend Tomgkin ; but the soldiers had unfortunately just be- gun a system of patrolling, which alarmed all the natives, and they had disappeared. This was rather a damper to my ardour, but with the dawn of day I set out for home, and, immediately after breakfast, mounted my mare and rode out on the forlorn hope of " looking for natives," wishing that Weeip could be seen for a moment, though I should com- promise myself by holding intercourse with an outlawed proscribed murderer — that is, in the eye of our law.

Kode first to Mr. Shaw's ; no sign there. Eode to Mr. Bull's ; some natives had been there recently, and could not be far away. Followed and overtook some, and began to talk to them, but found they knew little of my language or man- ner. Suddenly recollecting that one of them had formerly called himself a son of Weeip's, I took him on one side and told him I wanted some one who could understand me. Sounded him about Weeip himself, when, at last, having assured himself of my intentions, he offered to take me to Weeip. I did not hesitate a moment, but went immediately along with him into some thick bush, where he stopped, whistled, and mentioned my name. Like a spectre, Weeip appeared from behind a bush, and came smiling to meet me, with his hand outstretched. I could not refuse it, and com- ing at once to the point with him, I related to him, in his own language and manner, that " black man " had told " white man " that other white men, our friends, were sit- ting on the ground at a distance, crying, and that the ship which had walked with them over the sea from England was broken upon the rocks, that the white men here were sorrow-



ful, and that I would give black fellow a " paper talk," that black fellow should give that " paper talk " to the white fellow at a distance ; that my " paper talk " should stop there, and that the white man at a distance should give another " paper talk to black fellow, who should come back soon and give it to Mr. Moore, and that Billymerra, his son, would then be a friend, and Governor would say, " walk away, friend."

I spent an hour trying to impress the urgency and import- ance of the mission upon him. He seemed doubtful about something, but I urged, explained, showed my earnestness by look, word, and gesture, and by sketches on the sand told him he could not deceive us ; that the paper would tell whether he had seen white men, that Billymerra would be free if he did it, and that I would speak to the Governor in his favour. There seemed a discussion among the natives, who had now all joined us, and at last he said he would go away now, that if I brought him the letter when he walked a little space, and come to a spot which he pointed out, he would speak. I rode to Mr. Bull's, wrote a letter to the survivors, telling them of the ship going to their relief, requested them to look out make signals, hoist flags, raise beacons, make fires, &c., to send the bearer instantly with instructions where they were, &c. Wrote two or three placards to the same effect in large writing ; folded or rolled the whole very tightly in a small piece of oiled skin, and returned at appointed hour to the spot we had agreed on. Looked round on all sides ; nothing to my right, a valley to my left, an extensive plain in front. No living thing in sight. Called out, and was instantly answered from the opposite side of the valley — a vantage ground, from which four natives were observing all my move- ments, so that they could easily have avoided detection or escaped pursuit had they seen anything suspicious about my appearance. As it was, I dashed boldly down the side of the valley, crossed the creek, and, ascending on the other side,

was quietly received by them, though I could not help ob-

Q— 2



serving that they were furnished with a formidahle quantity of war spears with which they had equipped themselves since my last visit.

I showed Weeip the small parcel — about as thick as a man's finger, and four inches long; and asked him if he would go ? He readily said, Yes. All his scruples and demurs seemed to be at an end. He told me his plan. He should take two others with him, avoid some tribes who were not friendly, and keep near the coast ; would reach his desti- nation in 1 5 days, and come back in the same time. I made him calculate them over and over again ; it was the same. I tied the parcel firmly to his belt, and he took his departure, again shaking hands, and twice looking back to say " Good- bye, Mr. Moore." I responded as often, " Good-bye, Weeip." As I turned away I felt a glow of satisfaction. I had thus been enabled to place a father in the way of earning liberty for his son, and probable redemption of himself, as well as relieving these poor fellow-creatures from the miseries of a state of lingering and hopeless proscription. I have dwelt long on this for it made a great impression upon me. It is not often that such an adventure comes in our way. Perhaps you will not grudge the space which I have devoted to it.

Conjecture is busy as to what vessel it can be. We have long expected a ship called the Mercury which is said to have sailed from Madras on 3rd of October. The time agrees, but nautical men consider it impossible, as no vessel from India should be near that part of the coast. On enquiry, I find the " wayl-men " long since brought some crowns and half crowns and other British coin here, but it was supposed that they had either stolen them or that some foolishly liberal person had given the money to them. The coin being all British, confirms the opinion that the vessel must be an outward bound Chinaman.

This evening I met Mr. B., who had been absent all day. He seemed nettled at the idea that I should have seen the



native without his intervention, and I really am almost afraid that lie may be interfering in some way, which will raise jealousy and alarm in the minds of the natives. I told him that the man's life and his son's liberty depended upon this act, and their blood must be on his head if he frustrated it,

Saturday. — Have just ridden down to Perth, and find that the Captain of the Eagle has suddenly declared his intention of sailing to-morrow morning, and that letters must be sent in within the hour. It is fortunate T brought my letters down with me.


[Another gap here occurs in the diary, and the result of Weeip's mission to Shark's Bay (already referred to) is not given by Mr. Moore. It would appear however, that he performed it satisfactorily, for in September he received a formal pardon from Sir James Stirling, and Billymerra was released from custody. The report of a wreck at Shark's Bay appears to have been incorrect.]



Perth, Sq)tember, 1834.

September 28th. — Eather a fine day externally. Only two visitors — Mr. Eobert Brockman and Mr. Mellersh. The latter has only lately arrived here ; he is now apprenticed to Mr. Brockman.

Monday 29th, — Busy sheep-shearing. Three men are em- ployed at it, J , Dodd the shepherd, and a man called

Morley, who shears at 5s. a score. He has clipped 27, J

22, and Dodd 18. I have a man folding them up. The plan for laying fleeces on top of one another would require at least one extra hand, and I think is objectionable in some respects. The wool is assorted according to the quality. I have coarse wool, merino wool, and merino with a cross of pure Saxon, which appears very tine; and I have a few pure Saxon fleeces.

Wednesday, 1st Oct. — One man shore 30 sheep to-day. Another such day will finish them, for I have about 233 grown sheep, and I do not intend to shear the lambs at present, of which I have about 130. A man came here yesterday looking for work ; he said he had had nothing to eat on the previous day but a few sow thistles. I scarcely believe him ; but it required some little starvation to bring the servants to their senses again.

Tuesday, Oct. 7th. — I went to Perth on Friday last, and stayed there till Saturday night. Two vessels had come in — the Jolly Rambler from Java, and the Jessie from Mauritius. The latter is loaded with rum and sugar, and some flour, but the captain wiU not break bulk unless at £40 a ton for sugar and flour, and 6s, a gallon for rum. So we are not much the



better for them yet. A vessel called the Monkey (Captain Pace) has also arrived — the same which was sent to Sharks Bay to look for the survivors of a wreck supposed to have taken place there. No traces, however, were discovered of such a thing having occurred. The natives there are de- scribed as being very big men ; out of 30 of them who were measured, live or six were 6ft. 5in., or 6ft. 6in., while twenty of them were 6ft., and not a man under 5ft. 7in. or 5ft. Sin. They were not very familiar, and not a word of their language was understood, so that no information was gained. Dirk Hartog's Island is described as a mere heap of rock, shells, and sand, and the coast of the bay mere sand and salt swamp. No fresh water is to be found ; neither tree nor land bird, nor land animal to be seen, but fish in great numbers, and plenty of little oysters and shell fish. Abundance of whales also M^ere seen, and quantities of valuable shells got. That is about the sum of the whole expedition.

Oct. 11th. — Natives about here in great numbers to-day. I made the whole work at carrying and burning " blackboy," and gave them wheat in return. I have two men grubbing " blackboy " at £2 10s. an acre. I put down an acre of Caffre corn in drills at six feet asunder, and am sheepfolding the ground.

Sunday, 12th. — A circumstance has occurred here lately which has created quite a sensation. A Mr. James McDer- mott loaded a little vessel of his own to go down to Port Augusta, and a storm came on shortly after, and the vessel has not since been heard of This was about six weeks ago. It is almost certain the vessel is swamped. He was married to a Miss Turner. During my absence to-day tlie dog " Carlo " killed a kangaroo of 60 lbs. weight, without the assistance of any other dog. This has been a relief in the article of housekeeping. Many persons have supported their establishments as far as meat is concerned upon kangaroo this season. Some have killed several thousand pounds weight.



A most amusing scene of tragic romance was enacted the other day at Mr. Brockman's between two of his servants —

J G , a redheaded cow boy of 18, and Sally Cook, a

nurse of 14. J got into a fit of jealous love, and she, in

a fit of despair, took poison. He, in his agony, was desirous that another should shoot him, and, not succeeding in his wishes, he took poison also. Things looked alarming, and the doctor was sent for, who, after long examination, thought there was too much acting to be natural. However, he ad- ministered pretty strong emetics to both. This brought on an opening and relieving of the mind as well as the stomach, when the young lady very quaintly said to her dying swain " D'ye think I'd be such a fool as take poison ? I'm sure I never thought you'd be such a fool either." The swain soon relieved himself from the stigma of such folly also ; so the whole ended in their having a night's suffering under the operation of unsparing emetic, and being discharged from their services in the morning.

Oct. 15th. — Walked back to the hills to-day with the shep- herd to look out for fresh pasture for the sheep. The natives are the chief terror, but there is fine feed. Have got home my iron plough, which lias been at the blacksmith's to be mended ; it is far superior to what I used in its place, though it wants some alteration. I shall have three or four acres fallowing for crop next year. I have two men out grubbing grass trees at £2 10s. an acre. These I burn and spread. I feel every day more reluctant to leave the farm. There is great talk just now of persons going over the hills to settle down with flocks — ivhen they can get them. One man who went over there with a small flock in a small way, is now an independent man (all within three years). I drove down to Mr. Yule's yesterday with 62 lambs to have them weaned. He sends up as many to my place. This is the way we manage it.

Oct, IGth. — There are about 30 natives here. They sleep near



this, and are about to have some spearing account to settle among themselves to-morrow. They manage these matters something like a duel. One man of his tribe having wounded in the arm a woman of another tribe, her friends come and demand satisfa"ction. Several shots are exchanged, generally without execution, as they, by fair activity, avoid them, and so the affair ends. A deadly feud is conducted in a different way. The injured party devotes himself to revenge, steals on his enemy at night, or unawares, and kills him.

Oct. IMh. — I was in Perth yesterday ; in the meantime numbers of natives were here, and made a great " corrobery * near the house at night, to which they came down to invite my people. I do not hear of any mischief having been done as yet either among themselves or towards us. * * * I sold a two-year-old steer yesterday to a butcher at Perth for £23. It weighed about 400 lbs. I had reared this one at home myself. He was of a small breed and sluggish, so as not to promise well for work. I think I must get rid of my wether sheep and wether lambs, as I am short of pasture for so large a flock. To send them away frustrates one main in- tention of mine, which is to get up a flock of Saxon breed.

Oct. 2{)th. — ^Winat (one of the natives) came past this to- day, with a double-barrelled gun on his shoulder and two black cockatoos in his hand, which he had killed with one shot. He was sent with a letter from Guildford to Mr. Bull and he executed his office well, brought back an answer* called here on his way back, and did not make any unneces- sary delay. I sent a message to Mr. Turner by him. We are advancing with them. I made an offer to-day to Mr. Dring, near this, for his wool off about 40 sheep, but he wants to send it home himself. His fiock of about forty grown sheep and forty lambs is now offered for sale. He asks £200, but may sell them cheaper.

Tuesday, 21st. — I sent my flock this morning back to the hills in care of a man and a hoy, who are now encamped



there (as far as a bush hut can deserve the title). The situa- tion is very picturesque, on the slope of small hills, with a stream running at the foot. The pasture is excellent. I trust they may thrive there, free from natives or disease.

Wednesday, 22nd. — It appears that the Messrs. Burgess went to see a " corrobery " some nights ago, and some symp- toms of hostility were exhibited, so that they felt alarmed. Captain Ellis and four of the new police came up last night in consequence. In the meantime Sam told me that two natives had met him on his way to Perth, and they asked 'him for bread, and one of them threatened to spear white man if he did not give it. This man was " Guerip " — one of the most active in murdering the soldier at the Murray river. An expedition was to have been made on Monday last to the Murray, for the purpose of endeavouring to apprehend the perpetrators of that murder, and it appears strange that on that very day he should come here. It confirms me in an opinion that some one betrays every movement of ours to them. I mentioned to Captain Ellis that " Guerip " was here. Numbers of strange natives have arrived at their heed-quarters near here this evening, and we have heard their voices very loud, as if they were fighting among them- selves. Friend Tomghin has told me that he and several others have concerted a plan to throw a certain native off his guard and spear him to death. Amiable creatures ! ^ Thursday, Oct. 23rd. — Rode down to Perth to-day, and told the Governor all I knew about the natives. He wished me to return again and take charge of a military party to hover 3,bout them so long as they should remain in force in the neighbourhood. I returned and found that the Gueriss who was here is not the Murray river native, but one of the same name. * * * In the morning early, James heard the dog Carlo barking at a distance. It turned out that he had been with the shepherd all night and had brought a large kangaroo to bay, and had a desperate battle with him. The



shepherd came to the rescue and shot the kangaroo, wlien the dog was nearly exhausted, being cut and bruised severely. The singularity is that the barking of the dog was heard dis- tinctly here, the distance not being much less than four miles. Friday (24^A). — The soldiers made their way here late last night. I got straw shaken in the kitchen for them, and this morning despatched them to patrol, with instructions to call on the settlers and ascertain the movements of the natives. All was quiet, they having proceeded below Guildford. This little display of force and watchfulness on our part may have a good effect upon them. * * * Mr. and Mrs. Tanner called here to-day. They now talk of going to India, and thence overland to England. * * ♦ j watch with great interest every day the progress of two of my vines which have some fruit in progress ; two fig trees also, none of them being as yet more than 20 inches high, and this but the second year of their growth.

Saturday {25th). — It is provoking that, after having sup- ported my two workmen all through the time of scarcity of provisions, and labour, and giving them high wages — 40s. a month during all that time, — they both give me warning now that they will leave me in a month, just at the commence- ment of harvest, unless I raise their wages. This is gratitude and honour. Fortunately I have just hired another at 40s. a month for the two ensuing months, — a quiet-looking handy

man who has been living with our friend M for eighteen

months. * * * The natives have all dispersed to-day, and gone off again, for what reason I know not, but suspect they did not like the appearance of the police and soldiers visiting them. Tomghin says they will go away for four months, but this is too good news to be true. * * * j have just finished roofing a frame of a house, 40 feet long by 12 wide, part of which will serve for a barn, the rest for cow- house or other purposes. Oct. 26th, — The Governor has gone to the Murray River



District to see about establishing Mr. Peel in a new settlement there. I suppose he will not return for eight or ten days ; he is endeavouring to induce people to settle between this and King George's Souud.

Tuesday, Oct. 28th. — H.M.S. the Hyacinth has arrived here from Madras, having been sent first to look out for the wreck of the Mercury, formerly bound for this place, filled with passengers and lading, but now missing ; next, he (Captain Blackwood) has orders to go on to Van Dieman's Land and Sydney. The schooner Eagle having also arrived from Mau- ritius, we may have sugar, rum and flour cheaper.

Wednesday. — Got a large mahogany tree cut down and put on a pit for sawing into boards for flooring, &c. Tree is about three feet through ; had great trouble in dragging it to the pit on wood by oxen by means of " cant hooks," &c. A native came from the hills to Dodd the shepherd, who appeared quite timid and alarmed. It was "Moily Mayget," the prisoner whom I had charge of at first. He seems to be in banishment from his tribe for some reason.

Thursday.-— A strange rumour has reached us here that the party who went to the Murray Kiver have fallen in with the natives there, and killed 35 of them, Captain Ellis being slightly wounded, and a soldier grazed by a spear. This is important if true. * * * j went up to Mr. Bull's this day and took tea, A party there had been out kangaroo- hunting — Captain B., Dr. Johnston, Mr. Brown, Mr. Leonard, and Nat Shaw.

Saturday, 1st Nov. — Went to Perth yesterday, and got from the Governor an account of the battle of Pinjarra. They came upon the offending tribe in a position which I dare say the natives thought was most favourable for their manceuvres, but which was turned into a complete trap for them. In the first onset, three out of five of the small party which went to reconnoitre them were unhorsed, two being wounded. The Governor himself came up with a reinforcement just in time



to prevent the natives rushing in upon and slaughtering that party. The natives then fled to cross at a ford, but were met and driven back by a party which had been detached for that purpose. They tried to cross at another ford, but were met there also, when they took to the river, lying hid under the overhanging banks, and seeking opportunities of casting their spears, but they were soon placed between two fires and punished severely. The women and children were protected, and it is consolatory to know that none suffered but the daring fighting men of the very tribe that had been most hostile. The destruction of European lives and property committed by that tribe was such that they considered themselves quite our masters, and had become so emboldened that either that part of the settlement must have been abandoned or a severe example made of them. It was a painful but urgent necessity, and likely to be the most humane policy in the end. The Governor narrowly escaped a spear. Captain Ellis was struck in the temple and unhorsed. Being stunned by the blow he fell.

Monday, 3rd Nov. — ^A very warm day. John Mackie was here. » * * i was back at the hills with the flock ; they are improving now rapidly. The natives in this neighbour- hood got a fright last night. Some women had been stealing Mr. Shaw's potatoes, and he had applied to the soldiers, who went to Mr. Bull ; the natives got information of this, and ran from their fires, thinking the soldiers were in pursuit of them. They called on me late last night to know what was to be done, and this morning by sunrise they were with me again on the subject. They are, T think, alarmed for themselves from what has occurred at the Murray, though they seem glad that that tribe has suffered. Mr. Tanner was here to-day. There is to be a show of cattle, or any other thing worth showing, on Friday, at our agricultural meeting. The Governor will dine there. I thought of showing some wool, but will defer it till next year.



Tuesday, 4dh. — A busy morning with sheep, &c. The lambs which had been with Mr. Yule's flock to be weaned, were brought back this morning. Those of his which I had were brought from the hills ; those which were with Edwards were also removed, as he does not wish to keep them longer, so that I sent back to the hills 112 lambs. All these changes were effected by the middle of the day.

Saturday-night. — Went to Perth on Thursday to attend a Council. . . . Friday was our agricultural meeting, and first attempt at a cattle show. We had a very full meeting, and a good deal of business done. There were several horses, cattle and sheep exhibited. Great speechifying at the dinner. Several strangers were there ; among others is Mr. Taylor, who had gone as a settler to K. G. Sound, but does not seem contented there, and wishes to see whether he would like this

place better, which I have no doubt he will do

There has been rain for two days past, occasional showers ; these are perhaps the last we may have for some time. . . . I had to wait to escort some others home last night, and

did not arrive here till near 12, cold and tired

Shepherd wants higher wages. I am now paying at the rate of £103 a year for wages, besides feeding the people, and on Ist January I must commence to give Letty wages also, £15 or perhaps £18 a year.

Sunday. — The flour I paid so dear for turns out to be sour, and we take very badly to it, after our own good sweet wheat. Burgess and Bull had to go back to the hills to-day again, Flocks looking better every day. The Governor has gone over to York with Captain Blackwood to see the country. The natives have disappeared from this. I think they have dis- covered we have not much to give them until after harvest.

Tw.sday. — A rainy morning, very favourable for our crops, &c. Got my cart broken by carrying boards from the saw pit, which is 1| miles away. Mean to have a barn floor of mahogany boards two inches thick. Weather has been



very cool — almost cold; it rains now at eleven o'clock, night.

Tuesday night. — Poor Captain Ellis has died in conse- quence of the injury he received at the time of the conflict with the natives ; but it is supposed that it was from the concussion of the brain by the fall from his horse, rather than by the wound from the spear (which was very trifling), that he died. The natives here are uneasy, thinking that we mean to take more lives in revenge. . . . You, perhaps, are curious to know what business I do now in Perth. Give legal advice, and draw leases and other documents for Govern- ment and attend Councils Lady Stirling has

brought out some new novels and other works. I read " Eugene Aram " the other day, and this day I walked from Perth and read on the way two volumes of Arlington. Our minds are in danger of becoming rusted for want of the polish of the literature of the day. Met the native, " Mundy," on the road to-day ; we stopped and chatted and told each other all the news we could. His wife and a girl were with him Sitting in my bachelor state after dinner, I had a visit from Mr. and Mrs. Bull. "Walking to convoy them a little, I met on my return a tribe of natives at their fires, and had a friendly greeting.

Appended is a more detailed report of the encounter with the natives in the Pinjarrah District, to which I briefly referred the other day. I was not one of that party.

The party consisted of His Excellency Sir Jas. Stirling, Mr. Eoe, Capt. Meares, and his son (Seymour), Mr. Peel, Capt. Ellis, Mr. Norcott, with five of the mounted police (one sick), Mr. Surveyor Smythe, a soldier to lead a pack horse, Mr. Peel's servant, two corporals and eight privates of H.M.'s 21st Regiment (to leave at Pinjarra) — in all, 25 persons. On the night of the 27th of October, the party bivouacked at a place called by the natives " Jimjam," about ten or eleven miles in a direct line E.N.E. from the mouth of the Murray, where is



abundance of most luxurious feed for cattle, at a broad and deep reach of the river flowing to the N.W., and at this time perfectly fresh. After an early breakfast, the whole encamp- ment was in motion at ten minutes before six the next morn- ing. Steered South Eastward for Pinjarra — another placo of resort for the natives of the district, and situated a little below the first ford across the river, where it was intended to establish a town on a site reserved for the purpose, and to leave half of the party, including the military, for the protec- tion of Mr. Peel and such other settlers as that gentleman might induce to resort thither.

Crossing the ford, where the river had an average depth of 2| feet, and was running about 1^ miles an hour to the north, an Easterly course was taken for the purpose of looking at the adjoining country, but the party had not proceeded more than a quarter of a mile over the undulating surface of the richest description, covered with nutritious food for cattle, when the voices of many natives were heard on the left. This being a neighbourhood much frequented by the native tribe of Kalyute, which had long been indulging in almost unchecked commission of numerous outrages and atrocious murders on the white people resident in the district, and which had hitherto succeeded in eluding the pursuit of the parties that had been searching for them since their treacherous murder of Private Nesbitt of the 21st Eegiment, and the spearing of Mr. Barron only a few weeks ago — the moment was considered propitiously favorable for punishing the per- petrators of such and other diabolical acts of a similar nature, should this prove to be the offending tribe. For the purpose of ascertaining that point, His Excellency rode forward 200 or 300 yards with Messrs. Peel and Norcott, who were acquainted both with the persons of the natives and with their language, and commenced calling out and talking to them for the purpose of bringing on an interview. Their own noise was, however, so loud and clamorous,



that all other sounds appeared lost on them, or as mere echoes.

No answer being returned, Captain Ellis, in charge of the mounted police, with Mr. Norcott, his assistant, and the remaining available men of his party, amounting to three in number were despatched across the ford again to the left bank, where the natives were posted, to bring on the interview required. The instant the police were observed approaching at about 200 yards distance, the natives, to the number of about 70, started on their feet, the men seized their numerous and recently made spears, and showed a formidable front, but finding their visitors still approached, they seemed unable to stand a charge, and sullenly retreated, gradually quickening their pace until the word " forward " from the leader of the gallant little party brought the horsemen in about half a minute dashing into the midst of them, the same moment having discovered the well-known features of some of the most atrocious offenders of the obnoxious tribe. One of these, celebrated for his audacity and outrage, was the first to be recognised at the distance of five or six yards from Mr. Norcott, who knew him well, and immediately called out, " These are the fellows we want, for here's that old rascal Noonar," — on which, the savage turned round and cried with peculiar ferocity and emphasis, " Yes, Noonar me," and was in the act of hurling his spear at Norcott, in token of requital for the recognition, when the latter shot him dead.

The identity of the tribe being now clearly established, and the natives turning to assail their pursuers, the firing con- tinued, and was returned by the former with spears as they retreated to the river. The first shot, and the loud shouts and yells of the natives, were sufficient signal to the party who had halted a quarter of a mile above, who immediately followed Sir James Stirhng, at full speed, and arrived opposite Captain Ellis' party just as some of the natives had crossed and others were in the river. It was just the critical moment for them.



Five or six rushed up the right bank, but were utterly con- founded at meeting a second party of assailants, who imme- diately drove back those who escaped the firing. Being thus exposed to a cross fire, and having no time to rally their forces, they adopted the alternative of taking to the river, and secreting themselves amongst the roots and branches and holes on the banks, or by immersing themselves with the face only uncovered, and ready with a spear under water, to take advantage of any one who approached within reach. Those who were sufficiently hardy or desperate to expose themselves on the offensive, or to attempt breaking through the assailants, were soon cleared off, and the remainder were gradually picked out of their concealment by the cross fire from both banks, until between 25 and 30 were left dead on the field and in the river. The others had either escaped up and down the river, or had secreted themselves too closely to be discovered except in the persons of eight women and some children, who emerged from their hiding places (where, in fact, the creatures were not concealed), on being assured of personal safety, and were detained prisoneis until the determination of the fray. It is, however, very probable that more men were killed in the river, and floated down with the stream.

Notwithstanding the care which was taken not to injure the women during the skirmish, it cannot appear surprising that one and several children were killed, and one woman amongst the prisoners had received a ball through the thigh. On finding the women were spared, and understanding the orders repeatedly issued to that effect, many of the men cried out they were of the other sex ; but evidence to the contrary was too strong to admit the plea. As it appeared by this time that sufficient punishment had been inflicted on this warlike and sanguinary tribe by the destruction of about half its male population, and amongst whom were recognised, on personal examination, fifteen very old and desperate offenders, the bugle sounded to cease firing, and the divided party reassembled at



the ford, where the baggage had been left in. charge of four soldiers, who were also to maintain the post. Here Captain Ellis had arrived, badly wounded in the right temple, by a spear at three or four yards distance, which knocked him off" his horse, and P. Heffron, a constable of the police, had received a bad spear wound above the right elbow. No sur- gical aid being at hand, it was not without some little dif- ficulty the spear was extracted, and it then proved to be barbed at the distance of five inches from the point.

Having recrossed the river in good order with the baggage on three horses, the whole party formed a junction on the left bank, fuUy expecting the natives would return in stronger force, but in this were disappointed. After a consultation over the prisoners, it was resolved to set them free, for the purpose of fully explaining to the remnant of the tribe the cause of the chastisement which had been inflicted, and to bear a message to the effect that, if they again offered to spear white men or their cattle, or to revenge in any way the punish- ment which had just been inflicted on these for their numerous murders and outrages, four times the present number of men would proceed amongst them and destroy every man, woman, and child. This was perfectly understood by the captives, and they were glad to depart even under such an assurance ; nor did several of their number, who were the widows, mothers and daughters of notorious off'enders shot that day, evince any stronger feeling on the occasion than what arose out of their anxiety to keep themselves warm.

[At this stage of Mr. Moore's Diary we find a copy of the

third annual report of the Directors of the first Agricultural

Society established in the colony, which we think may prove

interesting to many of our readers, indicating as it does the

condition which agriculture had attained in the colony at that

early period of its history. The report is addressed to Sir

James Stirling, the then Governor].

" In laying before your Excellency our third agricultural

R— 2



report of the colony we cannot but remark, that though the total amount of live stock in the colony may appear small, and though a great many farmers have as yet been able to procure but a very limited supply, yet when we reflect, that only the fifth year of our existence as a community has passed, and look at the same period of any colony on record, it will be found that we stand very fair before them in this respect, as well as in the extent of land in cultivation. And when we look at the same state of importance to which other colonies have arrived (Sydney, for instance, almost even within our own knowledge and experience), we think we have reason to congratulate ourselves.

" From our own observations we can state that within the last twelve months, the increase of stock has been very con- siderable, the holders having acted more judiciously of late in withholding the breeding stock from the butcher, however tempting the price, whereas formerly they thought merely of the present, by killing ewes, &c., whenever the condition of the animal or great demand for meat gave present profit. We believe the number of head of live stock has never before been given, so as to enable us to state with precision what the increase has been within any given time ; but, by as careful a means as could be adopted, we find the present numbers, and the quantity of land in cultivation, to be as follows : — Horses, 84 ; mares, 78 ; cows, 307 ; working cattle, 96 ; bulls and steers, 97 ; sheep, 3,545 ; goats, 492 ; pigs, 374. Number of acres of wheat, 564; barley, 100 ; oats, 116 ; Kaffre corn and maize, 29; potatoes, 15; other crops, 94; fallow, 118. Vines, half an acre.

" Amongst the horses we must remark that, we have your own thoroughbred stock, namely, ' Grey Leg ' and ' Chateau Margaux,' and four mares, and your ' Napoleon ;' the two cart horses of Mr. Bull and Mr. J. W. Hardey, and Mr. Peel's ' Punch.' Of cart mares, we have Mr. Brockman's two ; Mr. Bull's one, Mr. Lennard's two ; Mr. Lewis's two ; Mr. Phillips's



one ; Major Nairn's two ; also Mr. Smith's fine half-bred mare. Of cows and bulls we possess a good many of the fine English breeds — Devon short-horned, Yorkshire, Durham, Alderney, Ayrshire, &c. Of sheep we have the fine ewes and rams imported from Saxony by Mr. McDermott at a great expense, with their descendants, and the pure merinos from the flocks of the late Mr. Trimmer and others. It is gratifying to know that the good breeds of the stock above mentioned bear sucli a proportion to the inferior that have been and may be im- ported from the neighbouring colonies, that we have within ourselves the foundation for an unlimited number of fivst-rate horses, cattle, and sheep.

" Of wool, the small quantity hitherto exported has been, of course, of a very mixetl description, and much of it very dirty and badly packed, from obvious causes. It appears not to have fetched in the London market more than 2s. 2d. per lb. The present season may be rated at about 5,8841bs., and we are happy to say that a large proportion of it is fine, and that much more pains have been taken with it than formerly.

" Since making our last report, explorations that have been made by individuals have not only confirmed our opinions of the extent of the pastoral districts in the interior, but have added some not before known. Added to which the increased experience of those settlers on the only located district of tliis description,, more than confirm the opinions formerly enter- tained of it for the breeding of fine-woolled sheep. On this subject, Mr. Bland, one of the largest flockmasters in the colony, says : ' With regard to the land in this district, my

* opinion is, that it is as healthy a sheep run as can be found. ' We have resided here with a fiock of sheep for nearly three ' years, and have not had any disease amongst them, excepting 'the foot rot, which had been brought up from the Swan. ' Both sheep and lambs require clipping early in spring, to pre-

* vent a grass seed with a curled point from working into the ' skin. We find the grass certainly increase where it has been



* most fed off. As to the comparative expense of keeping a ' flock here and on the Swan, I am scarcely able to say, not ' having kept one at the latter place myself, but two men can 'keep from 700 to 1000, with an extra hand in lambing ' time, and two or three at clipping time. I think the country ' on the average will keep about one sheep to three acres. But

* as the feed increases by feeding, a larger proportion may be ' kept hereafter.'

" We are sorry to say that the disease mentioned in our last report as having proved so serious a drawback to keep- ing flocks on the Swan, has not yielded so entirely as we had hoped it would, to the medicines employed ; nor, with all the care of the owner and shepherd, has it been kept off so long as the sheep have remained in those districts of the Swan in which it had before prevailed. But this has hastened the flockmasters here in sending them to the Avon, to which river three individuals have lately removed their sheep, and where there are now no less than eight flocks. It is the intention of more of the principal settlers to send their stock over the hills, when the Government shall have so far improved the roads as to enable them to take over supplies, which for the present, must be taken from their farms on the Swan and the Canning. It is very gratifying to be able to state, that of some of the merino lambs from the Avon, only six months old, killed at Perth, the carcases have weighed upwards of 10 lbs. a quarter, and this after having been driven over in two days.

" As to the number of acres in wheat showing so small an increase on that of last year, we would remark, that the great scarcity of seed prevented more being got in ; had it not been for this cause, we can venture to say that it would have been very much greater. Nearly the whole of the land now fallow would have been in wheat, besides a great deal of new land, had seed been procurable. Kaffre-corn appears to be almost entirely superseding maize, the former being found not only



productive, but answering well on inferior soils ; whereas the latter does nob succeed well in this country, without a great deal of manure, except on soils that are moist in summer. During the present season oat hay has been made, for the first time in the colony, and with complete success, the crop being four or five times as great as that on the natural pastures.

" From the great increase in the number of working bullocks within the last year or two, we may reasonably calculate on a very considerable increase in the extent of land under culti- vation next year, if the periodical scarcity which has usually visited us be averted so that we be not obliged to use for food the wheat intended for seed. We deem it right to make one observation on the wheat crop, to prevent an erroneous, opinion being formed as to its produce, — that though the quantity sown is considerable, and is generally looking well, there are many acres that are sown on inferior land without sufficient tillage, or sown too late, that cannot be counted on."

" Amongst the plants introduced since our last report, we noticed one of some importance which is now established, namely, the hop, The white mulberry, of which there are a great number in the colony, grows most luxuriantly. "We have now growing in the colony, plants of nearly every kind of European fruit, tree, and shrub, all of which appear to thrive well, as do such of the tropical fruits as have had a fair trial, as the date and banana. Of the fig and the vine, the fruit appear to be as good as that grown in any part of the world. Of the vine one settler has half an acre planted. Indeed this and other fruit trees and plants are becoming very generally cultivated throughout the settlement, especially the fig, vine and peach, which here grow to a certainty from cut- tings. The olive, although regular plantations have not been made, grows remarkably fast, and there is one plant in Perth now in fruit. Although garden vegetables cannot be grown in perfection during every month in the year on dry soils, yet



in moist grounds every description of vegetables can be grown at any season, and our supply of them is certainly very superior with common culture to what can be obtained in England, with- out artificial heat and the greatest care. Of the various kinds of timber trees, and shrubs from Europe, Africa, &c., that have been tried here, all appear to grow remarkably well. Bees have been landed at King George's Sound since our last report.

" We are happy to state that four Hour mills are now in operation, and two otlieis are now in the course of erection ; also, that brewing is becoming more general ; and, notwith- standing the scarcity of money that continues to be felt, we have ascertained that upwards of two thousand pounds (£2000) are ready to be laid out in the purchase of sheep (including some already sent for), to be sent to the fine pas- tures on the Avon and the Hotham. It has been ascertained that on upland two, and on moist soils three, crops of potatoes can lie produced in the year."

Perth, Dec. 12th. — I was obliged to close my last letter yesterday very hastily and abruptly, having been occupied by public business almost up to the moment of setting out for this. * * * Two things I was disappointed alwut ; the first is that from your letters I expected a bale of some material for packing wool in, as I had omitted to l>uy some when it \vas to be had, in expectation of your bale. That which was here was very poor, and selling at Is. (ul. a \ai'd. I know that it can be had with you at 3d. or 4d. a yard. There is not a yard of any sort to be had now, and I have nothing to pack my wool in, so that it must lie for some other opportunity. Some sent their wool to Van Diemcn's Land by this ship (the Adam) in casks, under a promise from the captain that it would be packed in cloth. I did not much like this plan. The next point in which I was disappointed is, that your last letters gave me to understand that you were sending out a crate of delf, and I was looking out for it



most anxiously. There was no letter with the packages which came from England, except that containing the bill of lading. We conjecture, however, that they came from you. They con- sist of a box of soap and starch, a box of axes and wedges, and a dozen of spades. The soap was most seasonable, as I was just about buying some. The spades seem excellent. The wedges also will be very serviceable, though to be most effective they should be in progressive sizes. These re- marks may be serviceable as hints to others. I am pretty well supplied now, for we can now get them made here, at a dear rate.

There is a plan now in progress for attempting to civilize some of the natives by putting them umler the friendly superintendence of Mr. Armstrong, who has gained their entire confidence, and acquired a thorough knowledge of their language. The principle is that they shall procure their own subsistence — but of this more anon. The natives, after a long absence from this neighbourhood, have returned. They have been a long way to the North. Tomghin has been giving me a great account of excursions which he and Wecip made. He says the men are very big, that they eat each Dther, that they wanted to come here to see the white people, but he discouraged them, saying that they would steal niul we would 1)6 angry. I give no guess how far he had gom; to tlie North, but tliink he must have been 100 miles. He says he asked about money or white men, but there is no such thing, and that black fellows " tell a lie plenty." (This was in reference to the rumours we had some time since of a ship- wreck). He was describing to me his ideas of a future state. Some, he said, when they died went down far into the earth and walked " far away " ; others went up and walked above where the snake and the emu stay (perhaps they are hunting grounds hereafter). He also talked of something which I take to be a spirit (good or bad) called " Boylya," but I do not understand this, I know there is not much reliance to



be placed in some of their tales, but he says now that Calynte, the leader of the Murray river tribe, has collected all his forces, and the assistance of other distant tribes, and is coming to make regular battle with us, and do whatever mischief he can. This will satisfy the term " systematic attack " which some of the despatches use as the only thing to justify any military aid.

December 16. — Mr. Peel has now got the fee simple of his 250,000 acres, and is in treaty with some company for 100,000 acres at 2s. 6d. an acre. The company wants 1,000,000 acres. It strikes me as a great omission hitherto on our part that we have not have made it generally known that land may be had here from settlers at a low rate — per- haps from 4d. an acre upwards, taking a large quantity. At Southern Australia, I see they charge 12s. as a minimum price. How can they expect to get that sum in a new colony, when land may be had so much cheaper in one partly established ? Depend on it, the place will not succeed.

December 2oth. — I wish you all a meriy Christmas and a happy new year. The gap from the 16th to this day has oc- curred by my being much in Perth since on business. I hardly know how to fill it up, except with a report of meet- ings of the Executive Council, examination of roads, bridges, canals, &c., as commissioner of roads, and drawing up reports thereon. In examining the " flats " one very warm day, we (Mr. Eoe and I) walked about through the water with our trousers tucked up and legs exposed to the sun for some time, so that the skin was greatly burned and all but peeled off. We saw a fight among the natives there. When I was walking along with them, expecting to see the hostile party advancing from an opposite quarter, and just as 1 was endea- vouring to make one of them explain, 1 heard a sudden «' thwack," and, turning round, beheld a great spear sticking out of a certain very fleshy part of a man who was near me. It seems the quarrel was among themselves, and this was the



way of settling it. Another got a spear through his leg about the same time ; but they seem to think nothing of these things. The wounded men got the spears pulled out, and continued along with the rest, as if nothing were the matter. In short, it looked more like a set of mischievous boys play- ing at high romps, or having a row, than any deadly busi- ness. "When one of them is angry, another holds him till the passion is off, and some appear very willing to be held, and only struggle a little " to save their honour."

Walked up here on Saturday morning last with John Mackie, and rode down on Tuesday on my young filly called " Kate." She carried me very well ; it is one of my own rearing. Attended Executive Council on Tuesday, and Legis- lative Council yesterday, when two Bills were read, which I had previously prepared — one to " regulate the sale of spirits, &c.," and one to establish and regulate a Post Office. Our Legislative Council is now open to the public, and we are directed to conform to the rules of the British Parliament iu our proceedings, so that actually you may regard me as a member of Parliament here. A deputation of inhabitants had waited on the Governor, relative to some improvements in the town, on the same day, so that it was quite a show day. The room in which our Legislative Council sits is a large sized room, with a space railed off for the public. We are required to appear in full dress there, so that I have now an opportunity of wearing the coat and waistcoat you sent, but 1 confess 1 have not had the courage to put it on yet. The Governor appears in full dress (naval uniform), Captain Daniel in full military dress, Messrs. Broun and Eoe in blue coats, with red collars and Crown buttons, i.e., buttons with a Crown on them. (All civil officers wear these buttons.) To- day I paid a duty of £6 6s. for forty-two gallons of rum, and £14 14s. as the price of it. Think of this poured down the throats of the servants ! Oh, for the establishment here of a temperance society.



There is an expedition going off to explore the Hotham and William rivers. It is an interesting but very toilsome expe- dition in this very hot weather. I should like to have gone myself, but cannot be permitted, as Mr. lioe is going by land. The Governor and Mackie are going by sea to King George's Sound. * * * Mr. Norcott and the police have just re- turned from looking after natives at the Murray. They saw nothing of them, but traced their fires for thirty or forty miles on the Serpentine, which falls into the estuary of the Murray. They also saw many cattle tracks. I got a letter of yours yesterday, which was written more than a year ago (7th Dec. 1834.) It came by the Cleopatra to Van Diemen's Land, where it has lain ever since. I need not advert to it now. I have pulled up arrears, and must now make up for lost time, and hurry off to Mr. Tanner's to be in time for our plum pudding.

December 26th. — Got some smart showers of rain soincr down. There were present there Mr. and Mrs. Shaw, Dora and Sam, the three Messrs. Burgess and myself. The day was oppressively sultry, with a steaming damp heat, which put me in mind of some of the hot wet summer days at home. Got back at twelve at night. Found the men all looking " seedy " after yesterday's doings, but all had passed off (quietly for a wonder, liain came on so heavily to-day that I was ol)liged to cease bringing oats to the stack, as they were too wet. I have got one famous large rick of wheat, one of barley, and one of green oats and hay. I have just paid a servant to-night the sum of £16. He is going to Perth in the morning. This to my indoor servants. * * * Mr. and Mrs. Tanner talk of going home in a vessel that has just arrived here from Van Diemen's Land. * * * j think of packing my wool in some of the sheets which you sent some time ago. i know not what else to do with it. Next year my flock will be a fine young flock, as I parted with the old ones when I could. 1 wish I had yours renewed,



Perth, February 1835.

Monday, Feb. 2nd. — I have had a regular series of visitors here to-day since twelve o'clock, when Marshall McDermott called, and took a drink of wine and passed on. Next came a Mr. Anderson, to whose farm I think of sending my flock for a little while. He dined and. drank tea, and sat a long time, and whilst he sat in came Mr. McDermott on his return and took a seat also. Shortly afterwards came Mr. Shaw, and then John Mackie, who took tea, and has just now left, at ten o'clock. Mr. Shaw mentioned an extraordinary circum- stance which had just occurred at his house. A native called Coroor, who had been out looking for some stray goats be- longing to Mr. Shaw, had lain down, in proximity to the fire, on Mr. Shaw's kitchen floor, and had fallen asleep. The native Tomghin was in the kitchen also. Mr. Shaw hap- pened to have his head down looking at Coroor as he slept, when suddenly he saw a spear strike him about the collar bone, and pierce right into his heart. The man was dead in an instant. This spear was thrown by Tomghin, who said he did it in revenge for the death of his brother, Yedemera, who was shot long ago by the soldiers. Are they not an extra- ordinary race ? Shortly afterwards another native, close to Burgess's house, speared poor Toodyeep through the side, so that it is thought she must die. The man seemed perfectly unconcerned after having done it. No wonder they are not very numerous.

Tuesday, Feb. 2>rd. — Eode down to Guildford to examine the roads, bridges, &c. Called on Mr. Tanner, and dined there. I wanted to buy some salt-cellars from them, but.



they wanted 18s. for a pair, and 50s. for a worn pair of plated candlesticks, and as much for some old spoons of date 1719 ; but as you may buy new ones for less, I did not speculate.

Wednesday, Feb. Ath. — Tomgliin seems to be surprised that we should be angry about his killing the man in Mr. Shaw's kitchen. He says it is their law, at their fires, and when the man is asleep ; that he had been urged to do it by the black men ; that he must yet kill another ; that that man's friends have certain opportunities for revenge which he must give, and if they kill him it's all right, if not they must be friends. Such is his account of the affair — given with perfect non- chalance, as a matter of course.

Thursday, Feb. 5th. — Mr. and Mrs. Tanner called, and dined here, quite unexpectedly. I was sitting at my bachelor's dinner when they came. They had been making their fare- well visits along the river. They soon remove from this quarter. I regret their departure very much.

Friday, Feb. 6th. — This was the day of our agricultural meeting, and I rode to Guildford to attend it. About 25 per- sons were present.

The country at the Hotham river, in the interior, nearly 50 miles east from Leschenhault inlet, is spoken of as a fine country. The air is cooler than here, the grass is yet green ; kangaroos are so abundant and tame that they were shot as often as required, and cockatoos so numerous as almost to prevent conversation by their noise.

Sunday, Feb. 15th. — Have not made any observations for some days, not having anything particular to say. One thing interesting has occurred in the meantime. Johnny Eakins has come hack to me, and I have hired him at 35s. a month. His father and mother will be gratified to hear this ; he is now a great strapping fellow, able for any work. Eumour has it that the natives at the Murray have been troublesome again, and that a misunderstanding has occurred over the hills at York with some natives also. They are still friendly



here. I had some of them employed in cutting down over- hanging branches of trees, which threatened my cow yard.

In considering your proceedings at home, nothing strikes me as a more surprising, more useful, more ingenious con- trivance than the hydrostatic bed which I read of in the papers. "What a luxury it appears to us to lie rolling about, as if in the water ! You have so many new ideas, new inven- tions, and new words since we left, that I suppose we should find it difficult to understand your conversation now. It would not be as of yore. I have been greatly interested in reading Babbage's " Economy of Manufactures," which the Southerns sent to me. I wonder if it is usual with you to say, " Run to the clock and tell me what is the square or cube root of such a number." It would be droll to see school-boys, instead of hammering away at their " twice two's four, twice three's six," all busied in striking chimes upon calculating clocks, and working their sums upon machines.

Monday, Feb. 16th. — Went to Perth this morning. There was a great public meeting, convened by the Sheriff, for the purpose of considering the state of the colony and preparing a memorial of grievances, &c.

Tuesday, Feb. 17th. — Finding no other means of getting a constant supply of fresh water, I have commenced sinking a well beside the kitchen. I fear I must go down very deep — perhaps 40 or 50 feet, and must build it up with stone. Com- menced ploughing, also, to-day ; it is hard work, the ground is so hard.

Wednesday, Feb. 18th. — Got a reading of De L'Orme, from Lady Stirling. I devour a novel now with great interest. — A small vessel, the Eagle, has come from Van Diemen's Land, bringing stock and a little provisions. My wool is all ready to go with her to the Mauritius. — Our weather is very changeable now ; sometimes hot and sometimes quite chilly, so I have got a twinge of vile rheumatism in my back. Thermometer, at noon, 82 deg. ; 10 p.m., 75.



Thursday, Feb. 19iJ7i. — The native " Gongul," who formerly threw the spear at me, came here to-day. I put my hand to the back of his neck, and turned him out. Capt. Meares also called here.

Saturday, Feb. 21s^. — The well is sunk to the depth of 27 feet, and we have come upon water, but not much. Have been busy quarrying stone for building it up — hard red sand- stone (iron stone). Would you believe that I have had a valentine sent to me ?

Sunday, Feb. 22nd. — John Mackie dined here to-day, and I cannot write much, as lie sits beside me. — The Governor has returned, and I must go to Perth to-morrow.

Monday, Feb. 2Zrd. — Eode down to congratulate the Gover- nor on his return, and, behold, it was a false alarm. He had

not then arrived. S was there also to attend a meeting

to consider about the establishment of a Bank.

Tuesday, Feb. 2Aih. — Went to Guildford to examine a bridge, and took the opportunity of visiting my flock, which is now there. Some are affected with a blindness of the eyes. — A person called Solomon has a small establishment now near my grant, on the other side of the hills. I think of sending a part of my flock there, He proposes to take them at the rate of £25 per hundred for the year. He has just imported some sheep, and a fine-wooled ram. — I have my men busied in planting potatoes. It is an experiment to put them down at this time of the year on dry ground. I have made use of the natives in breaking the hard clods with mauls. Two boys, rejoicing in the euphonious names of Tunagwirt and Manyu- inerra, have been quartered here by their father, with a sort of hint that his family was large enough without them. I thinlf I shall try to keep the first of them. He tells me that white men call him " Tommy," which is certainly more familiar and easy than that long native name. — Just after I returned from Perth, Letty came with a face of woe to tell me there were but two pieces of beef in the barrel. Awkward announcement !



Thursday, Fd). 2Uh. — Sent J out with the dogs this

morning, and he returned at 10 a.m., bringing a kangaroo of 361bs. with him; a very seasonable supply, — A gentleman thinking of going to the Hotham river has made me an offer to take my sheep to keep for a fifth of the increase. This sounds tempting, but it is far away to send them — perhaps 140 miles. The expense of getting them here for the butcher, or carrying the wool, would make it almost as dear as the third of the increase would at York. — Paid a man to-day 30s. for thrashing thirty bushels of barley and winnowing it.

Saturday, Feb. 2Sth. — Observing the door of the meat safe open this morning, at a very early hour, I examined it, and found the native dogs had paid it a visit and carried off 281bs. of fresh kangaroo and a roast fowl, thus leaving us without a

day's provisions, for my beef is just out. J had been out

in the morning with the dogs, but without success, so there is nothing for it but to take the gun and go pot-hunting. I killed three brace of pigeons and a cockatoo.

Sunday, March \st. — The Governor arrived on Thursday last. I had not heard of it till to-day, when a mounted police- man came up expressly to order me down to a Council meet- ing to-morrow, at 10 a.m. I must rise early. I dare say I shall have to stay during the week, for the discussion of our ways and means will come on this week in our Legislative Assembly. For some time past, we had been expecting here an increase of military force from Van Diemen's Land, under command of a Major Dease. To-day we have received the enormous addition of eight men ! but no major. — There are growing now in front of this house some specimens of what are called here " Caffre melons " — something between a pump- kin and melon. I weighed one yesterday ; it was 5|lbs., the same one to-day weighed fully 71bs., thus increasing more than one pound in weight in one day.

Tuesday, March 11th. — Was kept in town all last week, and did not reach home till Sunday, and had to start next morning



back again, and here I am in Perth still. Meanwhile we have had several ships arriving from different quarters. By one of them, the Eagle, I have this day shipped 9361bs. of wool to Edward Fletcher, in six bales of different sizes, and one box. Two of these bales are for you, containing lOGlbs. There is quite a mania for sheep now in this colony. Four hundred have arrived this day in a vessel, and 1000 more are daily expected. Of these I have engaged 100, which will cost me about £2 a piece ; but I understand that they are asking as much as 55s. a head for those which have arrived now. There are 30 calves also, at £11 a piece.

March 2^th. — There has been some distracting irregularity about my movements and occupations lately, so that I have lost the connexion of my journal. A most important measure for the colony has been hanging over the Legislative Council for some time, namely, the " opening of our budget," — that is, in plain terms, laying before the public the plan for revising the revenue and adjusting the expenditure of the colony for the ensuing financial year, which commences with us on the 1st April. This is the first time it has been done here, and the public mind was very anxious about it, as there were some items of expenditure proposed by the Government which were not thought very useful or judicious by the colonists. I think the Governor has some misgivings about it, as well as the public, he fearing lest the Council should not concur in his Estimates, and the public doubtful whether we should dare to act with impartiality.

On Tuesday the Governor opened the Legislative Council for this purpose with a long address, which he read to us, and he then laid his Estimates before us, and moved to have us all appointed a committee to examine them. I seconded his motion, and made a stout speech on the occasion, which you will see, I dare say, in our colonial paper of next week, which I shall send to you, for I saw " a chiel amang us takin' notes, and feth he'll print it." I think we have set the public mind



a little at ease on the subject, by asserting our independence of any influence but the conscientious discharge of our duty. In committee, we have dissented altogether from the Gover- nor's Estimates, and proposed to substitute others, the effect of which is nearly tantamount to " stopping the supplies," if he rejects them. The principal difference is in the expense of maintaining a body of mounted police, which he established. We found that our means would not allow us to spend so much upon them as he proposed, with justice to the other more urgent wants of the colony ; so we reduced that item and increased others.

I have hastened home to get a day or two of relaxation. I lost my way last night on the road homewards. It was very dark and rainy, and my horse was a young one, and, had it not been that I got a glimpse of the constellation Orion, from which I calculated the direction, I must have wandered till daylight. Fortunately I got home at ten, wet and cold.

A ship has touched here, and brought a quantity of wine called " Cette wine," — I think made in France near the borders of Spain. It is a very nice light red wine, between a port and claret body and flavour. For this we paid at the rate of £15 a pipe. I bought a ^-cask (about 25 gallons) ; bought also a l-barrel of pork (1 cwt.) for £3 ; and three cwt. of beef for £5 12s. Od. The pork is delicious (Irish) ; beef indifferent (from Sydney).

I was witness to a great row among a number of natives at Perth yesterday morning. The occasion was this. It appears that among themselves the ground is parcelled out to indi- viduals, and passes by inheritance. The country formerly of Midgegoroo, then of his son Yagein, belongs now of right to two young lads (brothers), and a son of Yagein. Some tres- passers went upon this ground, lighted their fires, and chased the wallabees. This was resented by the young lads, and, as it happened, there W£is a large meeting of natives at the time,

a general row commenced, and no less than fifteen were

s— 2



wounded with spears in different parts of the legs, — to which they seem to confine themselves as if by some law among themselves. Sometimes two picked men opposed one another, and seemed to us as if they were about to engage in deadly fight. The whole scene was interesting, even anmsing, for they appear to think nothing of a thrust in the fleshy part of the leg. One singular thing occurred. Tomghin was there, and Migo, who is his intimate friend or brother. They fought on different sides. Tomghin wounded the chief of Migo's party, who called out to Migo peremptorily to spear Tomghin. Migo ran up to Tomghin, who held out his thigh to receive the thrust of the other without either flinching or returning it» In our eyes, the worst part of it seems to be that their chief object apparently is to spear the women. The men try to frustrate these attempts with their spears until they are separated. Such is their mode.

2Sth March. — My old native friend, Doorbup, has been staying with me for some time. He has become an expert shot, and has killed for me a number of cockatoos and pigeons. He greatly gives the preference to the " cap gun,'' as he does not like the flash from the pan of the flint gun. — It is a most singular thing that a man in taking over a flock of goats to a station beyond the hills, the other day, lost no less than 53, from the sudden illness with which animals have been seized here. It is a fearful thing, and we know not the cause nor the remedy. Some say that bleeding is found useful.

April 3rd, Friday. — I must be down to Guildford on Mon- day as Commissioner of Eoads, and to Perth to Council on Tuesday. I go to Mr. McDermott's to-morrow to see the sheep and make arrangements about their going away ; from that, on Sunday, to start for York on Monday.

April 5th. — Eode to Mr. McDermott's yesterday to see the sheep. They are just lambing, so I fear I cannot send them now. A native boatman, Moly Dalebin, brought me a note this evening, saying that Mr. Henty had just arrived, bringing



930 sheep. I have engaged 100 from him. This will exhaust all my available finances. — I have to go to Guildford to- morrow to examine bridges, and to the Flats to examine and report upon their state.

April lltk, Saturday. — I only got home late last night. On Monday, on reaching Gruildford, Mr. Eoe had not arrived, so, after sendin<>[ back the horse and waiting in vain for him, I had to walk to Perth. The weather was very hot. On Tuesday I went down to Fremantle, where I had despatclied

J to make enquiries about the sheep, which 1 had veiy

bad accounts of. Three miles on this side of Fremantle, I

found my brave J with 99 sheep, which looked not very

bad under all circumstances. He had lost one on the way, so far. Mackie had bought 50, and had lost no less than 5 (dead) in the same space. Tlie sheep are very weak ; you can hardly imagine the state of a flock coming from a ship. On the second day, they reached Perth, rested there a day, and have this day reached Edwards' on the other side of the river- There are of course several casualties, and some sick left behind, but I liope to have 95 for £192; of these 24 are only lambs. You see what struggles and difficulties we experience in getting a nucleus flock here. Mr. Henty, who bought them by contract, declares that every sheep stands him here at 45s., and that his loss will be heavy by them. However, he is selling his potatoes at £28 a ton, to make up for it.

In walking up yesterday, I called at S 's and found him

busied in erecting a verandah of sawed timber all round the house. — Mr. Bull and Lennard are anxious to see Lennard's brook about 40 miles north of this and they wish me to accompany them. We propose to set out on Tuesday, accom- panied by two natives. — A bullock of Mr. Ridley's died sud- denly. The news has spread among the natives, and they were hurrying off this morning to share the feast. — I have got the frame work of a verandah put up round the back of my house, and shall get it thatched as soon as I can get the 3tr9,w.



A^ril 21st. — I have been out on an expedition since this day week, and only got home at 11 last night. Bull, Lennard, and myself — the two former having servants also, set out for Lennard's brook. My flock is to go on its way to York to- morrow, — that is, as many as can travel. I wish I had sent them long since, for the food here is so short and dry that the ewes have not milk, and I have lost many lambs already and several sheep of my old flock. I have also lost ten of those last purchased, but shall think myself fortunate if I escape with 10 per cent. loss. — I have had a letter from Mr. Dun- nage, Hatchell's friend, who was here when I came, but is now a clergyman in England. Do you ever see or hear of Dale ? He will be interested in the result of our visit to Lennard's brook, which we had passed before in company together. Tell him the natives at Lennard's brook recollected our former visit ; that the' word " roging " which they used on that occasion means a stranger. They meant that they wished to see the strangers, and the word " rogo " which they used, when they wished us to go in a certain direction different from that which we took means, " There, or that way." The Perth natives now say that the Perth white men speak " Eng- lish plenty," meaning broken English, but that I speak like a Waylo man, — that is, a man from the North. Waylo is the name of the district we visited.

Sunday, drd May. — Have been in Perth for most part of last week, and only returned last night. I am in painful suspense as to the result of sending the sheep over the hills, for news reached Perth yesterday that Dr. Harris in taking his over, at the same time with mine, lost ^0 sheep and two bullocks by death. It is a most alarming circumstance. The cause of this mortality is as yet unknown. Some attribute it to a poisonous plant, some to overdriving, some to want of water. All are at fault, and tlie sickness is so sudden that there is scarcely time to apply a remedy, even if it were known. The same rumour hath it that mine had passed Dr.



Harris's on the way, and were seen within twelve miles of York with only a few deaths among them.

I am much amused with the patent for " grumbling" which you have conferred upon me ; I think I have made the most of it on some occasions, and manufactured largely of that article. Nothing is more satisfactory than a good hearty grumble ; it is like the safety-valve of a steam engine which lets the superfluous power escape harmlessly, though noisily, and which would be destruction if pent up unliberated. The yard and kitchen look like a hospital with sick sheep and lambs. The dogs and pigs fare all the better at this time, for I boil the dead ones for them. It is an ill wind, &c., and I suppose I have lost 30 or 40 lambs, and perhaps 15 sheep between the old one and the new flock, — another grumble. Planted half an acre of potatoes long since, but scarcely any have come up — another grumble. Sowed a large quantity of turnip seed, cabbage, &c., and not a single grain had come up yet, though a month sown — another grumble. Cows seem to be increasing in number here ; they are devouring some wheat which I sowed early — still another grumble. See how readily by practice I can manufacture that patent article !

May 5. — Have my flock in four different places now, some over the hills and some at a grant next to this ; the ewes and lambs at Coulston (Mr. Brown's place), and a few still remain- ing in hospital here). Found a sheep dead in the river to-day. They approach the edge of a steep bank to get at the grass, and tumble in, and are too weak to get out if not assisted.

Wednesday, May 6th. — Another sheep dead to-day ; but it had got its thigh broken some time ago. This is compensatt-d by the birth of two lambs. " Child at the breast " is a phrase among us which signifies a state of helpless infancy. Apropos, there was a fine little native girl helping its father and mother to-day to break clods of earth, and I was not a little surprised to see it afford ocular demonstration that it still sought sup- port from its mother. In short, they frequently appear to



rear one child until another is ready to take its place, even though there be a long interval.

May 7th, 8th, and 9th. — Down in Perth. The Dublin Packet has arrived. She has brought very few letters for the colony. I have received a number of Manchester, Liverpool,

Dublin, Derry and other papers, and only one letter ! J

returned on Friday night from York, and tells me I have lost

but five sheep and six lambs on the way ; but poor Dr. H

has been sadly unfortunate, having lost 93 sheep, 14 goats and 3 bullocks, and, to complete the misfortune, two of his men whom he had left behind on the way to look after a sick bullock were attacked and severely wounded by some natives, and had a most providential escape for their lives. The spear struck one just beside the back bone, and glanced along the ribs and into the fiesh towards his breast. The other was struck on the breast bone, which turned the spear along his ribs and under his arm. On reaching home on Saturday night I was greeted with a bad piece of news, — a dog belonging to one of the natives had destroyed four of my slieep, and a fifth was in hospital. The same dog has been notorious here, but seems to bear a charmed life, for many have fired at him, but without effect. I was much inclined to bring the soldiers upon the owner, and seize and detain him until he should give up the dog, but, it being my own case, I did not like to act as a magistrate, and so I sent notice to our police about it. However, in the meantime I hear that one of Mr. Bull's men fired at the dog yesterday, and struck him with a charge of shot in the side, and perhaps he may die. The owner is a daring fellow, the very image of Yagan. It was this man who killed the soldier here about a year ago, and he has often said if white man would shoot his dog, he would spear white man. The dog destroyed seventeen fowls in Mr. Bull's yard on the morning he was killed. — Yesterday morning I drowned one of my cats for misbehaving, and the natives fished it out of the river and eat it, saying it was " all same possum," and



from the look of it I should say it was better, for I think an opossum as vile eating, but in the colony we are not very squeamish. — I have had three men these two days branding

the sheep with a hot iron, dressing them for the scab. M

was here to-day, modestly requesting me to lend him 40 or 50 bushels of wheat, and he would repay me after next harvest. We had several showers of rain to-day, — the first we have had for a long time. All vegetation on my ground is at a standstill for want of it. — I have been reading many Irish newspapers, all very dull. I wonder if our little colonial Gazette reaches you. I send it regularly ; it is very small for the money — like most other things here.

Wednesday, May 6. — A native dog attacked the flock yes- terday, and would not be driven away by all the shepherd's exertions, but at last caught one by the tliroat and so worried it that it died to-day. It was a fine ewe, forward in lamb. This is not my only misfortune, for I have found one of my best young ewes in the river to-night drowned ; it was weak, having been bled and physicked yesterday. — The police are here to-day. I had sent for them to endeavour to arrest some of the owners of these dogs, but they (the natives) made off. This may have a good effect in showing them how we look on such matters. — One of the little native boys was busy eating frogs to-day. They looked so tempting that I ate one also, and it was delicious. The part I ate, however, was the eggs of the female, which they seem to prize most, as they say, " the men frogs arc no good," the taste was much like that of an egg. It strikes nie that I have never seen here in the pools the frog spawn, and these eggs, judging by their appear- ance when the frog was roasted, looked like little white eggs, distinctly formed, and not globular jellies with the embryo, like a black speck, as they are at home. The natives dig them out of the ground with their hands. There is no water now, nor none since winter last, when these were got. How do they live ? Do they sleep ?



I cannot think how the word " kangaroo " came into use. It is not the name of this animal among the natives of any part of this island, I believe, where they seem to have distinct names for each species. Here " yowart " is the male, " yarho " the female, "yangor" (or "yangori") the generic name, — whence probably the word was corrupted.

Thursday. — The flock has been attacked with blindness to- day in a most sudden manner. I got the flock home instantly, and had them copiously bled, and gave them turpentine. It is a most extraordinary illness. There is no visible sore nor ailment about the eye, but that it looks green and glassy. I had them grazing upon Mr. Brown's land. It is singular that on some lands sheep are affected by blindness, on some by fatal illness like apoplexy. The lowlands are blamed for the former, — the highlands for the latter illness. I have never known any illness incidental to my own ground, but the pasture has not been sufficient to feed them lately. I think it is the succulence of young grass, which springs rapidly near the banks of the river after a shower, that occasions the illness.

Saturday night, May "dQth. — I closed my last about a week since. I forget whether I mentioned the arrival of a vessel from Madras, which is soon to be followed by another, bring- ing several fried Nabobs here to get their livers a little cooled. It will be extremely advantageous if the Indian invalids should take a fancy to come here to recruit, which I have no doubt they M'ill do when we have a few more comforts to offer them. — I sent off another small flock of 100 sheep and about 70 lambs to York on Monday last under the charge of James and another man, but in company with a caravan and carts, &c., going at the same time. James has turned out a capital hand among sheep — bleeding and doctoring them with great readiness. He has had but too much practice lately in these departments. I have just learned to-day that the party had been met near York all safe, with the exception of two



lambs which had perished on the way. I went to Perth on Wednesday, and to Fremantle with Mr. Roe on Tuesday, to examine ferries, &c., as commissioner of roads, bridges, ferries, &c. An unpleasant occurrence happened at Perth which may lead to bad consequences. A townsman of Perth, finding that his store had been plundered by some natives, took his gun and went to where there were a number of them sleeping, and got into a scuffle with one whom he supposed to be a guilty person. His gun went off in the struggle, and all the contents passed through the lad's thigh and into the calf of his leg. They wanted to take summary vengeance, and were with difficulty persuaded to let our law take its course. They have been pacified in the meantime by seeing him sent hand- cuffed to gaol to await the event, if the boy should die. They wished to be allowed to spear him in the leg, and said if he gave some bread they would only spear him a very little. If the boy dies they say that they will kill the guilty man who stole the flour, as he was the cause of it, but they expect that the white man will be killed by us if Gogaly (the boy) should die. — On my arrival here to-night I find three other sheep dead in my absence, all (I believe) my own. One appears to have bled to death in the fold, from the wound made in branding it. One was a blind one, and the third was one which the native dogs had mangled long ago.

Monday, June 1st.— This is the anniversary of the foundation or establishment of this colony, and is to be celebrated in Perth by rustic sports and gambols, as running after pigs with soaped tails, jumping in sacks, &c. I was trepanned into subscribing a pound for it, as the Government officers were expected to contribute. The mortality among my sheep seems to be dying out. I have not had any more deaths for several days, but some are in a doubtful state, and I have still eight blind. — The team is now occupied in breaking up some high ground of a sandy loamy nature, some say it will not give a crop without manure. I shall be very badly off


for wheat ground. This season is unusually dry ; the rains have not come so early as heretofore, and the crops are later in consequence. There has been frost every day for some time ; we had not observed frost in other years before July. Potatoes which have been in the ground nearly two months are now only appearing.

Monday. — Caught a native woman to-day stealing wheat from casks under the verandah. Gave her a rap with a stick, intending to hit her over the head ; she raised her face up suddenly, and I struck her on the nose and cut her. The blow was nothing, but the stick was ragged. I chased her off and kept her bags and all their contents. Some time afterwards came a man demanding them and threatening terrible things ; I turned him off instantly, taking the precaution to keep my gun in my hand, for they are not to be trusted when in these moods. Whether anything will come of this I know not, but it is a little awkward.

A most melancholy piece of intelligence has just reached me. Poor Thompson, who accompanied Dale and myself over the hills, was drowned yesterday evening in crossing the river near Guildford in a leaky boat. Having spent the evening at Mr. Kidley's he wished to cross the river to go home ; the boat was nearly full of water, but he thought he could manage it. Mr. Kidley stood on the bank with a lantern in the meantime, and asked him if he was over yet. "I'm half way at all events, and will soon be over," said he ; so Mr Kidley went home, but soon heard a shout that the boat was going down. There was no other boat and no other sound. An hour afterwards his body was found. I suppose the swamping boat dragged him with it in its vortex, and he could not swim. He was from Brentford, an old school fellow of E. Fletcher. Sold a duck and a drake to-day for 8s. which a native brought here from Mr. S. in a letter.

Wednesday. — Letty has gone to Perth to-day. I was reminded at dinner time how much the comfort and order of


the house depends upon her. Being called in to dinner I found a piece of meat standing on the side table and that was the whole preparation. There was neither cloth, plates, knives, vegetables, nor anything else ; the men thought they had enough to do in taking their own dinner. I sent to-day for the native woman who had been stealing here, and gave her back her bags and cloaks. She looked very penitent. Several strangers appeared to-day who all took the precaution of asking if I was angry now. Off to Perth to-morrow morning.

Monday 22nd. — I only returned here yesterday and found the house beset with natives. It is a most provoking thing that in my absence they are encouraged by the men to come about here, and liberally entertained at my expense. One woman told me to-day that I was very bad, I only gave her a little wheat though she carried wood, but that gave plenty without asking them to do anything. That is a pleasant hearing. A ship, the Caledonia, has arrived from Van Diemen's Land ; another soon expected thence also. There has fallen a great quantity of rain during the last three days ; the ground is only now sufficiently softened for all purposes. The season is rather backward, but 1 think a great struggle will be made this year to raise sufficient grain to support the colony ; flour, however, will be dear here for a long time, for it costs us as much nearly to get wheat ground as the price of wheat in other places. The millers have got a trick here of not grinding for any persons but themselves. They offer to buy the wheat at a long credit, then grind and sell it out at a great price. It has been 6d. a pound till the arrival of this vessel, yet the millers were only offering 13s. a bushel for the wheat, which is not nmch more than 2d. a pound. I bought a cwt. of potatoes to plant now, for I fear the frost will cut off all the crops, which is only just above ground, though planted more than two months ago. The flock which I bought lately is just now beginning to lamb ; if they pro-


duce 40 or 50 lambs this season it will make up for the bad bargain.

Tuesday. — Three lambs were found in the fold this morning, and only one ewe with the appearance of being a mother. I have not known a sheep to have three lambs, yet this looks like it ; one of them was dead in the morning. Took part of a stack of wheat into the barn to-day. It had suffered sadly from wet and mismanagement, in being badly thatched. It appears that the natives do not consider every frog fit for eating, for some of a greenish colour were under the stack, but they would not eat them, and said they lived above the waters, but the good ones lived in the ground. I had Weeip and two boys carrying wheat almost all day. Shot a duck upon the river to-day. White cockatoos are becoming very troublesome upon the ^heat, as well as the crows. One is obliged to keep a boy to drive them away, or to make some contrivance to frighten them. We strike a long board smartly with a stick, the sound of which frightens them a little. It is singular to see a field spotted black and white with these depredators " piebalded."

Wednesday, June 24:th. — The colony is now greatly in want of a few good practical shepherds. They would be sure of getting from 40s. to 60s. a month besides being fed. It is surprising how much the condition of the flock depends upon the goodness of the shepherd. Your part of the country not being a sheep country, I knew nothing of them before I came here, but have bought some experience since ; and one chief lesson which I have learned is that in the summer time I can keep but a very small flock (perhaps not much more than 100) on the unassisted pasture of my grant, on this side of the hills ; but at York my grant would probably feed more than 1000 — for, whereas the area of my grazing grounds here is not much more than half a mile broad and a mile deep, the breadth of my grant there is two miles, and I am told the ground is good for an average of at least three miles back.



It is about 14 miles to the south of Mount Bakewell, on the west side of the river.

Sunday, June 28th. — Went to Perth on Thursday, and only returned to-day. We are in a dilemma about the trial of the settler for the murder or manslaughter of the native boy named Gogaly. The natives are desirous of seeing him severely punished, and if he be acquitted they will take revenge. It is a most extraordinary thing that we are not furnished here with the Acts, or amendments in the laws, which are taking place every day at home. How we are to know anything about them is difficult to conjecture. Yet we are bound to act according to the law of England. Another of my sheep has had twins. I have now 32 lambs alive from this new flock. I am getting some large trees grubbed at 5s. a tree.

July 5th. — There is an interval here of a week which re- quires and deserves to be noted particularly. You see the last date is this day week. On Monday night came Weeip here, who had been among the hills and had met with some policemen returning from York with a native whom they had taken prisoner, charged with spearing Morley (who has since died), at the time that my sheep went over the hills. Weeip told me that the man they had taken was not the man that did it, though the same name, and asked me to "paper wonga " the Governor about it. I went down next morning, thinking my presence might be required in my official capa- city, hoping to return here that evening again, but I only got home late last night. I succeeded after a good deal of trouble in persuading the Superintendent of Police that they had taken the wrong man, and I got him liberated. This ac- counts for the interval (as I seldom write my journal unless when here at home), but I must now fill up the interval. The Sir David Ogilby has arrived here, bringing letters from the Cape. I have received two letters from you (dated 28th Nov. and 17th Dec, 1834), and several copies of the Verry



Sentinel and Stewart's Dispatch, the latest being of the date of 30th January, 1835. I shall shortly advert to the different topics contained in them.

I see has made himself active in getting up a West

Australian Company." It is a dangerous thing to meddle with ; the blame of failure is sure to be visited on the pro- jector of the scheme, and instances of ill success are certain to occur, if not of general failure. If, by the slightest mis- representation or exaggeration, any individual finds himself misled, the consciousness of injury done to such person must surely be accompanied with great remorse. It is for this cause I have been so cautious in my journals to you. I thank God I have not to charge myself with endeavouring to induce any person to come out. It is this feeling I dare say which makes Sir James Stirling now so cautious and silent. He has already suffered severely in mind from the reproaches and maledictions which have been heaped upon him by those who had only themselves to blame. "How came you to bring us to such a miserable place ?" was the general clamour. That miserable place has already been established to a degree which is surprising, when calmly considered as an isolated colony in only the sixth year of its existence. Eecollect, it is not to be compared with the instantaneous maturity of a new town in America, which is but as the hiving off of a vigorous and full-grown swarm. But here is an isolated colony in an uninhabited wilderness, with an unknown cli- mate, new soil unaccustomed to production, remote from friends, and to which assistance is dealt with a niggardly hand, where all provisions, stock, and necessaries have to be procured from other, distant, jealous, and unfriendly people, and procured by means of merchants who thrive in propor- tion to their exactions.

If this scheme of the W. A. Company should still continue when this reaches you, there is a block of land at Leschenault Inlet, consisting of 100,000 acres, belonging to Colonel Latour



which possibly might be purchased at a cheaper rate from his assignees, who live in London. I consider the land good, as far as I have been able to ascertain anything about it. The situation is good, for these reasons — it has a frontage on the coast by which a communication by sea is secured for transport of heavy goods, &c., and for receiving stock direct from Van Diemen's Land, or elsewhere. Then fish may be caught in abundance in the bay. The grassy lands, I believe come near the coast. The climate is rather cooler there than here. A large tract of grazing ground probably lies adjacent to it, north, south, and east, where a continuation of it could be purchased from Government at 5 s. an acre. Probably Latour's might be purchased at less than Is. an acre, if the business be directly gone about. There are some disadvant- ages belonging to it which require such explanation as can only be given now as the result of experience of climate and situation and circumstances of the place. The term " port " may mislead. The whole space of Geograph Bay does not present a single port or sheltered harbour, with the probable exception of a little neck behind a jutting headland about the S.W. bight of the bay. The situation speaks for itself. Ves- sels of a large size may approach the shore in summer and calm weather, and discharge or take in cargo. " Military post " there is none there now ; it has been given up. In fact, there are no settlers there, and consequently no occasion for a post. There is, I understand, a beautiful site for a town, but the lakes and rivers must not be calculated upon, for no river that we have discovered, as yet, runs in the sum- mer ; they are mere pools and shallows, or chains of pools. But if they have sufficient water for the stock they are valu- able. This place is nearly on the same parallel with the best part of Bannister's track, much of which is already pre- engaged, and not an inch of which you could get from Go- vernment under 5 s. an acre. Many opportunities have occurred here of getting land from early settlers, which was



sold under execution or through distress, at a very low rate — some at twopence an acre ; but few had money to purchase, and there was a certainty that the money must lie dead for some time. Mr. N wrote to me a long time ago to pur- chase a grant for him, and go as far as £600. I should have been ruined if I had done so, for he did not send the money, and that is the very thing that is wanted here when people sell. There is also a Mr. James Henty, who was formerly a merchant here, and who is now in London. You could hear of him at Cross's. I think he has a large grant at the Les- chenhault Inlet, or somewhere thereabouts. Perhaps he would sell. I am speaking almost at random about this company and your plans, for I am in no way informed of its existence save by an advertisement in Stewart's Dispatch. So far as it goes Sir James is greatly pleased with it.

The subject of imigration is one which I approach with great diffidence. It is so comprehensive and so various that it is not possible to treat it methodically in the due bounds of my compressed journal. Were I sitting beside you for an hour, I could disabuse your mind of many false impressions which seem to rest upon them. There is naturally in the mind of every one who thinks of emigrating, so much that is enthusiastic and visionary, so much of fancy and romance, so much of theory and imagination, so little of practice and business, so much contemplation of every probable advant- age and so much oversight of all actual difficulty, that it is hard to be prepared for the reality. Then, how many are but badly qualified for settlers ! There must be enthusiasm and there must be steadiness, energy, and patience, quickness, and perseverance, courage, and forbearance, promptitude, and pmdence, and many other opposite qualities ; and, at the back of them all, there must be — money. I mean for one who sets up for himself, and not as the servant or steward of another. I think few situations could be much more trying than that of a person arriving here now with but a small


2^5 :

capital, unless his ideas were proportionately adjusted. You could not get a gi-ant ou the Swan under from £100 to £1000, according to the size and quality. Supposing you purchase from Government or from a settler, land at a distance ; if from Government you pay 5s. an acre, settlers wish to get 4s. 6d. ; your grant may be from 30 to 50, or more miles away. How are you to get at it ? You must in the first place buy a team — that will cost you £100, and a cart at least £20. In short, I am afraid to enumerate all the ex- penses and difficulties, you would tliink them so dishearten- ing. They can all be surmounted, but if a man be not pre- pared for them he may sink under them. Good bargains, lucky chances of spots may be met with, but they are few, and becoming fewer every day. A squatter — that is a person who would go beyond the locations and occupy any ground that would answer his purpose — might do well here with a large flock, but he must be contented with a rude house or a tent, cultivate only such ground as would give him wheat and vegetables ; live much upon the produce of his dogs and his guns ; drive his surplus stock occasionally to market, with his wool also; and take back little necessaries, comforts, and luxuries. This might be done by a man who had a large family, and all help within himself, for you could scarcely tempt free English servants to go out of the pale of society voluntarily, and in this respect the convict population at Sydney is au advantage. The natives are the serious ob- stacle to a small establishment in a distant situation.

Atigust 29. — James bought a young ram from me to-day for 32s., and sold it almost immediately for £2. Had some emu to-day for dinner ; it tastes very like young beef, sweet and tender ; a roast thigh looked very like a roasted leg of mutton. Have scarcely had a moment of the day to myself people here on different sorts of business : Mr. Bull, Mr. Mellersh, J. Mackie, and Nat. Shaw. — I have calculated that

there are 1131 acres of wheat sown in the colony this year

T— 2



which, at an average of 15 bushels to the acre, would give, say, in round numbers, 15,000 bushels of wheat, wliich will go a good way in supplying us with flour for this year, — per- haps give nine months supply, after deducting 3000 bushels for seed, and poultry, and waste.

August 31. — We have had much rain during all the last week and strong winds. — Two blind sheep have been turned out daily for some time on the plain to graze; one of them was furnished with a bell, by the sound of which the other became accustomed to guide, itself. Some days ago, the one with the bell was killed, and the other poor thing wandered about, went astray, and could not be found readily. James armed himself with the bell of the dead one, and went rincfins through the bush. The lost one answered the signal imme- diately, and so we found a new way of catching sheep. — Planted yesterday a number of cuttings of vine, peach, and fig trees. It is rather late, but I got them from the Governor's garden, and will give them a chance. — I have heard that the packing in which I was obliged to put my wool last year, went all to pieces at the Isle of France, in transhipping it. There are Indian gunny bags to be got here now at 7s. 6d. I am in doubt about buying, as I make sure of your sending some by the first vessel. When is it to arrive ?

Wednesday. — There has been a long spell of rainy and stormy weather, but this day it appears to have cleaved up a little. You would have laughed to have seen the native Tomghin this evening walking about with an umbrella over his head, accompanying me to look for a stray sheep. He could not manage the name of it. The nearest approach was " hemphrella." — I have now the only pure Saxony ram in the colony, and I have two pure ewes. I must give them every chance, or else we shall lose the pure blood, as the ram is old. The wool is very fine but very short. Sold another young ram to James for 30s. By the way I recommend persons coming here to bring out a number of iron hurdles ; they are



very serviceable even for a temporary fence until required to fold sheep. The freight would be little, and they are much cheaper than you could get even wooden ones made here.

Saturday night. — Went to Perth on Thursday. The Irene, which sailed a week ago for the Isle of France, had been driven back by contrary winds, and was off Eottnest Island before they knew where they had been blown to. A young gentleman called Pratt has been drowned, his boat having capsized and swamped whilst he was engaged in a sailing match. — I mentioned in a previous letter a speculation of a steam mill for flour, &c. The more I think of it the more feasible it appears. If it were placed in a large flat boat or vessel, so as to move about on the river, up and down to the different farms, it would be an excellent thing. — I waslied two or three slieep to-day for the purpose of shearing. It is too early for general shearing, but I want to get these dressed to prevent scab. I intend this year to cull out samples of dif- ferent qualities of wool, — pure Saxon from Saxony, pure Saxon, bred in the colony, cross between pure Saxon and pure merino, and between pure Saxon and mixed merino. I have a young ram from a pure Saxon ram and pure merino ewe ; his wool is very long and pure, — i. e., long compared with Saxon, fine compared with merino wool.

Sept. 6th. — I must return to Perth to-morrow again ; mean- time, I am getting more potatoes planted, and others dug at the same time. There are at this moment some thoroughly ripe, some ripening, some about two inches over the moulding, some just appearing, and some being planted. This will give us a succession. I had put down many cuttings of peaclies, vines, &c., by the river side just before the flood came. It has now subsided, and I find they are rather benefitted than injured by it. Found something like broad-tongued cress, growing wild, to-day.

Thursday. — On Tuesday I went to Perth and have just returned, having been in Fremantle yesterday. The captaii^



and some officers of H.M.S. Zebra have gone up to Mr. Bull's to see the country. They are greatly pleased with it so far. I dare say they will call here to-morrow. — There was a special meeting of magistrates to-day, at Perth, at which I presided as chairman. The object was to revise an established scale of poundage fees in cases of trespass of cattle. The fine has been established at Is. a head for large cattle, and 3d. a head for sheep, besides the damage done. In case of some of the large flocks of sheep, there miglit have been £7 or £8 to pay, merely for the impounding in a man's private fold. This is altered now.

Saturday. — Took tea at Mr. Bull's last night. Capt. McCrea of the Zebra is very fond of farming, and is greatly delighted with the ground on the Swan. He says from the reports about this place he had no idea of finding it what it is. He had a farm near Devonport himself, and looks like a farmer. He called here to-day on his way down. — Got the sheep washed to-day preparatory to shearing, but the wool of this flock will not be worth sending home. I shall have very little to send this year, for Mr. Solomon, who keeps my flock, retains a portion of it for his trouble. Got a few potatoes turned out with my plough to-day ; a tolerable, but not like an Irish crop.

Monday. — There came on a very severe storm on Saturday night. Thunder, lightning, and heavy rain ; the day had been unusually warm. I find on a calculation that the consump- tion of flour for my establishment is just 1 cwt. a week. The natives are a heavy tax upon us in that way. — A huge limb of a tree fell down near the house on Friday night. The weather was quite calm at the time. — I am just about to put a crop of Cattre corn in the ground from which the potatoes have been ploughed. I shall put it in drills three feet asunder, so that I can put in another crop in the intervals, as soon as the corn is ripe.

Wednesday. — Took tea last night at Mr. Bull's. The river



is still in a flooded state, so that I had some difficulty in getting over by a tree which was partly under water. I have now got the little flock here, shorn ; we finished to-day 96 sheep, principally of those which I bought from Henty, brought from Van Dieman's land. Some of them have a fleece more like goat's hair than wool, but tlieir lambs are large and fine, and I expect that the wool from the cross of the pure Saxon will be valuable, as the ewes are very large but the fleece of this lot is hardly worth sending home this year, as some of them had the scab when I got them, and it was for the purpose of curing it thoroughly that I had chem shorn soon. One of the cows had a very large bull calf this morning. Bought a cask of beef which stands me about Is. 4Jd. per lb. (American beef), but it is so vile and smells so badly that the men are on the point of mutinying. Oh for some of Sherlock's good sweet prime new pork ! The men are making merry in the kitchen to-night ; they had an extra allowance of rum, and have just sent in for more. There are some strange men there who help to keep it up.

Sunday. — Returned late last night. Could not get the horse across the river, the water was too high. We have had much more rain this month, than in the same month in any other year since we came here. An expedition which was to have started to explore the district of the Hotham between this and King George's Sound is delayed for some days longer to let the ground dry sufiiciently before they start. The Governor is going along with them, with the intention of pushing on from that on horseback as far as " Doubtful Island bay," about 100 miles further East than King George's Sound. If there be a good tract of land there, and a harbour, it will probably come into repute at once and supersede King George's Sound. We shall wait the result of this expedition with much anxiety.

Old Mr. Henty has " squatted " himself on an unlocated district along the coast outside of this territory, at Portland



Bay. He has been very successful in whale fishing, but I believe finds his situation hazardous, as being out of the pale of civilization and protection, and he now thinks of taking land within the territory at some place along the coast, where it is generally supposed that he has seen a fine country, though he has been prudent enough to keep his secret. — My dog killed a kangaroo of 341bs. weight to-day. John Mackie dined here. — I have offers from several persons to go and settle on my farm over the hills and take care of my flock. There is quite a mania now for " over the hills."

Oct. 10th. — I have been in Perth since Thursday morning, having returned only late last night. The Governor and a party have just returned from the York district ; they made a considerable tour and are greatly pleased. The Governor calculated that he passed over 300 square miles of prime grazing ground. That is the district for any one to go to. There has been much rain, and the river is considerably swol- len in consequence. I had some trouble in riding through it ; the mare was all but swimming. Perth was gay last week. We had two dancing parties there, one at Mr. Brown's and one at j\Ir. Roe's, though the weather is becom- ing too hot now for waltzing, which we indulge in. Paid 30s. of charges on the wool which I sent long ago by the Mauritius, where it was transhipped at this expense, and it is to pay 2d. a lb. from that to London, which, with 2d. from this to the Mauritius, makes a heavy drawback against our wool.

Alonday, — Getting melons, pumpkins, and water melons put down. Cut 32 head of cauliflower yesterday and to-day, and gave them to the men, so many had come forward beg- ging for one. Shot one of those gallinules across the river ; dog Carlo swam for it, and was mouthing it when John Mackie came running on that side to take it from him, but the dog leapt into the river immediately, with the bird in his mouth, and brought it over to me, The Murray river natives



seem to exercise some authority over the natives here. They insisted on boring the noses of two young fellows, Doorbap and Boodap ; it is a sort of initiation into manhood, as knocking a front tooth out is at Sydney. One of them took a fit of laughing, which seemed to have the same effect on his nose as when a person laughs whose lips are chapped with frost.

Tuesday. — Folding a few sheep upon the lucerne, which is very luxuriant. There is a native boy here now who has been brought up among the mountains. He speaks a very different dialect from those about liere, just as you may have seen a Lowlandman laugh at a "Ballymullen man." He looks mild and just caught like.

Wednesday. — Getting Caffre corn put down in drills three feet apart. One of the native boys, Junagwirt, made himself very useful in putting the seeds into the drills by hand.

Friday. — A small vessel called the Sally Anne has come from Van Diemen's Land, and a boat which had long since sailed from this for Augusta, the Fanny, which was supposed to have been lost, has returned back safe and sound.

Saturday. — Had to go to Perth on Wednesday and to Fre- mantle on Thursday, as Commissioner of Koads and Bridges. Council early on Friday, and then to Guildford, where all our Colonial Council was present at a fair and ploughing match which was lield there. I did not arrive here till 11 o'clock last night. We Imd u large meeting; fifty persons sat down to dinner, and there were two or three booths or tents where ginger beer and ginger bread were sold. Dancing also took

place, and some fighting, in which I believe J bore his

part, but as I have heard no particulars I take care not to enquire. The Goveraor mentioned to me that he has had from King George's Sound an account of two boys who had accompanied a set of sealers along the southern coast, and, being disgusted with the depravity and barbarity of the men of the party, had, after many efforts, at last made their escape



from them, about 400 miles to the east of King George's Sound, which place with great difficulty they reached in safety, principally by the friendly assistance of natives, who brought them to the settlement. Many particiilars had not been learned. They were in a very exhausted state when the account was written. They did not speak of any rivers of importance, nor any remarkable features, but we shall hear more particulars bye and bye.

Tuesday. — The Governor is to set out to-morrow on his expedition. I thought to have been able to use all the time of absence as I chose, and to have made some little excur- sions, but he wishes that the remaining members of Council (now only three in number) should communicate frequently during his absence, and be as much on the spot as possible, for fear of emergencies. The thing principally to be dreaded, is hostilities with the natives, and the most troublesome thing to provide for is the employment of the labouring classes who may be out of work, and (a practice which they learned from the poor laws at home) come to the Government instantly for relief. One of my boys went out to-day, accompanied by a native, to look for a kangaroo, and brought home a doe weigh- ing about 401bs., which Carlo killed single-handed.

Saturday. — Had the honour of a visit from two ladies this

evening, Mrs. H and Miss S . Have given the men

another job of putting up another building for a kitchen, nearer the house than my present one, which will serve for a store and a place for the men to sleep in. The building they are about to put up will be shingled.

Sunday. — After dinner this evening rode back to the hills. It is singular that there where the sheep were folded last year, has grown up a rich crop of grass of a different sort to that which clothes the adjacent ground ; docks also have sprung up in abundance on that spot, and yet I cannot per- ceive any in the neighbourhood. Enjoyed this ride very much, but felt a great want of some companion to talk to^



A depressing sensation of loneliness came strongly over me —a sort of " Oh ! dear, what can the matter be ?" feeling.

Tuesday. — The weather is only now beginning to become warm. There has been much more rain and cold this season than in any other since I came here. I remember that before I came here the favourite theory respecting the shape of this island was that it was edged round with a great border of high mountains, which threw and detained all the waters on the inner side, so that the whole was like a great basin or reservoir, having a large inland sea. This theory is com- pletely contradicted by our knowledge of the shape of this side of the island at least. The interior, so far from being lower, is higher than the level of the land outside of this range. Several rivers — perhaps we might say all of any im- portance that we are as yet acquainted with — take their rise inside of the range, and force their way through it to the sea. Where the waters which must in winter be collected over the great surface of the interior, discharge themselves is yet to be accounted for. It has been almost demonstrated that there is no large river along tlie whole line uf south coast from the Murrumbidgee to Cape Leeuin. The Blackwood, which is supposed to be the largest, scarcely deserves the name of a large river. The expedition which is now exploring will give us more information on Lhat point. Coming northward from Cape Leeuin, the fii-st, river of any importance is the Murray, There are two estuaries to this river, one of which is 18 or 20 miles long. I dare say that the Hotham, which they are gone to settle upon, will turn out to be identical with the Murray, one of its tributaries, if not the main stream. The next river is the Swan, and after this there is none for about 50 or 60 miles, when you come to the river Garban, the natives here- abouts do not seem to l)e aware of any river, so there must be a long interval without one. The coast as far as Shark's Bay has been sailed along as near as consistent with safety, and no river has been seen. No reliance can be placed on



what the natives say on the subject, hut I think it very likely from what some of them have told me that there is a great bay or creek running far inland, in a south and by east direc- tion from Cambridge Gulf, and that into this the principal waters of the western and north-western part of this island discharge themselves. But this is only theory — not quite unfounded though, for the end of Cambridge Gulf was not seen, I believe, by Captain King, though he sailed up a con- siderable distance. Again; that would account for what the native Tomghin says about the sea in a direction north by east or north north east from this, where -there are high mountains, not seen, burning sand, and weak-eyed people (according to his description).

Thursday. — Set out at eight this morning for Perth. Left it again at five, without even having sat down in the mean- time, and reached home tired and hungry. John Mackie came and spent the evening with me. I learned through the means of Mr. Armstrong, who acts as a native interpreter, that the natives are all aware that this is an island, and that the sea which Tomghin spoke of is the sea which bounds the north coast. I had no idea that their knowledge cf geography had been so extensive and accurate. It appears a singular fact that, as far as we know of this part of our colony and of its formation, the rocks are either of the oldest or the most recent formation, without the appearance of the intermediate classes, in other words, of the primary and tertiary without the secondary, or, in still plainer terms (lest I should make a mistake in the scientific names) of the granitic and of the alluvial or clay formation. This promises badly for coals, &c., but from the description given of the coast towards the Australian Bight in some of the charts, that district is more likely to be of the secondary formation. Being without the assistance of books here, and having to speak merely from a dim and distant recollection of a former slender- acquaintance with these subjects, one is naturally diffident now. There is



no point on which we feel sensibly the disadvantages of our situation as that we are almost totally cut off from any parti- cipation in the progress of general literature and the advances of science, and that, so far from being able to keep pace with the march of civilisation we are worse than stationary, and in danger of retrograding. After an interval perhaps of a year, we get a great accumulation of newspapers, and must be contented to endeavour to sift out a few grains of wheat from this heap of chaff.

Saturday. — Ploughing in manure upon new ground, to pre- pare for crops ngxt season. I shall have nearly three addi- tional acres prepared in this way. Between sheep-folding, manuring, and fallowing, I generally manage to bring in a few acres every year. I have scarcely any of that low allu- vial ground which gives rich crops without manure. I have been offered 2000 acres next to my own grant at York, for Is. an acre, i.e., £10.0. If the person will take part stock in payment, I think I shall try it. — I hope you may have sent material enough for a winnowing machine. I have a crop of barley spoilt this year by the quantity of darnel in it, I have to cut it green for fodder.

Oct. 11. — A pedlar boatman passed here to-day. Letty managed to get from him in barter 3|lbs. of sugar for one dozen eggs, and 61bs. of yellow soap for another dozen. It is extremely difficult to preserve meat here from the flies now ; even while at dinner they leave the meat in a disgusting state ; I wonder if you have by any chance sent a dish cover. I have frequently had occasion to mention them. I declare we shall begin to think there is no hope of hearing from England if we do not hear soon. What has become of you all ? — You would wonder what our natives live upon ; yet they do live, and a good many of them, and pretty well too, where any merely civilized being, if left to himself, would starve. Grubs and frogs, and snakes, and lizards, and mice, and two or three small roots like " pignuts and briskins " are their staple food.



It seems to be quite au event to kill a kangaroo, or an emu. Oposums (like cats), and bandicoots (like rats), and two or three other little animals, with their chance of bird, seem all their dependence. The Murray river men are much larger and fatter men than any others we have seen ; perhaps from the greater quantity of fish got there. How oddly I have wandered from the subject commenced. But I followed the path that seemed straight before me, without looking whether I was straying or not. I had just returned last night from Perth, when Mr. Bull called in on his return from the expe- dition to Northam and the Williams river. They had a very pleasant excursion, but no less than eight bullocks died sud- denly in the morning, from some unknown cause or other — apparently from apoplexy. The Governor, Mr. Eoe, Mr. Norcott, with some police, pushed on for Doubtful Island Bay, or King George's Sound, as the case might be, and the rest of the party returned, some by York, some by Kelmscott, as they went. Mr. Bull, on the whole, seems rather disap- pointed in the general quality of the land, It is a sheep country, but little alluvial land for wheat. The fact is, his ground on the Swan River is so very good that every other place falls short when compared with it. Marshall McDer- mott has got a good grant there of 25,000 acres. The Hotham and the Williams appear to come from the east and south- east, and to unite their waters and form the principal part of the Murray River. Some natives were seen, but they ran off in great dismay, and some Swan River natives who ac- companied them could not succeed in making themselves intelligible, or at all events in allaying their fears. One young woman appeared perfectly paralysed with fear, calling out that the horses were great dogs, and endeavouring to chide them back in the same manner as they speak to their dogs. An undulating country ; the hills grassy ; soil, light red sandy loam ; trees, casuarina ; rocks, whinstone, granite, and ironstone. Kangaroos and emus in abundance. I start



to-morrow morning for York alone, and without much pre- paration.

Tliursday. — Just returned from York, sleepy and tired. Kode the whole way, nearly 63 miles, since six o'clock this morning, on my young filly. Saw my sheep at Mr. Solomon's, 15 miles beyond York. Examined my grant also, which is nearly opposite. The frontage on the river is not very good, it being composed of clayey plains with gum trees ; the pas- ture on the hills, however, is excellent. There are two pools which contain water all the year, in the bed of the river course, one in the upper part and one in the lower. There is no continuing water in the middle of it, for, remember the river in summer is nothing but a chain of ponds. My grant there is 173 chains, or two miles 13 chains wide, and forms a double square.

Friday. — In the middle of last night came John Mackie to say that the Hero had arrived, and he brought me a letter from Irwin, dated 8 th August, 1834, so I mount my steed again. *******

Nov. lOtJi. — Got a reading of three letters from my father, of different dates, which I do not remember, for I only got a hurried glance at them ; also one from Captain Mangles, an- nouncing a present of some plants and seeds and books, for which I had sent and am to send ; also seed plants and other curiosities from S. E. I had a letter from the house of Lod- diges & Sons, the gardeners, near London, accompanying the box of plants, which have been sent packed up on a new principle, have arrived in a good state. I know not which to address myself to first.

Tliursday. — Had a visit to-day from Mrs. Harris, Miss E. Harris, Mrs. McFaul, Miss Shaw, Miss M. Shaw, Mr. Harris, Mr. Burgess, John Mackie, and Nat Shaw. What do you think of that for a wilderness ? They had been spending this day at Mr Shaw's, called on their return, and I was carried off to Mr. Shaw's for tea, and stayed late. Sleepy,



and no journal that night. The next day I had to go to Guildford as Commissioner of Roads and Bridges. Called on Sam, on my way back ; dined, came home, and said to myself " I shall have a fine spell at my journal to-night." Just as I was sitting down to it, in came Mr. B. to tell me about an illness that had attacked all the horses at his places (three of mine among the number). One of his had died, the others recovered. The illness appeared very unaccountable, but I got a little whisper that they had made their way into a wheat field, and hence the illness. But Mr. B. stayed so late there was no journal last night either. Well, I was deter- mined to make amends this night, and had just snugged down to it when a voice hailed from the other side of the river. Mr. Mackie and a number of strange gentlemen have just arrived — come for the loan of three or four bottles of wine. Won't I go over and spend the evening, and could I make up a spare bed for one of the party ?" The Fates conspire against the journal.

Thursday. — A Mr. Livingstone, who had come here as sur- geon of the Hero, slept here on Tuesday night. I set out for Perth yesterday soon after breakfast, and I have only just returned at eight o'clock very ready for dinner.

Friday. — Captain Mangles has sent me two cases contain- ing rare and useful plants and flowers, such as tea, pome- granate, cork, oak, &c., and wishes me to return the cases filled in the same way. The plants are put into earth in boxes having a glazed sloping roof, quite air tight. The earth is watered when first put in, but not afterwards, nor are they either opened or disturbed till they reach their destination. I must employ our botanist to procure the plants the captain wishes, for I should not like to run the risk of doing it inef- fectually myself. Captain M. has also sent me a few books as a present — the 4th volume of Martin's History of British Colonies ; Burns' Travels into Bokhara ; Tour in the Prairie ; and Life of Salt. He wishes me to send him also some live



cockatoos. It is singular they are so scarce in menageries^ I suppose they must be more delicate than the white sort, but it is very difficult to obtain them here, for they do not build their nests in this neighbourhood (as the natives inform us), and an old one would not do. Two nights since my ser- vants were roused by the screams of a kitten, which was running about wildly, as if under the influence of terror and pain. They feared to meddle with it, and heard the wailings continued afterwards, but fainter and fainter till they died away. In the morning the kitten was not to be found, nor has any trace of it been seen. It is thought tliat a snake nmst have bit it in the first instance, and afterwards swallowed it. I have seen Dale's panorama of King George's Sound. It looks well upon paper, and is a very good representation of the Sound and harbour ; but the land there is very poor near the coast, and for perhaps 20 or 30 miles. Of course you must be aware that the smoke-dried face of Yagan can- not have the slightest resemblance to his living face, which was plump with a burly -headed look about it. I defy his very mother to recognize the face of her own son now, and I do not think she is oraniologist enough to recognize his head. Dale has written to me, but I have not yet seen his

letter, for S has carried it off also.

Friday. — Save been in Perth for a few days. Bought a Leghorn hat for 13s., and, having turned up part of the brim, wear it as a capital screen from the sun. One of the settlers who has come here in the Hero is a Mr. Murray, from Scot- land, who is a relative of the Slacks, of Derry, and has been there often. He dined here to-day. There has been experi- enced in the York district a hail shower of extraordinary severity, such as has not been seen nor dreamt of in this colony before. The hailstones are described to have been as large as pullet's eggs. Some sheep are said to have been killed by the storm, and some of the crops beaten all to pieces. It was very partial in its effects. I picked an ear of ripe



wheat to-day. Harvest is at hand. I am getting a little hay- made ; you might literally carry it from the scythe to the rick here without fear of heating.

Sunday. — Several visitors here to-day ; went back to the hills to see the sheep. A native boy who is living there with Johnny helps to hide everything, so that other natives may not find them, and appears very jealous of any other coming there.

MoThday. — Much rain, thunder, and lightning, which are unusual at this time of the year. Weeip was very inquisi- tive yesterday, about L 's wheel, and begged to be allowed

to see her spin some thread, and was quite gratified to see her card some wool and spin it. They (the natives) spin with a sort of distaff, twirling it on their thighs, then winding it.

Dec. 1. — Eode to-day to Guildford to examine a bridge, as Commissioner of Eoads and Bridges. Eode on to Mr. Drum- mond's, the botanist, to make some enquiries about the plants sent here by Captain Mangles. Mr. D. was out exploring. I must send the box filled again.

Friday. — Had a long conversation with Mr. Peel. He has been exploring a fine tract of ground on his grant — rich grassy lands, having numbers of wild cattle upon them. The natives speak of 70 in one herd. I sold a cow this

morning for £20. Had offered her to S for four casks

of pork, but he would not take her, and he regrets it now.

Sunday. — Among the books sent to me by Captain Mang- les is " Keith on the Evidence of Prophecy." I had read it before, but feel greatly interested in reading it again. Offered £6 for an iron plough at an auction ; it was sold for £6 IDs. My iron plough cannot be repaired properly, so I must have a new one ; it was rather heavy, especially the mould board. I bought a pair of iron harrows for £2 10s. ; a bag of sugar at 3s. 2d. per lb., rice at Is. 2d., per lb., tea at 2s. lid. Ee- member this was at an auction, where we expect to get things at a cheap rate. There were some prices that would astonish



you. What do you think of Embden grits, or groats, which are little better than coarse oatmeal, selling for 2s. 6d. a lb. ? (Oh, dear ! to think of the oatmeal which you have at 9s. the long cwt. It makes one's mouth water to think of these things). They are useful for rearing young poultry, young horses, young calves, and also — not to make an irreverent use of the words of the Litany — " all women labouring of child, all sick persons, and young children." But poor Ireland seems to have its produce, not on the shores of a passable sea, that highway of nations, but hemmed in by an impossible barrier, obstructing all intercourse with the world. One would hardly know that there is such a place within the pale of commerce, but that you occasionally see " Tom Sherlock's " brand upon a cask of pork.

Two hundred bushels of wheat were sold in advance yes- terday, by two settlers, to a merchant at 8s. per bushel. I suppose he is speculating upon sending some of it to Sydney, where, in consequence of a drought, they are in a very bad state. We could spare them a little now, for with the sup- plies in hand and the produce of harvest we have one pound for every mouth in the colony for 560 days. What would the South Australian people say to that ? We hear that they are abusing us sadly as a " total failure," — all ruined, starved, &c. We are getting on our legs now, so we can afford to let them abuse us a little, if it serves their purposes ; it will turn out to our advantage in the end. It is impossible that their colony can succeed upon the plans mentioned in the prospectus which we see. They have their trials, sufferings, privations and disappointments, losses and crosses, to suffer as we had, and they will have spent more money in establishing them- selves on their land. I could say a great deal on this subject, but perhaps it would not be interesting.

Friday. — The heat has come so powerfully upon us these

few days that all our corn has ripened at once, so we are

badly off for- reapers. I have but five, and am consequently

u— 2



hardly able to keep pace with it. The advantages which you

mention that J possesses in Canada are certainly great

at present ; 1 mean the facility of getting meat and fish to live on. But many other things are to be taken into con- sideration by one who is comparing advantage as inducement to emigration. I do not know what people are to turn their attention to there ultimately ; agriculture or pasture ? I should think that everything of agricultural produce is so cheap that little could be made of it, and is a forest a grazing country ? I do not know enough of it to speak on those points, and therefore I say nothing, but the many circum- stances which were disadvantageous to us first, here, are rapidly disappearing or changing their character. Fresh meat two years ago .was from Is. 6d. to Is. 8d. a lb. ; it is now Is. 2d. to Is. 3d. Four years hence I dare say that 6d. will be the price. Wheat has been 30s., and it may now be bought for 8s. to 10s. If ^ve throw our view forward to ten years this colony will have all the necessaries of life very cheap, and many luxuries, such as wine and fruit. Our exports of wool and oil will then be considerable. The climate is healthy and pleasant, no uncomfortably cold weather, and the heat very endurable in a good house, although oppressive in a low- roofed, shingled wooden house.

Saturday. — Gave my own three men four glasses of rum each to-day, and two bottles of wine put into water, among them. I think that was pretty well for one day.

Sunday. — Men wished to reap to-day, but I would not allow them. A number of strange natives came here and would insist upon gleaning, or " pick up " as they call it, so I made them carry some from the field as payment for the permission to do so. John Mackie dined here and Francis Whitfield came in the evening. I tried yesterday to make some spruce beer, but I fear that it will fail for want of yeast. Two other men have come to-night offering to work at the harvest, — very seasonable. The sound of a clarionet is some-



thing new in this colony. One of these reapers has brought one with him and is now delighting the kitchen audience with " Ye banks and braes." It is a more innocent occupation than grog drinking, which I have too much reason to dread instead of it.

Monday. — Have just heard that the Governor has returned from his trip. A letter ordering me down with all haste. Poor Doctor Collie, who was our Colonial Surgeon, and was on his way home, died, at King George's Sound. He had been in a decline.

Thursday. — Have just returned from Perth. Dined at the Governor's yesterday, and got an account from him of his expedition. They saw considerable tracts of fine grazing ground, but no river of any size. You will see an account of it in our newspaper, so I need not fill my paper with it. Two daughters of Sir Eicbd. Spencer's dined there (pretty little girls of 14 or 15). The captain of the American vessel dined there also. He says he would have been here three years ago but was deterred by the accounts given him at Sydney, most of which he finds to be false. He is surprized at our advanced state. He is looking for specimens of the gums and resins of this country to take for experiment, and I am endeavouring to get some. They seem a more stirring and inquisitive people than the English.

Friday. — Walking to-day through the lucerne, which is now in full flower, my ears were saluted with the familiar sound of the humming of bees ; on watching narrowly I saw a great number as busy as I ever saw them on a heathy hill. They are not unlike the common garden bee, rather more active and restless on the wing ; but this might have been owing to the day, which was very sultry, with high wind, thunder and lightning. Their thighs were laden with farina, their honey-bag was filled, and they have a good sting, which they know well how to use, as I can testify. I tried to trace them to their nest, but the day was so murky 1 could not distinguish them at any distance.



Sunday. — Killed a wether lamb last night, which weighed 361bs., clean meat and very fat. Sold some at Is. I think it not improbable that fresh meat may be so low as 9d. a lb. during some part of next year. Long ago I was to have received a small crate of crockery and some material for wool bags " in the next ship." Expecting it, I did not buy when I could have got it, but had to send my wool in my sheets last year, and to purchase this year where I might, for it is not come. I trust I am not to say this of your letters. I have lived a long time, in the few years since I left you. I fancy myself getting old, but time has not been standing still perhaps with you either, — though he could not be so ungallant as to lay his hands upon you so rudely.


The following lines were specially addressed to my sisters in the journal of 5th June, 1835. I cannot call to mind now any particular reason for such an outburst upon myself; which I called


Spirit of better days

Am I forsaken ? Muse of my former lays,

When wilt thou waken ? Rouse up thy torpid sense,

Dally no longer, Think that such indolence

Daily grows stronger.

Where hast thou fled to — thou

My guardian angel ? Why dost thou leave me now.

Prey to this strange ill ? Oft in the darker hour

Thy charmful numbers Seemed to possess a power

Over these slumbers.



Spirit of better days,

Do thou recall me, Let not these idle ways

Longer enthral me. "Wake my soul, wake and see,

Foes are around thee. Thou on thy guard must be.

Lest they confound thee. Oh ! it is sad to see

Hours worse than wasted, Dash down the cup from thee.

Sweet though it tasted. Wake my soul, oh ! my soul.

What has come o'er thee ? Quickly the moments roll,

Fading before thee. Think how time hurries on.

How life is waning. How many years are gone.

How few remaining ! Is it a noonday rest

Thou art enjoying ? Life's dearest, freshest, best

Moments destroying. What right canst thou obtain,

Time thus to squander. Idly in pleasure's train

Listless to wander ? Life is too brief for stay.

In thy pursuing Loiter not on the way —

Stand not reviewing. Plan not, from future hours.

Moments to borrow. This day alone is ours —

Count not to-morrow. Learn from time past and gone,

Use that now going, Say not what has been done —

Up and bejioing.



Think where thou hast to go —

Heed how thou goest How much thou ny;ikfst to know —

How little kiimrei^t. Watch well, lest on the way,

Passion suffice thee, Ambition lead astray,

Pleasure entice thee.

Why should an ant^ry word.

Hastily spoken, Be like a brandislied sword —

Strife's deadly token ? Let it pass like the wind.

Lightly regarded, Amply by peace of mind

Thou'lt be rewarded.

VVliy should we wish the right

Path to abandon? Ambition makes the height

Too steep to stand on. Keep the straiglitforward course,

Steadily, mildly, Nor like a torrent's force

Hurry on wildly.

What from wealth can we gain That is enduring V

Pleasure but leads to pain By its alluring.

Now onward ai,d upward, thy Motto should be,

Looking to Him on high

Who died for tiiee.


(1. F. M.



Perth, Fehruary 1836.

Feb. 22nd. — T did not return from Perth till yesterday morning. In the meantime John Eakins and two other men

have taken Mr. S 's farm for three years ; they are to give

him half the produce of the land for rent, he supplying a team. I daie say they will have at least 50 acres under wheat crop. Johnny had a few sheep which I had my eye on to purchase, and he had engaged to give me the offer of them when he wanted to sell them. In the settlement of wages with him there was a point in which he thought I was too strict with him, namely, charging liim for any days on which he was absent. So, to vex me, lie went out into the kitchen and sold them to James, — 5 ewes, 3 ewe lambs, and two wether lambs, £20. I paid Johnny £8 as balance of wages. Servants might become very comfortable here in a little while, if they took care of themselves. Those men with whom I formerly agreed have set out for my grant this day, James accompanying them. They have left a nian in his stead, i am getting the floor of the sitting room boarded, and have retired for the occasion, or withdrawn mysell into my bed-room.

March 2nd. — The former part of this letter must be dove- tailed into one which I sent by Van Diemen's Land. The ship has not yet sailed. — James has this day returned from over the hills. All arrived safe there, and the men have taken my sheep, and taken up a position on my grant there. I have just been puzzling over the account of the flock which Mr. Solomon has rendered. I sent 251 ewes there in May last, and I have only returned to me 266 now, besides 32 ewe lambs, 31 wether lambs, ond 47 wethers, 26 of which wethers



I sent over there. I have serious thoughts of sending all the flock over there also, for I find it does not pay to keep a small quantity here.

Saturday. — I went to Perth on Thursday and reached home to-night. Our busy time is just now arrived (I mean in Council). Our financial year commences 1st April, previous to which time our " Budget " has to be opened, laws enacted, ways and means devised, expenditure sanctioned, and revenue appropriated, by an Act framed for that purpose. Our Gover- nor has now ceased to fret about the control exercised over him this time last year in Legislative Council, where we carried a measure of reduction of the police in spite of him. He thinks it was unauthorized usurpation of power on our parts, and, strange to say, we have never heard from England on the subject. Both he and we deprecate the same sort of collision this year, and he seems contriving every means to avoid it, and yet carry his purposes. The 11th of this month is the day fixed for the first sitting, and we await it in sus- pense. He has ordered me to be on the spot all next week, and, in the meantime, 1 have prepared for him five bills to be submitted to the Council : — Recovery of Small Debts Bill ; a Bill to amend the Act for establishing the Court ; a Bill for attaching Debts, Money, Goods, or Efiects, in the hands of third parties ; a Bill for adopting several English Acts ; and an ordinance for Appropriating the Eevenue. I hope he will not want any more, for I am quite tired of them for one time. He wanted a Bill for establishing some sort of municipal authority in the town of Perth, but I persuaded him that it was premature, as indeed it is,

Tuesday. — I went to Perth yesterday morning, when, behold, there was a new arrangement ; our " Budget " had been put off tUl the 22nd, our Governor going to York in the mean- time. So I returned to spend some of the interval at home and recruit, for I have been in a feverish heated state of body for some time. Perhaps it is owing to the weather, which has



been very sultry for some days past. — The Eagle, schooner, has arrived from Sydney after a 90 days' passage. She lost all the sheep she was bringing here except 25, and the season is now so late we have no hopes of getting any more until after our winter. You see how difficult it is to get them here. We have had no importation of sheep for a very long time, yet there is perhaps a sum of £1500 ready to be invested here in sheep. The Eagle touched at Port Lincoln, where the new settlement of South Australia ought to be ; but there was no such thing. I suppose the project has failed, and is aban- doned for the present, which is fortunate for those who were thinking of going to it. They would have been ruined by the plans proposed to be adopted in order to avoid that which they say caused the " failure " of Swan River. But Swan River is an instance of surprizing success, considering what it had to struggle with. Its stability and progressive prosperity are now secured, especially within the last year ; and how ? Why, by that very course which they seem so anxious to avoid, namely, by driving the population out of towns and concentrated places, and scattering them over the face of the country as a pastoral people. Pasture is and must be, at first, for a long time, the chief and almost the only resource of colonies so situated as these are. There are no other natural resources which the means of a young colony could make available (always excepting whale and seal fishing, but even they require large capital and heavy expenditure). There are no natives or tribes in the interior to traffic with, as in South Africa. There are no natural products which the settler can collect. The curing of beef for exportation requires skill, labour, and expense in managing it, in procuring salt, in making casks or cooperage. Sheep grazing is, certainly, the most suitable occupation for a new, extensive district, re- quiring, as it does, a less proportion of annual expenditure, for managing a large capital profitably invested tlian any other occupation. Vineyards require time, &c. Then, you



see, that sheep grazing requires a large tract of land to run over, and if a large price is demanded for land, there is an end to that at once. If you will insist upon concentrating population, there is also an end to that occupation. What

does Mr B say, after being six years here ? I shall settle

myself 15 miles from the nearest neighbour, that I may have room to myself on all sides for my cattle, and not be plagued with those eternal annoyances of mutual trespasses of cattle ; for, bear in mind that, with labour dear, as it must be in a new colony, fencing with post and rail costs near £100 per mile. Agriculture, except for self-supply, is also out of the question. You cannot compete for a long time with other well-established competitors who have their ground already brought into cultivation, their teams at work, their labour lower, their markets established, their mode of traffic arranged, and many other obvious things. But I have dwelt perhaps too long upon this subject.

Saturday night, lAth June. — The period that has elapsed since my last entry has been one of some novelty and interest to me. When I went to Perth, the Governor renewed his offer of giving me protection of police, if I should be inclined to take a ten days trip anywhere. I took advantage of his proposal. Came up here on Wednesday night, devoted Thursday to preparations and planning what course I should take.

Wednesday. — Have been plagued all day with natives

wanting to grind wheat. At last came a hue and cry that

they had stolen a quantity from some neighbours. The man

most guilty had gone off, and I made some here punish those

whom they said were guilty, by giving them a small blow or

two across the back with a switch. It was only women and

children, who had to stand as scapegoats for the rest; but

it will make them think of it more seriously.


I returned last night from a fortnight's exploration in the



bush, and have had an excursion of some interest and im- portance to the colony in several respects. I shall probably give some account of it in our local newspaper, and I shall not occupy more space here than to give you the outlines of

what we, Mr. B , Mr. L , and myself have seen. We

came across a very large tract of beautiful country, and at no great distance from this — perhaps from 28 to 40 miles away. We saw several wild cattle in that valley (or a branch of it) which Dale and I passed in 1831, on our N.N.W. progress from York, where we saw cattle tracks then. I have obtained some evidence of the existence of a large lake of salt water at Molean, as I conjectured before. The distance is about ten days' walk (of the natives) from the York district, with a fine country and good land all the way. Though this excursion has been made in our winter, we had delightful weather with the exception of the last two days, and nothing unpleasant throughout the trip. I think it a most interesting geographical and geological feature, — what if this should be the inland sea conjectured and expected to exist in the interior of this singular island ? Some argue now that it is Spencer's Gulf, or some inlet of the sea from the South, whilst others ridicule the whole affair and fancy it a misapprehension, on my part, of some idle tale of the natives. My own opinion is that it will turn out to be an inlet of the sea from the North, — perhaps Shark's Bay — or even from the N.W. Cape in latitude 22°. It is a long distance, but I have a strong impression on the subject. I have discovered a bulbous root like a dark- coloured potatoe, called by the natives konno, which I mean to endeavour to cultivate, and which may be very useful if it succeeds. The taste is something like the meat of a cocoanut, or between that and a carrot taste. One specimen is as large as your fist.

Wednesday. — Should have gone to Perth to-day, but rain came on so heavy that I could not stir. This reminds me that a small iudiarubber cloth cap, which you once sent out,



and which I immediately purchased for myself as a specific against wet, does not keep out rain after all. I had placed great dependence on it, and am quite disappointed. A large long good indiarubber cloak is a thing which I am very much in want of. Such an article would not only be very useful in riding in winter, but would also in the bush be an excellent preservative from the effects of damp, if one had to sleep on the ground, as may be my case, either in exploring or going to visit my sheep farm, which is near 70 miles from this. Such a thing lined with green baize (if there be such a hete- rogeneous mixture) would be bed, blanket, and all. "With a Sou'-Wester' cap, a pilot's hood, a cloak of this sort, pilot's boots, and indiarubber shoes, one would be armed cap-a-pied. I have discovered a mousetrap ; one of the tinned boxes which you sent out clothes in long ago is so deep that the mice cannot jump out nor climb up the tin. I have a piece of cheese in it, and have caught no less than seventeen during the last two days.

July 2nd. — Only this evening returned from Perth. A ship's gun was heard yesterday morning, just as I was coming away, and I waited in hopes of the vessel's arrival, and of hearing what news there might be ; but she could not make Cockburn Sound last night, and stood off the shore again. I waited again to-day till two o'clock, but there was no tidings of her arrival, so I came off. — Heard some more particulars about the two natives shot at York ; they were caught in the very act of breaking open a house to rob it. They attempted to spear the soldier who held one of them, and beat Mr. Solomon who held the other. One was shot on the spot, the other had broke away, and was brought down while running. All the natives up there have vowed vengeance for this, and even here some have declared they will be revenged. The lesson has not been severe enough. I fear more lives will be lost on both sides. They have attacked, or rather shown symptoms of attacking my flock, but were driven off by the



boldness of the shepherd. They killed four or five sheep at Solomon's, in despite of the shepherd, whom they drove otf. They caught the young lambs and dashed their brains out against the trees. They have killed and eaten a horse in that neighbourhood also. It is high time these doings were checked. The Governor has strengthened the positions in that quarter, but it is impossible to say where the flame will break out ; so we must all be on the watch.

July drd. — The vessel spoken of was the Addingham. By her I have received three letters from you; also four from Captain Mangles, and two from Captain Irwin. The Eevd. Dr. Gustiniani (the missionary) and his wife have arrived. He was at death's door just on his arrival, — a few minutes more and we should have lost him ; but I trust there is yet in store for him a rich harvest in that wide field to which he has been thus munificently and beneficially sent, and in which he has been thus mercifully spared to labour. He is animated with zeal and full of hope regarding his success among the natives. This will be a subject often recurred to in my letters, so I shall not dwell now upon it.

July 5th. — Mr. Roe has lent me a hurried reading of Cap- tain King's survey of the North and Nor' West Coast of this country. Mr. Eoe was with him. He says it was to lat. 17° that they looked with most hope for an opening in the inte- rior. I have also got a reading of the Minutes of the Geo- logical Society for 1834 — 5, in which I am greatly interested. Some of the men from my grant at York have come here to- night; they report casualties, two sheep and one growing lamb dead. The weather has been severe there, being more cold than here, I have only 84 here now, from which I expect about 60 lambs, and about 300 lambs from my flock over the hills.

Jidy IQth. — This has become nearly a hebdomadal rather than a journal. I have only returned this night from Perth. I went to Guildford on Wednesday to make enquiries about a



station for the mission, for Mackie and I have been requested to act as assistants and corresponding members. It is not possible to get a station on this side of the liills wihout pur- chase, and poor Dr. G. is fretting sadly to get to work at once ; but if he do not attend to his health I fear we shall not long enjoy his services. On Thursday night he was seized with a recurrence of his painful illness. He sent for me in all haste, and informed me that he feared he was past hope or in very great danger. He mentioned what he wished to be done in case of his death, and commended his wife to my care on behalf of the mission. I remained most of the night with him, endeavouring to support and comfort him, and am glad to think I was of some service when he was in a very trying situation. Poor Mrs. Gustiniani was in grievous affliction. I did not leave him till all danger was over.




Perth, April 1887.


April 22nd. — A gap of several months occurs in the diary at the point where we last left ofi". We pick it up again on the 22nd of April, 1887, when Mr. Moore writes : — I closed my last rather abruptly to go by the Strathislie to Van Diemen's Land or Sydney. The Indian gentlemen in her were very much pleased with this place, as well the country as the society. I beg to say that it is generally believed in India that this colony is all but abandoned, and that only a few are left here waiting an opportunity to leave it. I beg to say also that, had it not been for the loss of the Mercury, which is supposed to have foundered at sea on her voyage hither, we should have had many persons from that quarter. However, our time will come round again. One whaling company is almost ready for operations. A whale was seen close to the shore a few days since, and some of the boats had a trial at it, but missed their aim. I expect to get into my new house at Perth next week. It is in a sad state of dilapi- dation. It will cost £13 to glaze and panel the windows and outside door. I paid £2 10s. for getting a frame to a table (6 feet by 4), and supplied all the wood myself. To procure the necessary furniture and other requisites for the house will strip my pocket, though it may replenish the house. It may appear absurd to you, but I really cannot get any knives and forks in the colony, nor a common three-legged iron pot. I fear I shall have rather rude cooking. I have hired a black fellow (a Lascar) at 30s. a month as a servant. Oh, if one could get to London for one hour to equip one's self, what a



busy hour it would be ! I came up this morning from Perth, and must return on Monday again. Mackie sets out on that day for King George's Sound, on circuit. I shall feel lonely in Perth until his return. I have hitherto lived with him while in town.

Sunday. — A pair of wild ducks were feeding on the lucerne in the front of the house to-day, and I wounded one. The dog jumped into the river and tried to catch it, but it dived so as to get out of reach. I also plunged in to help the dog, and it was a rare chase of nearly half an hour. At last I caught it under the water, but I had not bargained for such a swim.

Saturday. — Went to Perth on Monday last and took pos- session of my new house. Had dispatched J from this

at 11, with a bullock team and a cart loaded with divers things, and, amongst others, with a leg of mutton, ready roasted, for dinner. I expected him about five o'clock, but it was near nine before he arrived, and so dinner was at a very fashionable hour. It is a singular-looking house, — a wooden one, no less than 60 feet long, divided into four rooms and a hall. I think of getting it lath and plastered in the inside, and painted on the outside. The verandah droops too much and wants alteration. The purchase consists of two allot- ments, one on each side of a street running parallel with the river. That next the river has a fine site for a house, on the top of a bank or terrace 20 or 30 feet high, commanding a view of the river. The house is on the other side of the street and rather buried in a hollow. — I am trying an experiment here on potatoes. Some that were left in the ground last season have come up so strong that I have thought it worth while to transplant them into regular drills. If the frost does not cut them off, I may expect an early crop. We have much more rain this season than hitherto at the same period.

Sunday. — John Mackie spent the day with me. He says he has had about 320 bushels of wheat off his ground (10



acres) this year. Average value 6s. a bushel — £90. This, with a little dealing in cattle and sheep and pigs, gives him a nice little occupation.

Monday. — The lucerne which you first of all sent out here, I have been transplanting and extending from time to time, both by thinning the rows and sowing the seed. The chicory and yarrow are coming up this year in quantities, but not a vestige of the trifolium incarnatum. It M'ill not answer us ; but lucerne will be valuable, as it keeps in the ground, and comes green at an early period, after the heats of summer, even on dry ground. — These whaling companies are requiring so many men that hands are very scarce ; no talk now but of " lays " and " spouting," and other technical whaling terms. I am preparing leases of parts of the coast for the two com- panies, for stations, one at Carnac and one at Fremantle.

May 6th. — The Governor has returned in great spirits from his excursion to the South East, comprising an examination of the country from the Murray River to within 55 miles of King George's Sound, having seen a large extent of fine country, well watered. Some pools in the rivers which they saw ever so far in the interior were very large, and must end in considerable rivers. Two (called respectively the Arthur and the Beaufort) are supposed to unite together and form the Donnelly river, which falls into the sea near Flinders Bay. The Murray river, at its issuing from the hills, was pouring out a large body of water. He seems to think that that would have been a better situation for the settlement had it been known at the time. I have got at last into the large house in Perth and feel most miserable in it. The cold is so great that I find it by no means agreeable ; but T have lined one of the rooms with canvas, which will improve it.

Saturday. — Left this place (Millendon) on Monday morning last for Perth, and have only now returned. What between carpenters, painters, landscape gardeners, and other workmen, I have had a busy time in Perth, over and above my own

X 2



business. I have got the ground in front of the house laid out regularly and skilfully ; the windows, doors, and verandah painted, the gates fresh hung, and many little alterations, so that already it looks well, whereas in its previous dilapidated state, it looked like a gloomy deserted barrack. I have not yet been able to get a table to put in my room (proper for it), or a bedstead to put my mattrass on. My furniture, in the way of tables, consist of two small card tables, one of which is the same old one I had in college (I believe), or at all events one 1 brought with me. My mattrass is spread on the floor, and that is the whole preparation. Such furniture is now rarely to be met with, and the carpenters are all so occupied that there is no such a thing as getting anything made in reasonable time. The gardener charged me 26s. for about three days work ; the painter charges £7 12s. for

painting the outside of the doors and windows. — J has

been to York since I was here, and has brought over 27 wethers for the market. His principal business was to see 103 lambs drawn off, to be separated from their mothers and divided and marked for me, after the proportion was deducted for the men who kept them. There has been a very singular disease among some flocks this year at York, something like apoplexy. They die very suddenly. I think it arises from eating too freely of the young grass, which springs as if by magic after the first showers. Several sheep on the Swan have been attacked by blindness, which appears to me to be only a milder form of the same sort of illness, caused by the rupture of a small blood vessel about the eye. I have had one lamb and two goats affected, but by copious bleeding they appear to have been reKeved.

Monday. — Have been occupied in writing a long opinion upon the propriety of the Government charging a fine of 6d. an acre on the lands of absentees who have not made the requisite expenditure, according to the terms of the original assignment, and also of resuming such lands, absolutely, if not



improved within the specified time. Settlers are now going to the interior, to the extensive grazing tracts. These grants on the Swan, from their long narrow shape, are quite incapable of keeping a large flock. I paid 15s. for a day and a half hire of a winnowing machine, and had to send two miles for it besides. It is quite indispensable. I trust that you may have sent me the sieves and iron work of one. Henceforward I shall consider what articles I shall require from year to year, and order them out, in return for wool, pork, oatmeal, her- rings, soap, candles, wine, — we are tired of Cape wine, they send it so doctored that it is unwholesome, — and a crate of the better kind of crockery now and then. I cannot get a cruet stand in the colony. I gave 15s. the other day for a small cotton cover for a card table. Send me some carpeting, and something to make curtains, some knives, carving knives, and forks.

Saturday. — llcached home this evening. Our little Bank has been brought into a state of forwardness during the week by having directors appointed, &c. Two other companies (I believe I mentioned) are forward also, for whaling operations. I am preparing leases of certain fishing stations for them, and I suppose they will require Acts of the Legislature also. There is hardly a subject that one is not obliged to dabble in. All these subjects are brought before Council, and there, of course, questions are asked, and arguments raised, which one must be prepared for. You see how necessary it is to have a good supply of useful books here. The people here (especially the would-be fashionable), have a vile trick of sitting late at parties. I dined at a house on Thursday, and was obliged to sit from six in the evening till four next morning, playing cards as stupidly as might be. What occurred the next night at the Governor's, whilst they were sitting at tea, was this : some one proposed that they should get up a dance (there were two lady visitors there), and the hint was improved upon ; messengers were despatched to muster the neighbours,


^ 310

a fifer was pressed into the service, and we were dancing full fling before nine o'clock, and had a very merry pleasant even- ing without ceremony. We were snug in our beds by one o'clock, without draining the cup to tlie dregs.

Monday. — Dr. Harris came here for breakfast this morning- He was speaking on the subject of the rivers wliich have been seen lately between this and King George's Sound by land. Two rivers (the Hotham and the Williams) unite, and form the Murray river. The Hotham, he says, at the highest point it has been seen — namely, about 60 miles South, and about the same meridian as York — appears to come from the North of East, and is there a very considerable river, so that it probably comes from a long distance, and may be the drain of much of that country which we saw on our East course, — although we never observed the slightest indication of a drain to the Southward. — Have been trying an experiment this year to some extent by transplanting potatoes into regular drills, where they have come self-sown, or from those left undug in the ground. They look very well now, and some have pota- toes as large as walnuts by them, and, if the frost does not destroy them, I hope to have a nice crop ; but, one night's frost, and they are lost. — 9 o'clock : A great barking of dogs, and in walked a gentleman (young Mr. Walcott), saying, " I'm on my way home to John Mackie, and it is so cold I just called to get a glass of grog." He took two and proceeded on his way. Two native boys are with me now attending my cattle and sheep. One has just been telling me that a large hawk, when it discovers an emu's nest, takes a stone in its talons, hovers over the nest, and lets it drop among the eggs to break them. He laughed so slily whilst telling it that I think he was " taking a rise " out of the white man.

Saturday. — For the first time since the barrel of herrings was opened, I ate some this evening, having arrived in a very hungry mood, and nothing else so readily presenting itself as that and an egg. Got into the canvassed room and had a few



friends with me there last evening. Mackie has returned from King George's Sound. People are all busy whaling there also ; but they have connected themselves with some Americans who have come there, and are likely to make a good speculation of it. This subject of the Americans coming in numbers to our coast has given rise already to a question of some importance, namely, whether it is in our power to prevent them whaling on our coasts, bays, &c. I am reading some works in order to glean what information I can on the subject. One cantankerous settler at King George's Sound called upon the captain of a man of war, which touched there, to interfere and drive the Americans off. The captain doubted his authority, and said he would consult the Admiral, &c. In the meantime this very man has formed a very advantageous sort of whaliug connection with the Americans, and I dare say would now be sorry if he were disturbed. When will our own countrymen or our British Government open their eyes to our importance ? This may be a good means of doing it. There is to be a ball in commemoration of the establishment of the colony on Thursday next, the 1st June ; and, in the day time, rustic games, races, soaped tails, &c.

MoTiday. — It is not long since I killed and salted down a pig of 1701bs., and already it is almost finished. It is well there are so many sheep in the colony fit to be killed this year, for there has not been a barrel of beef or pork in it for a long time ; the supply will barely keep pace with the de- mand, even with the importations ; but every year we im- prove.

Tuesday. — Very heavy rain last night. I was roused by the making of its way down into the room beside the chim- ney, so I lighted a candle and read the law of fisheries, &c., for some hours, by way of a soporific.

JuTU 'ird. — Just returned from Perth. There have been great doings there this week. A sort of fair, and games, and races were held on the 1st of June, in commemoration of the



foundation of the colony. There was a good deal of amuse- ment. The natives had their share also, running after pigs with soaped tails, throwing spears at loaves, &c. They seemed to enjoy it greatly. In the evening there was a subscription ball, at which there were 80 people and upwards. You can- not imagine the perplexity we are in here sometimes for books on law subjects, especially where alterations have been made by statute law recently. The Governor himself is not even furnished with a copy of the Acts of Parliament. I felt the want in a case I had to consider lately. Dr. Giustiniani ap- plied to be naturalised, in order to secure land and houses, &c., which he had purchased. Now, with regard to aliens, many important regulations have been made in the 3rd Geo. IV., and also in the year 5th Geo. IV., with respect to aliens, and yet they are not in the colony. It is uncomfortable to have to give an opinion witliout having any means of infor- mation. I had to examine and consider and report upon the whole state of tha law on the point for the information of the Governor, but our Royal instructions prohibit the proposal of any Act for naturalising aliens, so that puts an end to doubt on tlie subject, and will be anything but gratifying to Dr. G. As an alien he cannot hold lands either by grant, purchase, or devise; he cannot inherit, transmit, or bequeath; and I believe he is compellable to leave the realm if the King see fit. But upon this latter point a residence of seven years gives some immunity (according to the Acts above alluded to), and he thinks he can claim naturalisation on that ground. He is wrong, but you see how important the Acts are to us. Chitty's Collection of Statutes which was sent to me I find very useful, but does not come down to the period of these Acts. Our Legislative Council sits on Monday, so I leave this to-morrow again. An unpleasant affair near York; the natives have speared a soldier (since died) and wounded another (a settler). This was quite unprovoked on their part. The act is supposed to be in revenge for some old affair,



None of the perpetrators could be found. Nothing but a severe example has been found effectual, and yet this is con- demned and called out about by all those who are in no dan- ger themselves nor their property.

Saturday. — This day will be memorable in the annals of this colony for the killing of the first whale. At Perth, great firing was heard in the direction of Frernantle, and it was supposed that a ship had arrived, but a messenger came in breathless haste to say the boats had struck a whale and were engaged with it. This was all that was known when I came away, but everybody was running about, elated with the news. I went to Fremantle on Thursday with the Governor and some others, to examine a jetty and proposed tunnel which has been projected to be cut through a hill there, giv- ing an easy access from the sea beacli to the main street. The plan is quite practicable, and not very expensive, for the distance is only 80 yards, and the rock is soft limestone. It is said that already a dispute has occurred between our two whaling companies as to the whale, one having first struck it, and the other killed it. I think the custom of the South Sea Fishery is at variance with that of the Greenland Fishery on this very point, there being some nice distinctions about "fast" and "loosp" fish.

Monday. — The docility of some liorses is remarkable. I have a young horse 2| years old ; lie was alongside his brother of only 3|, and they both harrowed and ploughed as steadily as old trained horses. From the mare which I bought origin- ally from Mr. Brown, 1 have now a mare, two horses, and a 1| year-old filly. Got a small stock of wheat carried into the barn to-day. There was an immense number of mice in it. One of the natives was assisting, and he got as many as made a full meal for himself and his wife. Have been pre- paring this evening a sketch of a report of a committee of the Legislative Council to present to the Governor. There is just the same difference between him and us this year, as before,



but I hope we may be able to settle it amicably now. We propose a greater expenditure for some services, and a less for others than he does. We are anxiously looking for a vessel from England. There is neither salt meat nor foreign flour, nor candles nor soap, in the colony, but it is a comfort on the other hand that there is plenty of fresh meat and colonial wheat and flour, and whale oil, and plenty of clean pure water. So we cannot be at any very great loss for want of the above articles. I ate a dish of Neeld turnips yesterday, the first this season, and almost the earliest in the colony — certainly the earliest in the clay grounds in the country. They are very sweet, and this is from the original seed sent out, for not one went to seed last year with me.

June V&th. — On Tuesday last there were some very fierce -gusts of wind, and during one of them a vessel called the Abeona, which has touched here on her passage from the Mauritius to Sydney, was driven from her moorings and drifted towards the shore, but, by good management and the strength of her anchor cables, she was let gradually upon the sandy beach, so that when the weather was calm again, she was got off without any damage. She has sugar, rice, a few candles, &c., but for everything such a price is asked that if they do not come down a little, they may take their goods to another market. The whale has been mismanaged, for want of proper tackle to turn it, so they have only got the blubber off the upper part, and the rest is spoilt, and smells so strongly that the inhabitants of Fremantle begin to find that there are disagreeables attending whaling also. For the first time in my life I was successful in a raffle. I had made my throw at an early hour and came away, but it appears after- wards there was a tie between me and another. Lady Stir- ling threw for me, and her luck carried the day. i look upon raffling as a sort of genteel way of begging, but we are ex- pected to contribute, and so follow the crowd. I dare say you think it a monstrous thing to charge 15 per cent, interest,



but there is hardly any way in which money can be employed here that does not yield a much higher rate. That is an ordi- nary rate. Even now when money has become rather more easily to be obtained than heretofore, it was discussed for a time whether the rate of discount in the bank should not be 15 per cent.; but it has been settled down to 12i. Persons have money lent out at 2r> per cent. You see where such enormous profit can be made by the use of money ; those who once get hold of any, either by loan or otherwise, are very loath to pay it back again, and perhaps would not care ever to pay it, if it were not for the interest charged. The vessel has not brought any salt meat. Fresh meat has risen again to Is. 5d. a lb. My people live entirely on fresh mutton. When one is done they kill another, two lambs in the week being about the consump- tion. We have only lambs of this year, or rather of nearly a year old, to kill. They generally weigh about 331bs. each on an average. Dr. G. is now blaming the Government for not proceeding to try and execute a settler, who shot a native, in the act of robbing his master's barn. The case is one of some difficulty. The master placed the man in the barn to watch the property. The settlers complain that they have not sufficient protection allowed them by the Government, and they are thus compelled to defend and secure their property themselves. The Government here can not, and the Govern- ment at home will nut, give more, except out of the pockets of the settlers. So we are upon the horns of an inexorable dilemma.

June 24:th. — I have just heard that the Abeona will sail to-morrow, and though we have been long waiting in expec- tation of the arrival of the Hero, and keeping all our letters back till we should hear by her, yet I think it better to send off" this letter, as we know not how long it may be before another opportunity may off'er. We had another meeting of the Legislative Council yesterday, and both the Governor and (Jouncil still maiutaiu their own opinions about the amount



of expenditure for the police, so that no ordinance can be passed for this year's expenditure. Whale fishing here is very encouraging, and the prospects extremely promising. Two whales have been killed within the last week, and a whale calf also, besides the mother or cow whale, being wounded so severely, that it is thought she will be taken also. I have a gardener making a little plantation of flowers and shrubs in front of the house, and for that and half a day's work, planting potatoes, his charge is no less than £2. He supplied about twenty geraniums and stocks, and other things. Send me a light plough of wrought iron, with an extra mould board, which could be fitted as a double mould board plough (cast iron is worse then useless, for it snaps and cannot be mended) ; also the sides and iron work of a win- nowing machine. I pay 10s. a day for the hire of one. I have a stack of wheat to be threshed out. Mr. Brockman wants four guineas a day for the use of his threshing machine, and you must pay eight men to attend to it.

July Sth. — I am not quite sure on what date I closed my last letter to go by the Abeona, via Van Diemen's Land, but it was about a week ago, I think. We have had a meeting of the Legislative Council since, and have just the same dif- ference of opinion as on former occasions with the Governor about the expense of the police force. The weather has been extremely stormy for some time past. Our colonial vessel, the Champion, sailed for the Vasse and Port Augusta nearly a fortnight ago, but, after being a week at sea, was obliged to run back again to Cockburn Sound, with the loss of most of her sails. Some of the boats belonging to the whaling com- panies have also been injured. A rumour of a most melan- choly nature is now current, to the effect that one boat with six men in it has been lost, and no lives saved. I trust it is only an unfounded report.

A King George's Sound native, who had been in the Cham- pion went on shore one evening at Garden Island with two



other natives, and next morning he was not to be found, nor had any trace of him been discovered when the last news came. The other natives are quite at a loss to account for it. They say that he became uneasy and frightened at night, got up from the fire and went to the beach, and called out for the ship (which was lying off the shore at some distance j, and they know no more of him. He could not swim. A native named Coordap, who was confined in gaol under sentence of transportation for killing sheep, contrived to make his escape, and has already stolen and killed a number of pigs, since his escape, though only about a week ago. Sir Charles Burdett came up here with Mackie yesterday. They dined and slept here. I took Sir Charles for a walk about the adjacent farms after breakfast this morning, and they then returned to Perth. It was fortunate that yesterday and this morning were both fine — the first fine weather we have had for some time ; but the day changed as it wore on, and there has been heavy rain again. I have been a loser to some extent by it. A stack of wheat had been opened to get it threshed by Mr. Brockman's threshing machine, but heavy rain came on the second day and they were obliged to leave off. However, we got it all finished yesterday, being about 200 bushels in two days. Mr.

Brockman and S dined here yesterday at one o'clock, but

my other guests did not come for dinner till five. Sir Charles wanted me to go down to-day to Perth to dine with him, but I had too much to do in settling accounts, &c., as I have to go down to-morrow again.

July l%th. — The rumour of the six men being drowned is too true. It is not known how it happened, as the boat came on shore empty. They had gone to bring back a small vessel which had gone adrift, owned by the whaling company to which they belonged. The vessel is driven on shore also, and is now a wreck. But a circumstance which threatens even worse consequences has just been reported here. Two settlers have been most inhumanly murdered by the natives near



York, who, in fact, have arrived at such a pitch of daring that that part of the colony is in great danger if prompt and deci- sive measures be not taken. Such steps have been taken to the extent of our power, and 1 trust they will prove effectual. Four prisoners (natives) have been taken upon warrants, ac- cording to the due course of the English law, and this is one of the consequences of that legal absurdity which is enjoined us by the mistaken humanity of those at home, I wish they would give us credit for knowing as much of our own affairs, and the necessities of our position, as they do.

July l^th. — The Governor has requested me to come up here and examine the state of preparations at the house of every settler hereabouts, for it is feared that if the York natives receive any check or take the alarm, they may pos- sibly come over here, and it is well to be ready for them. I am also about to use my influence with some natives in this quarter to act as spies upon them. I rewarded three abori- gines on Sunday last with 361bs. of flour for being instru- mental in capturing Coordap, who had escaped from prison. A native in Perth to-day made a disclosure to me of a very extraordinary nature — namely, that the native who disap- peared so mysteriously from Garden Island was murdered by the other two, with circumstances of great cruelty and dis- gusting barbarity. One of them throttled the poor fellow, whilst the other mutilated his members, hacked his throat open with a quartz knife, and broke his arms — horrible, hor- rible ! They have made their escape. Nine spears have been found stuck in the body of one of the white men near York, and seven spears in the other. As large a force as can be mustered has been set in motion against them. I only hope they may fall in with them. On my way here to-night I overtook a gentleman within three miles of this place. He had got upon the wrong road, and consequently nearly ar- rived here, thinking he was on his way to Guildford, which Jte had overshot by seven miles.



Wednesday. — Made a tour of all the houses higher up the river to-day, and especially the place where John Eakins is, which is the nearest place to the hills and the most likely to be first approached. I believe I mentioned that the natives had killed several pigs up there lately. The men who did it are known, by information from among themselves ; and, be- cause one of Eakins' partners drove one of the delinquents away from the house afterwards, this man said he would spear some one there, and they are obliged to be very watch- ful. In short, a very general impression prevails that if we do not anticipate the natives, some mischief will be done here. Some of them, however, are friendly, and appear desirous to warn us of the danger. This is a most unpleasant state of things, especially when our instructions are to proceed only according to the forms of the English law, which is to say, in short, we must do nothing.

July 2Qth. — Took another tour to-day, and found that we could muster about 24 armed men hereabouts. This would do pretty well if the natives would stand fight, but that is not their system. They come by stealth ; the mischief is done ; they are gone, and you see no more of them. A singular scare occurred here to-day. On a sudden there came a rush of natives down the hill and into my kitchen. There was no one about the house but Letty and a little boy. I seized my gun and ran out, when I found that some of them had taken refuge in the kitchen, whilst others besieged the door, quiver- ing their spears and shouting in anger. It was some time before I could understand the matter. The party outside consisted of Tomghin, Weeip, Beguin, and Daubain ; in the house was Daubain's wife, wounded in the thigh, and her child (also wounded), besides some other women. Both Dau- bain and Weeip were wounded in the thighs. Daubain pointed out to rae that the spear had gone nearly through his thigh, and made me cut open the otlier side with a lance to let the blood out, after which I bound up his wounds. The



others had now disappeared, so he ordered his wife to follow him, and all went limping up the hill. I was still watching him go off, when Tomghin sprung out from behind a tree, and flung his spears at him, one after the other, which Daubain avoided in some extraordinary manner. Then Tomghiu fled and, before I was aware, dashed into my house, ran to a cor- ner where I had a lot of spears, armed himself in a trice, and went out again. After a time some of the others held Tom- ghin till Daubain had gone to a distance, Tomghin in the meantime shouting with passion. The only words I could understand rightly were that he would "break his head." Whilst all this was occuring, my people had gone to the funeral of the father of two boys called Minchin, who have lived with me for four or five years. I was waiting till the funeral should pass my place on the way to the burying ground, whence I accompanied it, and read tlie burial service. The five next graves to the one opened this day were of men murdered by the natives. The feelings of the settlers are just now greatly exasperated against them, and this sight did not tend to soothe them much. I want the Governor to apply to the Home Governor for permission to make a law to render legal the evidence of the natives against one another. In ninety cases out of a hundred we know the offenders only through themselves.

Friday. — "Went down the river to-day to the house of Mr. Brockman, to make arrangements with him for co-operation.

Saturday. — As I have given you above a description of a scene that occurred among the natives at my door, I will con- tinue the story by way of illustrating the character of this extraordinary race. I mentioned that a child was wounded in the encounter; Weeip, intending to spear the woman, struck the child by mistake. The spear entered the hip, and passed in a slanting direction into the abdomen, and the child died that niglit. In the meantime Tomghin carried the wife away again, and she was accompanied by the young girl of



about twelve years of age, who had taken refuge in my kitchen along with her. This girl slept at the same fire with him, and might be supposed to be under his care, but next morning he deliberately transfixed her with three spears, and left her lying dead on the spot. Their ways are to me wholly unaccountable. This will bring on him the vengeance of all that girl's relatives, who will probably take a life for it, and so the wheel of massacre keeps perpetually revolving. Most absurd rumours, it appears, had got afloat, and had reached Perth about incursions of tribes of natives about this place, and the Governor, hearing that there were at least 150 natives in this neighbourhood ready to slaughter and devour us, came galloping up this evening, accompanied by his nephew and Lieutenant Armstrong, and by Mr. Lewis, the Commissary. What between quartering the horses, providing for the company, and now getting ready five beds, all hands are occupied.

Monday. — After an early breakfast we all, accompanied by the Governor, went to visit the settlements above this. On our way we fell in with some natives, who were burying the body of the girl (above referred to), so we saw the manner of it. The grave was about four feet deep, but not long enough to receive the body at full length, so the legs were doubled up from the knees. The earth was thrown out into the shape of a crescentio mound at one side ; long pieces of wood were laid over the body to prevent the dogs from disturbing it, and the grave was filled up by earth scraped from the ground on the side opposite the crescent. The appearance of the country was very gratifying. The day was delightful, and, after a walk of about eight or nine miles, the Governor returned greatly pleased. He wishes me to remain on the spot for a little time, and on the watch, ready to act if need be, or to pursue whatever course of policy appears best under the cir- cumstances as they arise.

Tuesday. — Went down to Mr. Brockman's to dine to-day.




Heard that one of the natives had been shot at York, but no particulars have reached me. If this be all, it is worse than doing nothing, for it will only exasperate without terrifying them. On Sunday night a strange noise, something like thunder, was heard by many. It sounded to me like the sound from a huge rock thundering down a precipice. The cause is not clearly ascertained yet, but some say that it pro- ceeded from an immense meteor which gleamed across the sky at the same time. I did not see the light, but, on my return from Mr. Brockman's, near mid-night, I saw a very bright meteor, the sky at the time being quite clear.

July 26th. — Took a ride round the settlers homesteads to- day to warn them of the approach of a number of natives, seeking to kill a child of Gear, for that which was killed by Tomghin. There were perhaps 30 natives all congregated for this humane and manly purpose. I believe they have not succeeded in accomplishing their object. The Governor is very anxious about the whole affair. He has sent Mr. Bull up to remain in this neighbourhood for a time also, and he wrote me a letter seeming to wish me to remain on the alert here some time longer. I got home this evening more than a ton of flour from the mill, ground and dressed (20 per cent.), and the bran returned, at Is. 9d. a bushel. This will sell now, I suppose, at £30 a ton.

Thursday. — Two other natives have been shot at York, which will render it more necessary to keep a good look out here. It is understood that the two white men were mur- dered there merely because two natives were imprisoned, in obedience to the directions of the Secretary of State to act in all respects according to the English law. They speared a man through the head — luckily only through the jaws and tongue ; then broke open a settler's house and stole his pro- visions. Well, a warrant is regularly issued, and, in process of time, they are taken, and their relations murder two white JUen immediately in consequence. We naturally defend our



lives now, and thus vindicate the majesty of the law, but 10 to 1 we shall have an outcry in England that we should be called to account for it. Let them come here and convert the natives, and let us defend ourselves in the way which we find to be the best.

August 1st. — Busy yesterday and to-day transplanting and pruning vines : got about 50 rooted plants put down and a great many cuttings. It was interesting to see some little birds, like robins and wagtails, perching on the bushes and watching to pick up the grubs as they were turned up. — An, absurd rumour has reached this, that Capt. and Lieut. Arm- strong have both been speared by the natives on their way to York. Men's minds are full of fears.

Thursday. — Two whales have been caught within the last week, after a considerable interval. There is an intention of establishing a ship company here. Our Perth whale company has not been so successful as the Fremantle, the managers of which live upon the spot. The melancholy loss of a whole boat's crew, and of a decked boat of considerable size, have been rather a damper upon the Perth company. — Got some more vines planted to-day. I have now a hundred, many of which may bear fruit this year ; nine peach, and six fig trees bearing ; then almonds ; also cherry trees, oranges, lemon, guava, and banana. Such is my present stock.

August 7th. — Busy all day in the garden, planting and

transplanting. The two Messrs. B dined here to-day.

They have just come over from York, where they have been

settled for some time. They give an unpleasant account of

the state of things there, on account of the natives. I have

now got the names of 18 natives who were concerned in the

murder of the two settlers at York ; some of them, I am sorry

to say, are not far from this.

Wednesday. — Some hints having been communicated with

respect to mischief which was brewing by the natives at Perth,

the Governor being uneasv about it, despatched a person up

Y— 2



to me to prevent my going down, as the hints ^11 had reference to something to take place in this neighbourhood. I met his messenger, but we passed in the dark last night without com- munication, so I returned here to-day, and find (at least as far as I see yet) that the matter is altogether among themselves They have had a fight near this, but, as usual, it has ended in nothing. Men were present from 40 miles distance, but the whole thing looked more like schoolboys playing at prison bar than any deadly battle. I expected that some of the men from York who had been concerned in the murders there would have been present, and had intended to follow them when they had separated from the others, and endeavour to come up with them ; but I think they have taken the alarm and have kept aloof. My old friend Nejal was among them, and very active as a peacemaker.

Thursday. — A little girl of G-ear's (a native) had been left by him in the barrack for safety, and one of the natives came to her and said her father had sent him for her, and she had not gone far when three men rushed out from a thicket and drove their spears into her. One spear went in at the collar- bone, and out at her back, and this manly feat is the result of the whole battle. In the midst of the fight yesterday old Gear came running up to me where I stood looking, to say

that the man who killed J 's pigs was there, and why did

I not take him out of the way, as he was his particular enemy ? A native was brought before me to :day, in custody, on a charge of stealing a bag of flour from the mill. I sent him off to Fremantle gaol, under the escort of the constable and a soldier.

Friday. — You could hardly believe that the little girl above alluded to is alive yet. I went to see her to-day and gave her some castor oil. One spear went through the lungs, and the air whistled in the wound (as they describe it), — for the wound had closed when I saw it. But they say the barb of the spear is still in the body ; if so, and that it is am ong the



lungs, it is a bad case. It is astonishing how tenacious of life they are ; any of the wounds would have killed a European child, yet this one speaks sensibly and moves itself. She got up and took the physic readily. At 10 o'clock the dogs began to bark, and I went out to see what was up. The soldier who escorted the native yesterday was on his return, and, being rather groggy, lost his way, so I escorted him a little. Here is a sentence as expressed by one of the natives to-day, as I was examining the wound of that child — " Walialak mangar uky addio tonga." The sound is not harsh. " The barb is still in the liver, I think."

Saturday. — Have been engaged for a great part of the day in conversation with one of the natives who was, I think concerned in the murder of the two men near York. He denied any knowledge of it at first, but, with some little (management, I got him to give me the names of no less than 42, who were present. Of course we must not use this against him ; indeed, according to the laws, we cannot make any use of it, for it is no evidence. He persists in saying that he was not actually present at the time ; that he refused to go ; that it was not his country, — he was only a visitor ; that he was afraid to do it, or, as he expressed it in a singular manner* " that his liver trembled." He says if we will give the women to the young men that they will go with us to point them out. It may not be a bad plan, for the parties out from York cannot fall in with them.

August 12>th. — John Mackie spent the day here. The weather is delightful, and I bathed in the river. Old Gear came to show me the spears which he had prepared to go and spear the man who stole his wife. They were so prepared that the barb should break off short in the wound, — that being the description of wound which he had received from the other.

August I'dth. — Went to Perth on Monday last, and only returned this evening. Two whaling companies, which were



injuring each other by rivalry, havo joined for the season, and have caught two whales within tliD week. A few shares have been sold in the Fremantle company at £50, being originally only £20 shares. — On Tuesday intelligence was received by the Government of a most daring attempt on the part of the natives at the settlement of Mr. Waylen, in Toodyay valley. Mr. "Waylen and two soldiers stationed there had been absent from the place for a time, leaving it in charge of two men. In the meantime some natives of the same party that had mur- dered the two settlers, came to the hut and asked for wheat and got it, and next day thinking (perhaps) that there were only two men still in the hut, they came about in large num- bers, and five of them forced their way into the hut, and, after awhile, made a rush upon the soldiers, and Mr. Waylen, who had only arrived shortly before, overpowered them, and had them down on the ground. In this awkward predicament, one of the soldiers managed to get hold of one of Mr. Waylen's pistols and shot one of the natives through the head ; then a second ; then Mr. Waylen got liold of an axe and cut another down. The two others then made off, but the soldiers now being able to get their muskets, shot one and wounded another ; so here were four dead and one wounded in a trice. 1 have no doubt all in the hut would have been murdered if Provi- dence had not favoured them, as two of the white men (the servants) were so paralysed that they did worse than nothing, for they crept away. The hut was so low and small that the natives could neither get their spears in, nor the soldiers use their arms properly. The next night another party of soldiers, under Lieut. Bunbury, shot one and wouuded another, near the same place ; so they are beginning to feel our vengeance. Mr. Bunbury and the soldiers were obliged to take off their shoes and creep for nearly a mile up a hill, over sharp stones and rocks, in order to come at these men, and, singular to say, a native of that district was their guide. I have put into the newspapers all the particulars of the murder of the two settlers



near York as given to me by Begooin. The more I know of the transaction the more black it appears. There are other natives even in this neighbourhood who were present (I sup- pose the place is 40 miles from this) ; but I think it prudent to temporise a little, for all our force is on the other side of the hills now, and we are not strong enough to embroil our- selves with the tribes round about us.

August 21st. — A day of rain, which is very seasonable. Every year since I came here we have been predicting great floods in the winter, yet each winter has passed off quietly. This is the seventh since the great flood, and we made sure we should have one this winter, because there is a cycle of seven years observable at Sydney ; but the winter is well nigh over, and the river has been very little above its summer level.

Tuesday. — Another day of rain. Saw two little native children to-day stealing some potatoes which were among growing barley, As they stooped and ran, hiding themselves,

they put me in mind of the fairies which J M saw

long ago in the " dark loamin " at Bond's Grleu. Poor little things ! their mothers had instructed them to go and steal, so I walked the mothers off, and they began to beat the children, not for stealing, but, like the Spartans, for being detected.

Wednesday. — I was going to Perth, when a constable and others came with great fuss to say that some strange natives had been observed in the neighbourhood who would not give their names, and ergo they must be of the party who killed the men over the hills. I hurried off and found some of my old acquaintances of Jainabingup, where I caught so many " cobblers " a year ago. They were glad to see me, and they might well be, for I could hardly restrain the officious eager- ness of the people wlio wanted to take them, right or wrong. I find the benefit on many occasions of having seen so many natives at different places, as it enables me to do justice the more readily, either for or against them.



August 2Qth. — The Hero has at Last arrived, and, what between letters and newspapers, and seeing old friends and new friends, I have been so taken up as hardly to know how to get on steadily on my old track, but I shall tell you all in time. Mr. Logue and one of his sons spent yesterday with me in Perth, and slept at my place. 1 dispatched them to walk up here, intending myself to follow on horseback, but when the servant went for the horse he had broken his rope and gone off, so I had to walk, having the mortification to see the horses' tracks before me all the way.

Friday. — Capt. Irwin rode up here with me yesterday, at my invitation, to look at his house before he brings the ladies up to it. The house is not at all in a fit state for their reception. He is greatly gratified with the improved appear- ance of the country, by the advance of cultivation, since he left the colony. — A strange scene occurred here to-day among the natives, which seemed to surprise and grieve Irwin not a little, as a stranger, although we are pretty well accus- tomed now to such occurrences. I was examining the knee of Weenat, who is still suffering from the wound, and was lying in a hut close to this, when suddenly I observed a body of natives at some distance coming rushing towards us at full speed. Weenat was greatly alarmed, and entreated me to run for my gun and protect him. I did so, and on my return found that they were in the act of communicating tidings of the death of a friend to him. A man sat upon his thighs, breast to breast, for some time, then whispered to him the name. (Bogan had been killed that morning at Guildford, by natives from Perth). Weenat hung liis head and cried. The women covered their heads with their cloaks and made a regular wail. These men were the relatives of Bogan, seeking for revenge. The boy liellick, who had been attending my sheep, also came up at this time, and was embraced ; but, friendly as they appeared to be, I suspect that the gun in my hand was the principal cause of their apparent friendship.



After a little, they proceeded in search of a victim, and Bel- lick, unsuspectingly, followed them a little, through cariosity. When they got out of sight of the house, some of the party turned upon him, dragged him to the ground, and endeavoured to kill him, but others interfered, and carried him off back to my place, wounded in two places. The spears had been turned by bis ribs. The party rushed on, and soon fell in with old Barragim, or Yellagonga, and he fell dead under nine spears. All this occurred in a very short space of time, and the running, the shouting, the shrieking, the wounds of the boy, the lamentations around him, and the consternation and confusion of the natives when the death of Barragim was known, altogether formed a scene which you in the regular routine of civilised life could hardly picture to yourselves. After dinner we went out to walk a little, when we happened to come to the spot where old Gear was burying the body. The grave was about three feet deep, the body placed on its back, with the legs doubled up. He lighted a fire in the grave, singed off part of the beard, stripped off the nails of •the thumb and little Huger of the right hand, and tied the finger and thumb together ; covered the body with sticks, then trod on the earth ; made a hut over the head of the grave ; tore the bag into fragments and strewed them on the grave, and then burst into a cry of grief, whilst his wife sung and scraped her nose biid rolled on the ground. And so the ceremony ended. He said the finger and thumb were tied that he might not throw any more spears, — rather an unneces- sary precaution, one would think. The grave is close beside

Mr. Tanner's early residence, which is now a ruin.

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Sept. 23rd. — A melancholy accident occurred here this week. A young gentleman (Mr. Creagh), who came out in the Hero, was drowned. He had gone out boating for pleasure; the current drove the boat on the bar at Fremautle, and the boat upset. There are soijie circumstances connected with his



history which make it more to be deplored that he was cut off just now. He was a son of Colonel Creagli, of Limerick. — Wheat has become very scarce again. The price is now 16s. a bushel.

« » * . * « «

October 12th. — I am really ashamed and afraid of the length of this letter. Our sessions were held at the beginning of this month. The only cases for trial were those of three natives for theft and housebreaking ; two were sentenced 1o seven years' transportation, and one to six months' imprisonment. The Governor wishes me to go to York and have a palaver with the natives there, and I start to-morrow on that errand.

J is going also to get the sheep shorn. I have got about

two bales of wool from my sheep heie, and I expect about six or seven from those over the hills. — I saved the life of a native to-day. Having got intimation that it was intended to kill a lad who was on his way from Perth to this place, I saddled a horse and galloped after the boy, and just arrived in time to prevent mischief. [N.B. — This was " Garbung," a lad, the son of Derharp, who was sentenced to transportation. No charge against the boy]. I took him to York, where he had lived before. They are a singular race. A young woman has been severely speared near this, but is still alive. — I came up here to-night in two hours and five minutes. — Sold two steers to-day at £15 each, and ten wethers at 31s. each,

October 22nd. — Eeturned this day from York, having ridden from wliat we call the Half Way House (27 miles), in about 4| hours. Irwin and Lieut. Mortimer and Mr. Wells went over at the same time. The news spread like wildfire among the natives there, that Mr. Moore had come to make peace, and many of them came to me at York, and I had a great palaver, which my limits will not allow me to detail. " Gover- nor wongay yahi keenyak " (the Governor says he is satisfied), was the burthen of my glad tidings to them. You must be satisfied with this brief outline. I took Garbung, the native



boy, back to York. He spread the news, and will be of ser- vice. Not finding the natives at York, 1 went 26 miles to the north to look for them ; but they would not show there, where the murder was committed. On my way I passed where Mr. Logue is now settled with his family. They are very comfortable already, having taken the crops now growing on a farm. They were then building their own house, about 1^ miles from where they now reside. I went to visit my own grant there, and was greatly pleased. They have 16 acres of wheat, a fine dwelling-house in progress, a kitchen, and a barn, and about 1000 sheep between mine and their own. I have had nearly 400 lambs this year. I persisted in my enquiries from the natives about the water to the East. They still say there is a sea in that direction, but far away. " Moons plenty dead " is all the information I can get. They seem surprised to hear that I have been so far without seeing it. My place near York is called Jilgayria.

Novonber 1st. — In the midst of some hot oppressive weather there came to-day a shower of hail stones, such as T have never witnessed befoie ; some of them were as large as pullet's eggs. What a sound they made on our shingle roofs !

November 11th. — Tlie Hero sailed on Wednesday last, having several passengers on board from tliis,— some to go to Eng- land, and others to India, on a speculation to procure sheep and probably camels, and to bring an investment of other such things as may be suitable for us — What a provoking circumstance that this exploring expedition, from which we had hoped to derive such great advantage, is, 1 fear, altogether frustrated by the course which has been pursued. Messrs. Grey and Lushington, influenced, as we hear, by tlie evil rep- resentations of some persons at the Cape as to our state and resources, hired a vessel there, at £140 a month, and have gone to Java, thenct; to land upon the N.W. coast, and explore, whilst the vessel hovers and waits for their return. I am reluctant to speak more of this now, not knowing more



of it yet than by rumour. Perhaps it is not so bad. — I have just seen in Saunders' News Letter Professor McCullagh's

reading of J 's letter on the native kiley. My theory is

that the rapid rotation and progression has the effect of com- pressing the air, so as to act like a spring, and, when the strength of spring has overcome the impressing force, then the weapon is impelled in a new direction compounded of several forces. But this is too long a matter to dwell on here. Its motions have always puzzled me, and, no wonder, when the Professor seems quite at a loss also. Have you found the direction uniform ? It seems to me to be very various ; but I have not studied or examined this point accurately. Perhaps its examination may be the means of ascertaining or dis- covering some new law or property of motion.

November 15th. — We had our proclamation of the Accession, and swearing of oaths, &c., all on Monday. — Had some con- versation with the captain of the Beagle. He is to sail immediately for our N.W. coast, and to explore all the most promising parts of it. I suspect from what I hear that the other gentlemen (Grey and Lushington) have stolen a march upon him, and that their desire to anticipate him was the reason of their sailing from the Cape as they did. Captain Wickham makes this place his head quarters. Has left some of his stores, and means to return here in about four or five months for a fresh supply. — A long Council sitting yesterday. — 1 want some bricks drawn in Perth to my house, and have been asked 20s. a thousand for carrying them. — Irwin came up with me to-day. The Governor is remaining now at Fremantle, whilst his house is undergoing repair, so we have more time. — Men are busy cutting barley here, part by reap- ing-hook, part by scythe.

Friday. — Made my first attempt at brewing beer, from bran, to-day. It promises well, but is not finished yet.

Saturday. — Been making a well. — I have been busy laying out a line for a fence which will be more than a mile in



length when finished, and will enclose a large piece of ground, part of the line being on the boundary between me and Mr Lamb on the South, and me and Mr. Tanner's ground (where Captain Bryan formerly lived) on the North, and a connecting line at the back, about half a mile from the river.

* 1^ * Mfc =$ *

December 4:th. — I know but little of the habits of vines at home, but one thing appears to me singular. In order to prevent them running too much to wood, I have nipped the ends off the growing branches, and the consequence is that so many of those tendrils which would otherwise be employed in clinging to the trellis or other support, have cbanged their nature and put out fruit. 1 had one pomegranate blossom, but the fowls have picked it off. A spot in a field of barley seemed greatly affected, the heads appeared to have been broken short off, and were lying on the ground. It appears to be the work of caterpillars, which are found on the ground there in great numbers. There is a grass which is in seed now ; the seed is something like that of a wild or animated oat. It buries itself into the skin wherever it touches. You would pity the poor sheep could you see how they suffer from it. Frequently when they are skinned, the grass seed is found to have penetrated or worked its way into the flesh of the sheep.

December 9th. — A rumour has reached us that a vessel has arrived. It is high time one did, for the colony was much in want of those things with which it cannot supply itself. I literally wear a hat which is half cut through by some acci- dent or other, and completely bare of beaver, but there is not another to be got. The same with shoes, and the same with clothes. There is not a pound of soap in the colony, nor a candle ! Had it not been that our sheep have multiplied so fast we had been in a bad way, — not a pound of salt meat to be had. Flour was 9d., but harvest has commenced.

December I'Uh. — One of the officers of the Beagle (Mr.



Dring) has been staying with me, and I took the opportunity of taking him round all the farms in the neighbourhood. He is greatly pleased, as he sees the harvest now in its most interesting state. I have interested myself to get a botanist from this part of the colony on board of the Beagle on this expedition. I have spoken to the Governor and am writing to the captain, and hope to succeed. It is a great mistake that there is not one attached to such an expedition.

Monday. — The Beagle has not yet gone. The captain has demurred about taking the botanist with him. I am quite vexed about it, thinking it, entre nous, a pitiful narrow-minded thing. Only think of such a glorious opportunity wasted, or not appreciated ; but perhaps I wrong the man. I shall, how- ever, persevere in the effort. One would think the conductor of such an expedition would consider the services of a botanist invaluable, and this man's assistance is offered without charge to the expedition. Oh ! dear, how would Cook have acted ? Oh ! Botany Bay, who named you, and why ? Oh ! Sir Joseph Banks, what would you say ?

Do you know it has often been occurring to me to write down several little stories, adventures, and traits illustrating the manners, habits and customs of the natives. Do you think they would be thought interesting ? What would Mr.

H think of it ? Let me know. But then, it may pass

off, or rather may not come on — so no matter about it.

December 2Srcl. — The Eleanor has arrived, bringing us back several of our old settlers, who had gone to England on their affairs. I have received an account sales of my wool. Bad prices. However, we must share in the general depression. — Another vessel, the Abercrombie, has arrived from Sydney, having touched at South Australia. If you know of any person going to that settlement in whom you are interested, advise them to consider well what they are about to do. From all the accounts we have, there will be, there must be, great distress, and much ruin there before very long. The system


is wrong ; — the capital nearly exhausted before getting upon the land ; and we know that even under favourable circum- stances a long time must elapse before the land will give much return. Then the seeds of dissension and discord are already sowing, and flourish between the Government and the companies and others. In short, they have a very severe ordeal to go through.




February 1838.


Feb. 12th. — The Abercrombie, by which my last letters should have gone, was only to sail yesterday. It is a long time since we had so many vessels in our port at once. Four of them intended to sail yesterday — the Alice, Eleanor, Aber- crombie, and the Grailhardon. The last named ship is from India ; she touched here on her passage to the neighbouring colonies, and I hope she is the forerunner of a regular series of ships communicating with us twice a year. Several pas- sengers were landed here, who came to prepare the way for an establishment for rearing horses, — a speculation chiefly entertained by a Mr. Prinsep, of Calcutta. There were many passengers on board, some going for health, on leave of absence, and some for mercantile pursuits, and some as settlers in Van Diemen's Land. The Governor had several of them to dine with him ; I dined there also. They appeared pleased with this place, and surprised that so much progress had been made. — A few days ago I met with a fortuitous confirmation of the idea of a sea to the North East of this. Seeing a large shell among the natives I asked where it came from ? They said from Djeering, — a place to the N.E. of this ; and, when I enquired particularly, they still persisted that it came from the sea, which was very far off in that direction. It had been handed from one to the other till it came here. When I said there was no sea in that direction, they said yes, you might go round North to King George's Sound or South to King



George's Sound. The inference is that there is some branch of the sea nearer us than the Gulf of Carpentaria, or else their knowledge of the country and communication with one another are far different from what we suppose, and much greater than they display.

I fear I shall be ordered to King George's Sound on a most unpleasant duty. Matters there seem to require some inves- tigation, and the Governor thinks of going down and insti- tuting an enquiry by a board of Council, and acting accord- ingly. Irwin is going down on his own duties, so he and I are likely to be the board. Mr. Eoe and I, some days ago, as Commissioners of Koads and Bridges, were engaged all day in visiting and examining the " flats, or shallows," about Perth, for the purpose of reporting upon the practicability of making a passage across by rampart and bridge. We were obliged to walk about in our shirts through the water, under the burning sun, so that the skin has come off my legs and face. — I have had many grapes this year on my trees, so that I have been able to eat of them as freely as in days of old off the goose- berry bushes. I do not know how it is, but I do not eat the grapes with the same zest as the gooseberries. They will soon be very abundant here. Every one is rearing some. They are now selling at 4d. a pound. — I had a curious case to settle in Perth a few days since. A native came to complain of a white man having stolen his wife. He was very angry and threatened to spear the person. The Governor referred the case to me, and I had no small trouble in settling it to the satisfaction of all parties, which was done principally by means of flour given by way of damages, and accepted, after some demur, as a peace offering. — A most agreeable change in the weather ; for two days past the thermometer had ranged about 76°, whereas it was formerly 96°.

Feb. l&th. — A very hot ride from Perth in the very heat of the day, and the country was on fire on each side of the road.



Sunday. — I have had a visit to-day from Mr. B . He

intends to try whaling next season. He is quite in raptures with Port Leschenhault, both as a port and agricultural settle- ment, and as a whaling station. He says the land is superior there to what it is here.

Feb. 23rd — We were to have had some long sittings of Council this week, but Irwin wanted to transact some busi- ness at his place (Henley Park), and wanted me to help him. — The masons, after an interval, have begun with my house again at Perth, and have the brickwork nearly finished. A man who lives near me now (Galway), splits excellent laths from the red gum trees, at 4s. a hundred.

Monday night. — Yesterday was anything but a day of rest with me. I left this at 7.30 in the morning, got to Perth in time for service, took an early dinner at Irwin's, and went to afternoon service at church, when their baby was christened Frederick Courthope Irwin. Started from Perth at 6, and reached this at 8.30, not a little tired. — The natives are very troublesome in stealing wheat and grapes, &c. I broke five spears belonging to one man to-day, and took a bag of wheat from him. It was old Gear, but he could not be taken. Got some potatoes dug, which looked very well at the tops, but there was nothing but misshapen withered - looking roots on them. Without moisture they will not do in summer.

Tuesday. — At the request of some neighbours, I killed a wether to-day. It was nearly all engaged beforehand, as the meat will not keep long enough in this weather to permit us to kill for ourselves. The days are very warm, but the nights begin to be cool. People expose themselves unthinkingly, and colds are frequent. I am just shaking off one by perspi- ration and exercise.

March Zrd. — The necessary repairs having been done to our colonial schooner by the aid of H.M.S. Pelorus, I suppose we shall soon set out on our trip to King George's Sound. Irwin



rode up with me this morning before breakfast, and he has returned again.

March 5th. — The first rain of the approaching winter fell to-day.

Tuesday. — The Governor and a party were to go yesterday to dine on board of the Pelorus, and to return to-day. So I also have played, and remained at home. Encouraged, how- ever, by the slight raiu and cloudy sky, I got a few potatoes planted. Thermometer is at 70°, at 9 p.m. Mr. Roe's house and mine are next each other at Perth. Two very large trees stood in the street just in front, in such a manner as to ob- struct the view very much, but they leaned towards his house particularly in such a manner, that it was rather an anxious job to get them away. Many a time we have measured the distance and calculated the length of the trees, and were afraid to touch them ; but at last, by the aid of a number of soldiers, who undermined the larger one, and, by means of block and chains, they were safely uprooted, to our great satisfaction and Mr. Roe's peace of mind.

Sunday. — A small vessel (colonial) has arrived from Java with sugar, tea, rice, flour, matting, &c. She touched at Shark's Bay for water, but saw nothing of Messrs. Grey and Lush- ington, nor of the Beagle. We may look for her in a month. The influenza has reached us here, and many are attacked by it ; but it is slight. I have had something like it, but I believe it has gone, or is going very fast. Some of the natives have taken it also. I have been obliged to-day to pay some attention to myself — in other words, to take a little medicine and feel much better for it. I have a " hydrophobia " of physic.

March 12th. — Making some preparations for my trip, as I must leave this to-morrow to be present at a Council meeting. Then to Fremantle on Wednesday, and sail on Thursday morning.

* * * # ll! *

z— 2



April \^th. — I have only this night been able to return here. We were longer on our trip to the Sound than we expected, but as we touched at several settlements on the coast which I had great desire to see, and, the weather being fine, the delay has been rather agreeable than otherwise. A vessel was lying at the Sound when we were there. "We anchored on Sunday evening at Port Leschenhault. Where we landed, we found Mr. Bull, Lieut. Armstrong, and a droll sort of East India establishment, consisting of seven Indians of the class called " hill coolies," under charge of a Scotchman called Miller. They had with them, as the commencement of flocks and herds, one young hunchbacked bull, and two hairy sheep. There is an extensive estuary there, into which the river Preston and the Collie discharge. The land on the estuary is low and well watered (where we saw it), having shelly marl underneath, and having the appearance, to a great extent, of having been recently recovered from the sea. But on an excursion of nine miles up the Collie, we were rather dis- appointed in the land. There is, however, a tract of good country higher up the river, but we had not time to reach it. Sharks are very numerous in the estuary and river, so that we dared not bathe. There are several low promontories of columnar basalt near to this place, just south of PortCasuarina, which form part of the port. After ten days delay, we sailed to the Vasse inlet, which is in Geograph Bay. Here there are great estuaries and much land, apparently recently re- covered from the sea. The substratum is of recent limestone with shells. The land is consequently fertile, though in general very sandy. There is much grazing ground, and the swamps are extensive. The sandy lands bear good grass also. This place was named " Vasse " after a man belonging to the French expedition in 1804 (or thereabouts), who was lost or abandoned. Some natives of that neighbourhood recollect him. They treated him kindly and fed him, but he lingered Qn the sea coast, looking out for his vessel He gradually



became very thin from anxiety, exposure, and poor diet. At last the natives were absent for a time on a hunting expedi- tion, and on their return they found him dead on the beach, his body much swollen (as they described it) — perhaps drop- sical. They offered to conduct me to the spot and show me his bones, but we had not time to go. At this part of the settlement there are only two settlers with their establish- ments, and some soldiers. Six miles farther down the coast the Bussell family live. We stayed there two days, and spent them very agreeably. About their place we saw more good land in one continued tract than we saw elsewhere. Their cattle thrive greatly ; and the climate is moderately cool. Three days sail from that, with contrary and shifting wind, took us to Augusta, just behind Cape Lewin. This bay is well situated for whaling, and is a pretty spot, but the ground is too heavily timbered. Most of the settlers have deserted it and gone to the Vasse district. We were detained there four days ; then, after three days' sailing, we reached the Sound, where we lived with Mr. Drake.

Saturday night. — The Governor had reached the Sound a few days before us, by the Pelorus, but he returned again two days after our arrival, leaving us to settle the business on which we had come down. The settlement has increased considerably since we were there five years ago, although not much has been done within the last two years. There is much ground fitted for gardens, but no wheat lands, or rather no land fitted for it without much trouble and manure. Many whaling vessels are beginning to frequent the port, and an excellent station for building ships, with great abundance of timber admirably adapted for the purpose, has been discovered in the neighbourhood at Torbay. These circumstances have given a fillip to the place, and the people are beginning to awaken up. One ship, of 150 tons, is nearly completed. A French man-of-war and a whaling ship, with many American whalers, have been there during the season. The natives there



have learned so much to use our language, even amongst them- selves, that many young lads are scarcely able to speak their own dialect purely. I found more difficulty in conversing with the young than the old men, in their own language, on that account. They act quite as servants there, and depend very much on the settlers for food when not hunting.

There is a great natural curiosity in that neighbourhood. A tract of sand blowing, like that at Eosgul, has overwhelmed a forest, and many of the remnants of the wood may be found turned into a soft sandstone. The sand, having insinuated itself into every pore and crevice of the decomposing wood, has substituted itself in the same shape, being cemented together by calcareous matter. We dredged there one day for oysters, but without success, as we had not time to go to the proper bank. — Bought an accordion, of two octaves — the first I had seen — for 30s., or rather for a ewe lamb. T am pleased with its power of forming chords and agreeable harmony, without much trouble in learning. Had a large corroboree of natives in honour of the Governor. Blue lights and sky rockets were lighted and fired by the men of the Pelorus. The natives appeared very regardless of them. These were our amusements. Our business was not so pleasant, but, by a little dexterity of management and judicious handling, we brought matters to a tolerably satisfactory conclusion. The climate of King George's Sound is cool in summer, but I should think too cold and blustery in winter for pleasure. It would afford an excellent bathing retreat from Swan Kiver, during the hot months of January and February.

Sunday. — I had concluded my story of travel last night. We sailed on Thursday from King George's Sound, and arrived at Fremantle on Sunday night, or Monday morning ratlier. On my return to Perth, I found my house nailed up, my quondam servant " Cassim " having been put in gaol in the mean time, lor being concerned in a robbery. I have now hired a licngal nian, who does not understand g, word I say.



He is, however, even with me, for I do not understand a word he says, so how we shall get on time must tell.

May Ath. — I continue my journal from yesterday, and even in that space of time something important has occurred. News came this evening that a native had been shot last night at Mr. Brockman's, while in the act of dragging off a sack of flour out of the mill store, which he had broken open. I had been just setting out for Perth, but went to the spot imme- diately. The natives in the meantime had collected to bury the body, and I found them just commencing their operations. It was an excellent opportunity for impressing a lesson upon them when their minds were in that state, so I harangued them over the body. Anthony's oration over Cffisar was nothing to it. I told them that they had stolen repeatedly, that at last the Governor became angry and told me to go and enquire why the natives stole so much ; that, as soon as the Governor spoke, I had come up to enquire, and that already one man was taken prisoner and one man was shot ; that if they would steal no more and spear no more the Governor would perhaps say " it was enough," but if they persisted he would tell the soldiers and the white men to shoot them as they did at Pinjarrah and at York. I apostrophised those who had been in the habit of stealing, told them I saw many of their faces around me, and that I knew their names, but, as one lay dead before me, I would not speak more of it. I addressed the brother of the deceased, and told him that he and his brother assisted many others in killing two white men over the hills, that many of those who did so were long since dead, that his brother now lay dead, and that, if he either stole from or injured white men any more, he would soon be dead also. The whole scene appeared to have some effect upon them, and at last they assured me that with respect to white men they were now quiet and would not seek to retaliate, but they would kill a black man for it, but not near our houses. Having left matters in that state at the graves, I went down



to D 's, and whilst I was there a constable came and told

me that he had a warrant to apprehend three natives who were about here, and he wanted assistance. They (the natives) took the alarm, so I put spurs to my horse and followed the principal one for some distance, but he got among bushy swamps, and though I rode round about for a long time, I could see no more of him. In the pursuit, I got a capsize off my horse, from a difference of opinion as to which side of a tree to go to. I split the difference by knocking against the tree. The two cocks of the gun stuck into my clothes, and one then rebounded on my reaching the ground, and the gun went off harmlessly. I find that the hammer has bored a hole in my side, which I did not discover till this evening, when, after riding about all day to warn the different settlers to be on their guard, I found my shirt bloody and torn, stick- ing to my side. On dismounting I thought my troubles were over, and was looking wistfully towards bed after tea, when a shout from the other side informed me that Major and Mrs. Irwin and Mackie had arrived at Henley Park and would probably be here. In the meantime I have given you this account, and this moment a second shout announces them.

May 7th. — Major Irwin slept here, but the rest of the party remained in their own house, which is in progress of repair. On the next morning (yesterday) I had to go to Perth to confer with the Governor, but in the meantime he had sent up soldiers and an interpreter, and a long letter to me, pointing out what he thought most politic and advisable on the occa- sion. Fortunately I had not only anticipated his wishes (by my interview with the natives at the grave), but had advanced far beyond his most sanguine hopes. However, as part of the purport of the letter was to request me to remain here a little, and I thought it best to return, I rode back here last night. This day 1 have taken the round of all the houses, to see how matters stand. Everything is satisfactory. I have directed patrols of soldiers in different directions, merely as a matter



of precaution till affairs are more settled. A rumour was forwarded to me that certain natives had threatened to kill a white man in revenge. I endeavoured to trace the rumour to its source, but found it groundless. I had a long conference with several of the more influential natives. They say they attach no blame to the white men for shooting this man, that we had given them fair warning, that the man would persist in thieving, and he deserved his death, that they had no enmity against us for it, but that they would endeavour to kill the native who was very active in encouraging the de- ceased to steal, that a party had gone to gather strength for that purpose, and that in the meantime they had driven away out of their grounds several strangers who had been com- mitting thefts and bringing them into trouble, and that they had determined to keep them away, and even apply to us to assist them if they could not do it themselves. They brought to me a boy of whom I had complained to them for stealing fowls ; they delivered him to me, and I made one of them flog him soundly. This was all done readily at my orders, and they seemed very desirous to be on good terms with us, and glad to get out of the scrape so easily. The truth is, the deceased is not very nearly connected with them, and his relatives were thinned a little after the murder of Jones and Chidlow.

Thus, you see, we are gradually gaining ground with the natives, for they now seem to acknowledge our superiority and rely upon our justice and good faith. Tribe by tribe we shall be able to bring about in the same way, and so even- tually give them by degrees as much of civilization as their habits will permit them to endure. The interment of the body the other day was conducted with a good deal of cere- mony, and was not without interest. They selected a clear spot in the neighbourhood of some tall mahogany trees ; the grave was then dug in a direction due North and South, about 4 feet long, about 8 feet deep, and perhaps 18 inches wide.



The clay from the grave was carefully heaped up on the western side into a slightly curved crescentic shape, not un- like the outline of a body lying in a recumbent position on the right side, — a form, I suspect, which it is intended rudely to resemble, for at one extremity the earth was moulded into a round form, connected with the rest of the mound by a small junction, which they said was to represent the head and neck. Their next care was to fold or double the legs so that the heels should touch the back part of the thigh. This was a matter of some difficulty, for the corpse had stiffened ; but they succeeded. Then they cut off his hair and beard short, and singed it smooth. Then, by the application of fire, they stripped the nail from the little finger of his right hand, and tied that finger and the thumb together. The woman rubbed his forehead with a white earth, and bestowed a profusion of kisses upon the face. In the meantime others lighted some brushwood and burned it in the grave, a process which seemed to interest them very much, as they crowded and peeped into the grave with great curiosity, as if either looking for some appearance, or drawing some omen from it, but all seemed carefully to stand out of the way of the smoke from the grave. A frog seemed disturbed from its rest by the fire, and hopped about the grave. They mentioned it seriously to one another, but I could not understand whether any importance was attached to the circumstance. Then one took a bough, and brushed out the ashes, and scattered them to the wind. All that were in that direction appeai-ed to hurry away as if afraid of the ashes and the smoke. Then they placed the body carefully in the grave on its right side with the head to the South, the face directed to the East, in which they seemed to be particular. When I remarked this, they said tliat the people to whom the deceased belonged always buried the bodies Xorth and South, the face looking to the sunrise, but that others buried the bodies East and West, with the face looking to the midday sun. During the preparation of the body there arose a



great discussion as to whether the nail should be taken from the thumb also. Some were of one opinion, some another ; at length one old man, a stranger, was appealed to. He said one was sufficient (the finger), and so it was done. The body being placed as above was first covered with green boughs, then with grass trees and pieces of wood firmly trodden down ; then the earth was scraped from the Eastern side so as to fill up the hollow. His cloak was buried with him, his spear broken into pieces, his throwing board, his knives, stick, orna- ments and feathers were then all stuck in the mould, his bag torn, and the contents strewed about. A screen of boughs was then made over the grave, the trees in the neighbourhood were marked with rings and notches. A piece of fire was left burning in front of the mound. The ceremony appeared then completed, and they all retired, and so shall I now for the night.

May 24:th. — I know not how it has happened that I have omitted to make the usual daily or even hebdomadal entries for some time past ; a good deal of public business has been on hand — meetings of Council, both Legislative and Execu- tive, meetings of committees about roads, about churches, about whaling companies, about a supply of labourers (which is a very pressing subject), meetings of agricultural societies, and many other such things. I have had several Acts to prepare for the Council. One of them has been troublesome, not so much from the length of it, as the finding out some mode of adapting the machinery of old countries to our infant state. I allude to an Act to regulate the management of roads and streets and all other internal communications.

We are in a most absurd state for want of more population. Not a sailor can be obtained to man our colonial schooner ; she lies idle, and there are a number of persons sentenced to transportation lying in gaol, a useless expensive dead weight upon us. All the men are gone into the whale fishery. One company was so prodigally conducted, that the shareholders dissolved it yesterday, by general consent, and received the



large repayment of £1 for each share of £15, paid up a year ago.

I went to Perth on Monday with the Acts of Council ready drawn up, and thought to have had a busy week, with all the Council, preparing for our great day for discussing our budget, &c., which was fixed for Tuesday next, when, lo and behold, I found the Governor had gone off somewhere into the coun- try ; that Major Irwin liad gone to York, and Mr. Brown, the Colonial Secretary, had gone to Fremantle, in delicate health. So the " balance of us," as the Americans say (that is, Mr. Roe and myself) put off the Council for another week, and I came home here to-night.

A number of natives from King George's Sound have been in Perth for some time past. Tliey set out this day on their return, but first came to know if I had any commands, and I sent a letter by them. They are almost civilised. My poor old goat " Jenny," which I have so often spoken of, died on Monday last, of a surfeit of wheat. She was a valuable and affectionately familiar creature, and, as one of the original stock brought here by me from the Cape, was quite one of ourselves. I should be ashamed to confess how grieved I felt at her loss. The rains are so long delayed this year that sheep and lambs over the hills are suffering very much. The weather is warm also, and vegetation very backward. These phrases sound inconsistent to you, but everything is topsy- turvy here, as well as the seasons.

May 2^th. — Finding that I had some spare time on hand, I started on Saturday morning on a short trip into the bush Certain land which I was entitled to occupy as a part of my original grant is still to be definitely fixed. I had it at a place called Lennard's Brook, 36 miles to the north of this. Then, being the only person having land there, I was told that it would be impossible to survey it for me or give me protection, and I was allowed to cliange it. I chose again in a place called Toodyay valley, wlien, behold, from the direC'




tion of the boundaries of some earlier grants there, I find myself elbowed out of the plaoe which I desired, and I now think of looking out some other quarter, as that is not well watered. To look for some place was the object of my late visit to the bush. It is not easy to find any desirable place unoccupied within any reasonable distance. I went from this twelve miles north, then N.E. for thirteen miles, which brought me to a place called Gogomen, in a valley parallel to the Swan River ; then north ten miles, to a place where the valley expands to a mile broad, with a swampy lake in the centre of it. This is called Gabbi Yandirt. I have described it on a former occasion. I then proceeded westward ten miles, to Lennard's Brook, where we slept last night, and re- turned this evening (about 32 miles in all). I was disap- pointed in the land there, but water is abundant. The result of my observation is that a man often goes far to look for something very good which he cannot find, whilst he over- looks that which is comparatively at his hands. I have seen better ground within ten miles of this than anywhere else on my expedition, but I shall not be allowed to take it so near. In fact, just above Mr. Bull's grant, on Ellen's Brook, I saw land which, considering its propinquity and the frequent pools in the brook, would form a very fair location. I found Mackie and Mr. Robert Brockman making themselves very comfortable at my table and fireside when I came home. They have just gone, at nine o'clock. The weather has been delightful — too much so ; we are looking for rain and in want of it. I hear that the Beagle has returned, but I have not yet heard any news from her.

May 2'^th. — Native dogs during my absence have carried away all my ducks but two ; but, strange to say, one duck came back yesterday after having been missing for two days. It had the mark of the dog's teeth on its back. They had also killed a number of Irwin's and Mackie's sheep. I believe nine have been lost within a week. It is thought that the scarcity



of water has compelled them to come nearer us in such num- bers. Kain still holds off, and the weather is very warm in the day and frosty at night or towards morning.

June 2nd. — Dined on Wednesday last in company with Captain Wickham, of the Beagle, and this morning had one of the officers to breakfast with me. I endeavoured to glean what news I could. They will not be able to leave any maps or charts here, or indeed to give any detailed account of their operations, because their time here will be so limited. I will, however, give you a rough outline of their expedition. In a deep bay, called Eoebuck Bay, they saw a river running strong to the sea, with fresh water six or seven fathoms deep at its mouth. Still it has a bar and shoals in its course. This is named the Fitzroy river. They went up a consider- able distance (say 20 or 30 miles) from the mouth, but the navigation for boats became impeded by fallen trees. The land on both sides appeared fertile to as great a distance as they could see, and covered with very long rich grass. The river was apparently subject to very high floods at some dis- tant intervals, for they observed old marks of floods upon the trees. These floods, they supposed, happened eight or nine years ago. The country, generally speaking, was of low ele- vation; the temperature very high, but not unhealthy, for there was not a case of sickness among them. They met Messrs. Grey and Lushington, who ,have gone home, and you will probably have heard of their failure before this reaches you. All agree that it happened to be the most un^vour- able part of the entire coast where they (Messrs. G-. and L. landed. In endeavouring to ^o inland they were stopped by a river (named the Glenelg). {P.S.—l fell asleep at these words. I have been amused looking at the writing of the last few lines — rather sleepy looking.)

June Srd. — There was a ball on Friday night in Perth. I was up almost all night, so that accounts for the sleepiness. I had been busy all day yesterday, and rode up here late at



night ; so, no wonder I nodded. This day I took a ride into the hills, about seven or eight miles from this, to look at a part of the river, but I was disappointed in the land. There is to be a ball on Monday night given by the naval and mili- tary men here — " a United Service ball." I shall have to go down to it, for one has no option in these matters, for fear of giving offence.

June 1th. — The United Service ball was a splendid one. The rooms were decorated with the ship's flags, which had a fine appearance. The company did not come away till near six o'clock in the morning. I have seen the sketch of the bay and river made by the Beagle. They were about 100 miles from the coast, inland, taking into account the depth of the bay, but about 25 miles up the river. It is melancholy to think that Messrs. Grey and Lushington should have suc- ceeded so badly. They have had their sufferings and dangers, and difficulties, but if they had not been so very impatient, and had started inland from the spot where the Beagle's nautical survey terminated, they might have had a different tale to tell. There are still 300 miles of coast unexplored in that quarter, i.e., from lat. 22° to 17°. It is in between 16° and 17° f I believe) that Eoebuck Bay and the Fitzroy river are found. The Beagle sails next week to survey Bass Straits, and returns here about eight or nine months hence, to try the N.W. coast again. I have been declared entitled to have my land, 6000 acres, on Ellen's Brook, in a succession of square miles up the Brook, which I consider a favourable arrange- ment for me. The grant will contain about 9| square miles. I am bound to describe the boundaries to be fixed for me, so I must employ my spare time about this immediately. I got a thorough drenching coming home to-night, and the water in the river was level with the horse's back when I crossed. We have had heavy falls of rain.

June, ^th. — Irwin came home yesterday, and remained here for the night. He is desirous to get the house at Henley



Park ready for Mrs. Irwin, but work proceeds slowly. Our Governor now talks openly of being about to leave us soon.

I went this evening to look at the boundaries of Mr. B 's

grant, with reference to which my lower boundary on the brook is to be fixed. There were some very heavy showers, and I got drenched, but only in the lower limbs — thanks to the indiarubber cape.

June 10th. — I took James with me to-day, and rode up Ellen's Brook to the distance of about nine miles from this. I am very well pleased with the place as a pasture farm. For the first three miles there are pools of water, which con- tinue all the year, at intervals of perhaps a mile apart ; after that, there is a tract of several miles (perhaps five or six) without any water, and the first pool met with is brackish or salt. But there is a considerable extent of pasture ground which will improve by being fed upon, and perhaps fresh springs may be found. There is also limestone to be found in that quarter.

June 28th. — There is a gap here which I can hardly account for. I brought this to Perth some time since to send by the Beagle, when, behold she had sailed that morning before I had calculated upon the movement. We have been in daily, nay, hourly, expectation of ships from India, from England, from Van Diemen's Land, &c. ; but they come not. At length, however, one vessel has come from Launceston with sheep, principally belonging to Mr. Tal^bot, who was here at the outset of the colony, but has been taking care of the property of one of his uncles in Van Diemen's Land for some time. A vessel which was coming here from Hobartown (the Dart) has been wrecked in the harbour of South Australia, which does not speak much in favour of that port. A very excel- lent harbour has been lately ascertained to exist in the colony at the mouth of the Murray River, on Mr. Peel's property, only, seventeen miles south of Fremantle, with much very good land in its neighbourhood. This colony has never since



its settlement been so long without arrivals of ships and sup- plies, consequently the prices of such things as we cannot grow here are exorbitant. There has not been for a long time any supply of soap ; some few pounds have been sold at 10s. or even 12s. a pound. Salt meat is Is. 2d., and fresh meat Is. 8d. It is well for those who have not to go into the market largely. Having my own sheep and my own flour, I feel these prices but little. This ship brought literally nothing but the sheep for us. It is absurd to look into the dealers' shops now ; there is not so much in them all as would fill a cobbler's stall. The Governor and Mr. Koe are on a little excursion to the south. We have got our Council busi- ness over, and there is now a cessation.

July 3rd. — My last letter was closed on Friday, and sent by the Tamar, which sailed on Monday for the Isle of France. I went down to Perth on Sunday night, in order to be there in time for the sessions, which commenced on Mon- day morning. There were but five persons to be tried. One white man, for larceny, received a sentence of six months' imprisonment. A Lascar was also found guilty of larceny and was sentenced to twelve months' imprisonment, this being his third offence of the same nature. Two of our own aborigines were indicted for house breaking, and one of them received a sentence of seven years' transportation, and the other twelve months' imprisonment, the latter being but a boy. Another native, for murdering a native woman in the street, was condemned to be executed, but I suppose he will be reprieved. This was all our business. It was all over by one o'clock. The Governor, not having yet returned from the south, and having nothing to detain me long in Perth, I came away yesterday evening, fearing that this day would be very unfavourable, as a storm appeared approaching. The storm has come on ; there has been much rain to-day. Killed a wether this morning, weighing 341bs. We consider that a

good weight at this time of year ; it was not a year old. I

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have had some losses among my sheep over the hills, sup- posed to be owing to the sudden spring of young grass. They appear affected by internal inflammation. Dogs which eat the flesh go mad. The lambing also has not been so successful there this year as usual. A person has just been requesting me to give him some information about the native language. I find the little smattering I have of it very useful on many occasions, as it enables me to know what they are saying to the interpreter on their trial.

July 5th. — A native dog attacked the flock to-day in broad daylight, singling out a fine lamb and hunting it down. The boys were not with the flock at the moment, but I happened to be in the neighbourhood and saw the dog gnawing at the neck, having eaten the head off. A number of crows were discussing the head at a little distance off. I have put muc vomica into pieces of the lungs and spleen, and laid them out very invitingly. I hope he will accept my invitation. He carried off another duck the night before last. J has now got a lot of wheat to dispose of; he is actu- ally selling it at 20s. a bushel. I am paying Is. 6d. a bushel for threshing wheat. I tried to-day the plan of ploughing wheat into the ground. The crows will not get at it so readily. They are very destructive. We hire natives, if we can, to walk about and keep them off.

July 16th. — The Governor returned in the beginning of last week from his expedition, greatly pleased with the country he had seen at Leschenhault, especially on the upper part of the Collie River. An American whaler was in the port when he was there. They have got a fine Yankee story to tell about a shark 30 feet long, which got entangled in the buoy rope attached to the anchor, and by its exertions actu- ally weighed it and let the ship go adrift, to their no small consternation, until they discovered the cause. Many people saw the occurrence. The shark was eventually caught, and 37 gallons of oil procured from its liver. Mr. S. N. Talbot,



from Van Diemen's Land (a nephew of Lord Talbot) has been staying with me for some days. He was in this colony at its first settlement, but went to Van Diemen's Land to manage his uncle's property, and has paid us a visit now, bringing some sheep to place on his grant here. He says he is sur- prised at the advance we have made, and how much we have done with such little means — much more in proportion than what they could do in Tasmania with so many convicts. He has this day gone to see the Canning district. I rode with him all about the neighbourhood. Great pruning of peach trees, vines, and figs, &c. There has been very little rain this winter so far, and the ground is scarcely damp enough. The river hereabouts is salt yet, the fresh water only just begin- ning to come into it.

July 2^th. — What a tantalizing thing! A vessel on her route from India passed this port some time ago, and called at King George's Sound, and there gave them abundant sup- plies of many things which we are in great want of here. She had intended to come in here, but it was blowing fresh when she was off Eottnest, and she sheared off. Are we never to have a vessel? It is ludicrous to hear the talk about soap, especially amongst the ladies. Major Irwin and the family (I believe) to-day came up to reside at Henley Park (that is the name of the place opposite to this). I see unusual lights in the windows, but the evening has been so unfavourable that I could not stir out. A man was here to- day looking for casks for oil for the Fremantle Whaling Com- pany. I am afraid that will be a bad business. 1 have actually paid £70 on one share and not received a penny yet.

I have made our interpreter give me a translation of the Lord's Prayer and the Ten Commandments in the native language. It is singular that they have no expression for either a wish or a want, and yet one would think they had enough of both. Some of the phrases cannot be rendered accurately, nor be even properly paraphrased. It is strange

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also that they have no expression either for " trespass " or " forgiveness." Heart-cooling, or becoming good, is the only near equivalent, so I was obliged to make him paraphrase that part thus, " Your heart be good to us as our heart is good to others also." The whole prayer will thus stand liter- ally : — " Our father of the sky being. Thy name we praise " always. We then soon thy people shall be. What you tell " us we shall perform on earth, like as in heaven. Food you " us to-day give. Your heart to us good be (or is), if our " heart so others to you. Us in evil put not. You us well " lead ; then Thine is the people and power and praise, always " always so." That is the nearest approach at present.

Sunday. — The Irwins only arrived late last night. The river is so swollen, I cannot get over, and there is no boat. The Governor has called upon us to give him our considered opinions on the propriety of reprieving or otherwise the native sentenced to execution, in order that they may be entered on the minutes of Council to go home, to have her Majesty's further pleasure known in the matter, as there is no power in the Governor to pardon for treason or murder.

Monday. — I had poison placed for several nights for native dogs, our own dogs being tied up. This morning I found one dead on the spot, where she must have taken it. How active it {nux vomica) must be ! Arsenic does not kill them, they reject it. I have only one poor solitary duck left out of 20, and it was in the act of being carried off two nights ago when I ran out and frightened the dog off, but could not see it in the darkness. This has been a day of continued soaking rain, the first of the kind there has been this winter.

Friday. — Went to Perth on Tuesday. The river was so high I could not cross at the ford, so I went up to the ferry at Guildford. I had much trouble in getting across some brooks. On Wednesday a rumour reached the Governor that some natives from King George's Sound had come overland,



bringing a mail thence. He despatched a messenger to look for them, and the mail was brought in. Everyone hurried to the opening of it — a large looking parcel — but, behold, when " the pie was opened," out came a quantity of soap ! There were some letters informing us that no fewer than eight vessels had been at the Sound lately — two from India, laden with all things of which we are in want, such as sugar, rice, soap, tea, &c., &c. Prices very cheap. One of them was coming here, but the weather was rough, and she was fright- ened. How tantalizing ! But a vessel called the Emerald Isle has sailed from Calcutta for this, and may be expected hourly. No sailors could be got to man our colonial schooner.

Saturday, — Some native women had a dog with them here to-day, and some one gave it a piece of poisoned meat ; after a short time it fell aud rolled into a trench in the garden, without any noise, and lay dead. None of the natives saw it, and when they were going away they called for a long time, but I had had it buried in the meantime by a man who was planting cabbages. It was a European dog, which had been given to them.

Thursday Night. — Started with Irwin on Tuesday at eight o'clock for Perth. The Governor had summoned a Council for ten. After Council there was a meeting of the trustees of Church property, of which I am one, and, after that, a meet- ing of the trustees of streets, and to which I was obliged to explain the Act which has been lately passed. On Wednes- day there was a meeting of the trustees of roads, bridges, &c., at which I had to act similar parts. I fear our plan will not work well, for everybody wishes to have the roads made, but nobody wishes to pay for them. This morning there was another Council, at which the Governor called on me for an opinion (written) on the subject of whether he should reprieve the native who was sentenced to death for killing a native woman. This opinion was entered on the minutes in order to be transmitted to the Secretary of State in referring the



decision for Her Majesty's confirmation. We returned to- night, and got very heavy showers by the way.

Friday Night. — This day there was a meeting of the Agri- cultural Society at Guildford, which was well attended. Some business was done, and more projected, and another committee appointed, of which I was one, to draw up a statistical memorial to the Secretary of State. The Governor dined there with us, and we had a very pleasant party. Broke up at dusk, and Mr. Talbot rode here with me, and we took a cup of tea with D in passing.

Saturday. — Mr. Talbot went away this morning, and was replaced by Mr. S. Burgess. The men are busy breaking up three or four acres of new ground on the part which was Wright's grant, but I hope is mine now.

Sunday. — I had just done breakfast to-day when Mr. Logue arrived. He appears well pleased with his progress over the hills. We went over to Major Irwin's, but were late for service. I there heard of the arrival of the shepherd. I will say no more now, but with trembling hope will await your letter.

Monday, — S went to Perth and Fremantle and re- turned yesterday. I had a messenger at his house all day expecting his return. About an hour ago he brought me the first batch of letters, and I have hastily run over them. I am quite amused to see so much interest about the kyli. I can- not satisfy myself about the spelling. The German " keile," if of two syllables, is just it. I am sorry that nasty word " boomerang "has been suffered to supercede the proper name. Boomerang is a corruption used at Sydney by the white people, but not the native word, which is tur-ra-ma ; but " kiley " is the name here, which I am glad to find, as it con- firms a theory of mine that this country has been peopled from the west or nor'-west probably, and that it may be pos- sible to trace affinities of language, habits, and weapons with some of the elder nations of (to you) the eastern countries.



Mr. Schoales and Mr. Nash are both with me this evening. We dined at Irwin's.

August 26th. — I am becoming very irregular with the journal. Mr. Schoales and Nash have been looking about for

a grant, and S has been shewing them several places and

tempting them to settle beside him. I had been obliged to ride to the house of a constable about a native who had been taken prisoner there. It appears that all the natives who were imprisoned on Eottnest Island contrived to make their escape about two days ago. The boat was upset in the surf, and one of them drowned, A Perth man, his relative, blamed the others for drowning him, and followed after and speared one of the runaways to death. Another was taken prisoner near this. The natives had each a chain on his leg, which was fastened to one large bullock chain, which was locked round a tree (not a very large one). They burned the tree through at night, and so escaped, carrying off the only boat on the island. They deserve credit for their ingenuity.

Sept. 2nd. — There was an occurrence to-day of rather a novel nature. After service at Irwin's a number of natives came there on their way to my place to look out for one of those who had escaped from Eottnest, and who ' they said was near this. They blame him (Daubain) for drown- ing one of the Perth natives who were also trying to escape. Near my place they fell in with a brother of his, and a question arose as to whether they should kill him instead. Some were for it, and some against it. The man broke away, and ran down past my kitchen. I opened the gate and told him to take to the river and swim across, whilst I shut the gate and gained time for him. He hesitated on the brink, but, as they approached he plunged in, and, when they arrived, they threw at him in the water, but between his diving and their hurry, he reached the other side in safety. He then picked up some spears and defied them all from the opposite bank. My boat was there, and



some jumped into it it and crossed, whilst others flung spears at him. Then he fled, and took refuge in Major Irwin's. After a time a friend of his came as a mediator, and arranged a sort of truce, which I suspect, like many other truces, was a mere matter of convenience on both sides. The mediator embraced each of them, and took possession of their mero (their board for throwing the spear — the amentum), and har- angued them, as I understood. He agreed that the tribes of Daubain should retire to the hills, and yield to the Perth men the privilege of gleaning our fields at harvest time. Mean- time the other party slipped out of the other side of the house, and fled. The son of the man who had been drowned saw him, and gave chase singly, but missed him in the bush. He returned, was embraced, and consoled, but wept bitterly, and made a most pathetic appeal to us, or rather against us, for sheltering the brother of his father's murderer. I did what I could to answer him. I reminded him that when they were in the bush not near the house, I had not interfered, but that when they took shelter in our houses we thought it right to protect them. Then I said this was not the murderer, and that we touched none but the murderer. " Well," he said, " you know this- man to be bad ; he has killed men, he has speared women, he has stolen sheep, he has eaten pigs, he will do so again ; you will then be angry, and want us to go and look for them. I will not go any more." His grief was un- affected, and I felt for the poor fellow as I reasoned with him — although his ideas of revenge were savage. It was alto- gether an interesting scene.

Se'pt. 3rd. — I sent a long letter to Mr. Mitchell, the mis- sionary, to-day, giving him some useful phrases of the native language. He wants me to send him one as a servant. Mr, G. Eliot spent Saturday here. He is soon going to Leschen- hault, upon the Governor's grant. The boys have lost all my cattle to-day at the hills, and I am rather uneasy, as a number of natives were seen about the neighbourhood during the day.



8q>t. 6th. — I have just returned from Perth, having been there since Tuesday morning. Schoales and Nash have not yet settled themselves ; they dined with me yesterday and breakfasted to-day. Miss Whitfield was married to-day to Mr. G. Stone (our Sheriff). I was not a little amused with my black servant (Motu) in Perth. The last black man I had would not eat pork being a Mussulman, and, supposing this man to be the same, I set him down to some beef, but he was quite indignant at being asked to eat it, for he is a Hindoo. " Me cow eat, me mother eat," said he with vehe- mence. I knew what he meant, but being a little provoked I said gravely, " What ! was your mother a cow, then ?" " Yes !" says he, " all same ; me cow eat, me mother eat, my church say it." My cows were found yesterday morning grazing on the hills.

Saturday. — In an evil hour I was appointed chairman of a committee to collect information to send to an English asso- ciation. It is a great and altogether unsatisfactory job. People keep back their communications to the last moment, so I shall be hurried out of measure, just when I want time for my own affairs. These things are more tedious than you could believe. I would rather write half a dozen free and easy letters than concoct one statistical table. In the report which we are preparing to send to the association I write upon the intro- duction of labour and the sale of Crown lands. The conclud- ing sentence on the latter subject which I just this moment finished is this : " A graduated scale rising in proportion to the progress and resources of the colony would seem to be more just as an equitable arrangement, more politic as a mea- sure for encouraging immigration, and more effectual as a means for raising a revenue from the sale of Crown lands."

Monday. — Having to go to Perth in the morning, when I dare say we shall have councils and all sorts of business pre- paratory to the Governor's departure, I have been getting on with the report for the association. I have just finished



a new edition of mine upon " Sales of Lands." I find I have to steer clear of Scylla and Charybdis, i.e., the desire of some to get the Government price reduced or abolished, in order to tempt fresh immigrants, and the desire of others (early strug- gling settlers) to keep up the price of land that they may sell theirs. So too with the introduction of labour — some are for convicts, others against, as I am.

Friday. — " "Wonders will never cease." The Clarinda ar- rived on Tuesday, bringing here Mr. Grey, the explorer. I wish he had come here first, and so does he now. He is quite surprised to find how far advanced we are, after the reports he heard on all sides about us. He has greatly surprised us by giving a most favourable account of the land he saw at lat 16°. He says his reports to the Colonial Office have been most favourable, and that he has no doubt that some settle- ment will be made there, as his instructions were to look for a spot suited to the growth of sugar and cotton, which that place is suited for in a most remarkable degree. It was well watered, and the land rich beyond anything which he had ever seen before, with rivers running (sluggishly), though it was at the end of summer.

Oct. 11th. — I have been so occupied with one thing or another for some time past that I have not been able to write anything in the shape of a journal. The Governor having gone to York, I took the opportunity of getting my flock washed at this place, there being no one to manage it but two boys ; so I set about it myself, and, with a little contrivance, managed to get the entire business over without any fuss, and, what is more, without any drinking.

The Governor returned on Tuesday. I went down yester- day, and returned this night. Mr. Grey (the explorer) is to sleep here to-night. He has got so far as Irwin's, and I now expect him. After much confusion, I have at last got out of my hands the report of the committee of which I was chair- naan. We intend to print it here, if possible, and if so, we



shall be able to send you copies, as well as to London. The portions of the report relating to the introduction of labour, the sale of Crown lands, and all the suppletive parts are mine. I could not get the others to work ; every one seemed desir- ous to shift the trouble off his own shoulders. Many were ready at finding fault, but slow at every other thing.

The natives have been very unsettled amongst themselves for some time. One of them, Naral by name, killed one Nanderry in Perth, and fled. A number pursued him, and I believe have killed him. Others have now gone out in turn to look for revenge. Such is their savage life.

Saturday. — Mr. Grey having spent a day with me, went away this morning. He is quite pleased with this country, and confesses he came here full of prejudices against it, which are daily wearing away. He also finds many of his South Australian theories (for he was one of those people) com- pletely contradicted here and overturned.

Sunday. — We have had Mr. Mitchell, the clergyman, here for service, for the first time. We had service in the morn- ing, as usual, at Irwin's, when I read Burder's admirable ser- mon of " Looking unto Jesas ;" and, this evening, we had a plain practical illustration of the first Psalm, from Mr. Mit- chell ; we have also hymns and psalm singing.

Friday. — I was detained in Perth since Tuesday morning until now, preparatory to the Governor's departure. He in- sists upon taking law proceedings against several debtors to the Government. I do not like it, but cannot help it.

Saturday. — I have written out two or three sketches illus- trative of the manners and habits of the natives. I know not whether anything will come of it ; perhaps if I think them worth it on a second perusal, I may send them to you in some shape or other. Mrs. Irwin has urged me to do it.

Sunday. — I have just come from Major Irwin's. Mr. Mit- chell lectured there this evening. We read morning service there as usual. Mr. Mitchell comes at five from Guildford,



Monday. — Arranging to-day about getting a sermon preached in support of the mission, and in several aifairs of that sort. Kept three natives picking caterpillars off the potato tops, which are almost completely destroyed. I am sorry to say that there are great complaints of the crops at York this year. The season has been unusually dry — less rain falls there than here.

Oct. 24:th. — There was not very much to detain me this week, so I have been able to get home soon. Mr. Brown (Colonial Secretary) is to sleep here to-night, and the Gover- nor is coming up on Saturday. There was a meeting about roads, &c., in Perth yesterday ; much talk, and nothing done. People were not satisfied when the Government undertook the management of such things, and Mr. Eoe and myself as commissioners, had to hear all the brunt of the clamour. Then an Act was passed, giving the management of it to the general body of landholders, and, though six months have elapsed, they have not been able to do anything but wonder what is to be done, and how much trouble it is. In my offi- cial character I had to file an information, in the nature of a bill for foreclosure. You would have been horrified to see the bill. As I had to do it all myself, and there was no object in having it long, and a good saving of trouble in hav- ing it short, I left out all the charging and confederating and interrogating parts, and did not make use of one word that was not absolutely necessary, so that the whole bill was con- tained in part of a sheet of paper. A very nice question is

involved in it — whether a Mr. T holds an estate as the

survivor of two joint tenants (my former travelling companion

Mr. T being drowned j, or whether an interest goes to

the latter's heir, or to his executor if it was a commercial partnership. Hay harvest has begun up here.

Friday. — The Governor came up to breakfast this morning at Irwin's ; then went round all the farms in the neighbour- hood, on his way to Guildford to an agricultural meeting, it



being understood as his farewell visit. There was a numerous party, much speechifying, and some scenes.

Saturday. — Mr. Peel came here to-day. The first piece of news he gave was that Mr. Brockman has returned from India at last, after twelve months' absence, he only expecting to have been away for three months. "We were beginning to be uneasy about it. I go to Perth to-morrow to be present at a sermon preached by Mr. Mitchell for the mission.

Sunday. — This has not been to me a day of rest. I rode to Perth in the morning, when Mr. Mitchell preached, and a collection was made in aid of the mission. Major Irwin and myself held the plates at the door — rather a begging-looking sort of business. The amount obtained was no great sum — £11 ; but we are to have a meeting on Wednesday to form an auxiliary society. The Governor is to take the chair. I dare say we shall get other subscriptions then.

iVov. ^th. — On reaching Perth on Tuesday, I found that another vessel had arrived from Sydney with a general cargo, which will make our markets moderate again. "We have had this morning very heavy and long-continued rain — a thing rather unusual at this time of the year. I fear it is too late to benefit the crops at York, which have suffered from drought. Mr. Brockman had an auction to-day of some of the goods from the ship ; the prices were not so low as we thought. I bought £9 or £10 worth, and know not what I have got for it. Tea, brought straight from India, was bought in by Mr. Brockman at 5s. per lb. I bought a bag of sugar at od. a lb. ; candles, floor matting, window blinds, rope, twine, castor oil, and pepper are among the other things which I bought. The charge made to me this year for washing and shearing my flock near York is £13 15 s., besides expense of two men and four bullocks and the cart for sixteen days.

Monday, — Mr. Mitchell was here yesterday. We had a good congregation. I have this day made arrangements with two men to let my farm at Jilgaring, near York ; to one of



them, 4000 acres with a house, barn, stockyard, and 30 or 40 acres under cultivation, all for £20 a year, and I give him also 100 sheep to keep for three years on a fourth share of the increase ; to the other man I let 4000 acres for five years, and I give him 200 sheep on fourths. These are surely good terms. I had the men busy in digging a drain to carry water from a piece of ground in Wright's grant, and as I was fixing some sods close to one of the men, he called out, " Look at the snake." Sure enough there was one close- behind me, raising its head, and looking intently at my operations. As he described it, however, he " put an end to its speculations " by chopping it in two*^ with the spade. The man mowing near us killed another immediately after.

Friday. — Had two public meetings on "Wednesday — one to consider about giving some token of respect to our Governor on his intended leave. It was decided that a piece of plate shall be given to him, and an address be presented. The other meeting was to receive communications through Mr. Brockman from the Agricultural Society of Calcutta. I was chairman of the meeting. They sent us samples of wheat and barley ; both seemed very poor, — nothing like so good as we have ourselves ; and the wheat was all eaten with weavil.

Friday. — Just returned from Perth. The Governor, Irwin, and some others have gone to Port Leschenhault again, in the Champion. They wanted me to go, but I could not get away.

Saturday. — I have been expecting Schoales here to-day, but he has not arrived. I wished the Britannia had arrived before the Joshua Carroll sails. I surely expect now some return •from former consignments of wool, and am anxious to know what she may have brought in order to know what to send for. My official duties are really beginning to be very serious. Questions of great importance are occurring much more fre- quently, and more onus is thrown upon me than formerly.

Sunday. — Schoales came here in the morning. Mr. Mitchell also came to service, and he administered the sacrament. It



is the first time I have had an opportunity of taking it since coming to the colony.

Monday. — Schoales went off this morning with Jemmy Miller to look for a kangaroo. I gave him a horse and they went up Ellen's Brook, but have returned unsuccessful, or — as Schoales technically expresses it — they " took nothing by their motion."

Nov. 1'^th. — The Joshua Carroll is said to be likely to sail on Sunday, so I brought down this letter in order to get ready. I have sent by this vessel seven bales of wool.

Dec. 17th. — Since I sent my letter by the Joshua Carroll I have not found it convenient to renew my journal, but I shall now pick up some dropped stitches, and the work will after- wards proceed more regularly. For the last fortnight we have been busied at the harvest. I have eleven persons cutting, most of whom are working by the job, at 25s. an acre. I expect to have all cut down to-morrow evening. On Wed- nesday last I got 250 sheep over from York, with the loss of only three. These are to be put on my farm at Ellensbrook. We are all a little anxious about our fee simples.

Sir James Stirling is making arrangements for his depar- ture. Last week H.M.S. Conway touched here on her way from Sydney to India. She brought a great number of letters and papers for this colony which had been lying at Hobart Town and Sydney for more than a year. We had been ex- pecting servants by the Britomart, but no — even those settlers who have arrived have not brought any for themselves, at least not enough. There are some who seem to wish to become stewards or overseers, but are imbued with too high notions to work. These will not do for us in any way. We are able to be our own overseers ; we want workmen. I hope the in- vestment of my wool money may soon come out. I am really very badly off for many things. I had to go this day to Mr, Brockman to beg of him to let me have two or three pair of summer trousers, of which he brought a large stock from



India. I have literally only one pair of boots and one of shoes ; and there are none to be got now. The ships seem to bring nothing now. The Governor is to give a parting ball at Government House on Thursday night, when I trust it will be cooler weather than it is just now.

I must mention two or three incidents — domestic, viatory, and otherwise. Going into my store-room at Perth the other day, a mouse jumped out of the sugar bag, and I gave chase, hunting it from post to pillar. At length it ran across me, when I made a kick at it sufficient to annihilate a million of mice. The blow took effect upon a tin canister, and sent it flying among some bottles of claret, demolishing four of them at one blow, and making the " claret flow " with a vengeance ; but the mouse escaped. Coming up from Perth that day I saw some emus near the road. Stooping on the horse, and keeping some bushes between me and them, I rode up within twenty yards before they took the alarm. It was a mother and two young ones. The poor mother became anxious and troubled, and fussed about like a hen with chicks, running and turning and leading them off. My horse seemed to enjoy the sport, and volunteered to follow in their wake, but, in a short time, we had to stop at the edge of a soft swamp which they passed with impunity. Sitting the other night at an evening party in Perth, a little kitten came playing in the room. I felt something thrown against my leg several times, but did not pay much attention ; at last, on a repetition, I looked more closely, and found it a large scorpion which the kitten was tossing about so unconcernedly. I put an end to the play by setting my foot on it. — Calamity ! Paid a tailor for making a pair of trousers, which fit so badly that I cannot wear them. N.B. — Rode to Perth in the same trousers, and found that money was not all I lost by them.

On the 20th the Governor and Lady Stirling gave a fare- well ball to almost everybody. Dancing was kept up literally till breakfast time next day. I bathed and breakfasted and



set about my daily occupation rather sleepily. Contrary to what is usual, the Governor has become more and more popular every day, and we cling to him with the greater tenacity in proportion as the time approaches for his depar- ture. I came up here on the 22nd, and was congratulating myself upon having some peace and quietness at home these Christmas times, but " there's many a slip," &c., for on Sunday I found that some of my men had sent for a 3-gallon keg of rum, and had laid a plan to have merry times at my place, inviting some of the neighbours. I spoiled their plans by dismissing them all, and locking up their rum, and thereby saved some broken heads I suspect. That was not all, for the next evening (Christmas eve) came a hasty summons for Irwin and myself to the Executive Council, and we sat that night in Council till 12 o'clock. Came up next morning and spent

the day with S and D ; then one day's rest ; then

went to Perth to attend Council, and next day up to Henley Park (Irwin's), to a wedding anniversary dinner ; then next day to Perth again to prepare for the sessions, as we had particular cases of perjury impending. Upon that day also was the auction of the Governor's furniture. Eemained in Perth on Sunday. On Monday a deputation waited upon the Governor with an address from all the colony, — i.e., from all classes of colonists. After that he sat in Council with us for the last time, and read a written address to us, to which, being unapprized of it, we had not prepared any answer, but I said what I could think of at the moment. This closed his administration, and also the year of grace, 1838.


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January 1839.

Jan. 1st. — It appears a singular coincidence, that of all days in the year our new Governor (Mr. Hutt) should arrive on the first, as if it had been, by preconcerted arrangement, car- ried out with the regularity of machinery. Yet it was wholly fortuitous. One may suppose that Sir James might have desired to wear out the year that he had proceeded so far with, and have so fixed the last day of his administration ; but that the new Governor should arrive so as to begin his ad- ministration on the first day of the new year, and upon the very day of Sir James's abdication, was an appropriate coin- cidence, such as seldom occurs. I do not know why I took so much note of it. I verily believe it was for this reason — that having been a little hard worked, what with Bull's business and the Council's, and law cases and sessions, and magisterial enquiries, I had longed for a month's recess during the inter- regnum. But we were cheated out of it by this speedy arrival, and I had to remain in Perth of course.

On "Wednesday Sir James and Mr. Hutt met, and had so much to say to one another that Mr. Hutt did not come to head quarters before Thursday morning, when we were all duly in waiting to receive him, and introduce him to the Council (ourselves), and examine his commission, and have the proper oath administered to him, when he did the same to us in turn. Then his commission and divers proclamations were read in public ; then we had a short Council. And so

2 B— 2


372 '

that day ended, after having held {pro formd) a Legislative Council also, and having sworn in some four new members, who have been admitted there. Well, next day (Friday), we had to open despatches and look into documents and so on ; and, between whiles, to steal a peep into our private letters and newspapers. There were great doings in Freraantle on Friday — a dejeuner and a ball in honour of Sir James and Lady Stirling. I could not get down there before Saturday morning, when I rode down with our new Governor. Almost all the gentry of tliis part of the colony were there to take leave of Sir James. He was to have sailed on Saturday, but 1 prevailed on him to wait for the newspapers of the week, as, owing to the press being broken, none had been published the week before. We took leave of him publicly on his embarka- tion at 4 o'clock, and, as we raised our voices to cheer him for the last time, he was very much affected. I returned with the Governor that evening, and had much conversation with him. I rather like liiin as yet. I took one good night's rest, and yesterday (Sunday) T reached this quiet place once more. So I have worked up my story to the present day, and now I can go on pari -passu.

Jan. 12th. — Have been in Perth since Wednesday. I give the natives up as wholly devoid of gratitude or good feeling. Last week, when they knew I was absent, iiaving undertaken at their urgent entreaty to go and intercede with the Governor for the release of a prisoner (which I did and obtained it), the whole body of them encamped for three days and nights close to my wheat field, on Wright's grant, and carried off a great portion of the field of wheat. I think they must have taken near £20 worth. I came by chance on one of their encamp- ments yesterday, wliere they had pounded the heads oft" the corn, and I was amazed.

Jan. 20th. — Have been in Perth all the week till this morning. What with Council and business of one sort or another, we have been much occupied. There were no fewer



than five meetings on different subjects yesterday, which I attended — church and missionary meetings, and temperance meetings, and road meetings, and so on. It is strange that with all the ships that have come, prices are still as high as ever — £8 for a cask of pork ; Is. for a pair of high-low shoes ; wine at 52s. a dozen (sherry), &c. Irwin has got out some wine from London ; best white Marsala at 3s. lOd. a gallon, sherry at 4s. 3d., and port at 7s. We are obliged to have these things here, although I use very little myself, and, as a tem- perance man, I have not tasted spirit for more than a year past.

Sunday. — Mr. Mitchell was at Henley Park this day, but he was so tired that he begged me to read all the service for him, and, having read the full service in the morning with a long sermon, I found it quite enough for one day, and a very warm day it was. My grapes are now ripe. I have abund- ance, but they are soon over.

Monday. — Went up to see the flock on my new farm. They are at a place called Menolup, They will put up this week a stock yard, 20 yards square, made of mahogany post rails and close paling. They (the sheep) appear to do well there as yet ; if they continue to do so all the year I shall have made a good selection, as, from the situation of the grant — having the brook which gives a command of the only water in that neighbourhood — I have command of a good range of pasture. It is nine square miles long, and another long narrow piece at the end of that again, nearly a mile long.

Jan. 2Qth. — Arrived here last night, but was so tired and sleepy that I could not write. We have had a busy week. When I went down I found all the people in arms about a fresh notice which our Governor was about to issue, which would have very materially affected many deserving settlers. The notice was that in future no stock which was not the actual property of the owner of the land would be suffered to count as doing the location duties of any land. The general


OH- A 0/4

plan here has been to give to ponio person who had stock a share of the land, if he would go and reside upon it for a suf- ficient time. Many would have been sufferers. We had an annual meeting of our temperance society on Thursday even- ing. I spun a long and a tough yarn. The people were quite amused with the mode in whicli I illustrated the manner of ardent spirits being first taken out of the hands of the medical men, and every man administered the medicine to himself, till at length he seemed perpetiuilly to require a repetition of the dose. When I represented the doctor measuring it out by drops from his bottle to his p itient, who soon became im- patient, and at last snatched the bottle out of his hand and said : " Give us the bottle, we know how to help ourselves," &c. " Bravo," they cried, as if they had witnessed some dex- terous feat. Then the description of the various ailments to- which it was applied as a cure amused the meeting also. When a man was hot, when he was cold, when he was wet or dry, sleepy, or watchful, had eaten heartily or had no appetite when he had company, when he was lonely, when he arose, when he lay down ; his morning, his meridian altitude, his splicing the mainbrace, his night cap ; when he had eaten fresh pork, or salt pork, or fish, or goose, or pudding, and, when there was no other reason, then because he liked it, and because he could not do without it. And so on.

S has written to you to procure one or two servants

from Fallowlea school. I partly expect that labourers and servants will come out in Nash's vessel — perhaps one for me. If you have not sent any to me, and if labourers have not come out by Nash's vessel, then I shall be bare enough, though at present I am not in want ; but prices are very high. How- ever, 50 in one year would make a great change, and be as

many as it would be safe to bring at first. IS has told

you, I suppose, of Mr. Louis Sanjson offering to take charge of, and pay the passage of, as many as may be bespoke by the master here, guaranteeing the repayment in instalments



within two years. It is a liberal offer. He is to get the land to which the married labourers introduced are entitled. If none has been sent by you, and you could get a good handy man, I should be glad to have one also sent to me by Mr. Samson's vessel. He is to be kept at the ship's expense from the day appointed for sailing, which is a great advantage.

S has told you all the terms, which may save me writing.

I would take one on the same terms, if you thought it ad- visable. I confess if others would bring them, it is pleasanter to hire just when and whom you please, which saves much trouble. Handy boys are extremely useful. We do not get on well for want of labour.

Jan. 28tk. — Yesterday one of my boys succeeded in catching a young emu alive. It is a wonderfully tame, even silly thing — like a young turkey ; by tlie way, the same boy also suc- ceeded in shooting a turkey, which I had to-day at dinner. It was delicious. I intended to have devoted this day to writing letters, as the mail is to be closed to-morrow, but here came Mr. Shaw with complaints about natives and other things, and I had to mount my horse, and I have been out all day. Have been making an experiment in wine. Have made five bottles just to try it. I have nearly written my eyes out in answering 33 questions about natives, to which the Governor has required replies. I think I may send them to you at some time. Baptist N'oel would be glad to get the sketches I sent, if you do not wish to make any use of them.

March 2Sth. — I have been so much occupied of late, and so little at this place which I call my home, that I have got out of the habit of writing a daily journal as heretofore. My last was closed abruptly in Perth about a fortnight or three weeks ago. Since that time we have had one meeting of the Legislative Council, several Executive Councils, and a good deal of other business. On Friday last I dined with the new Governor. His private secretary, Mr. Cowan, came up here with me on Saturday, and stayed till Monday. He was much



pleased with the country. Every morning, when I am in Perth, I devote a couple of hours with the Governor and the interpreter to the formation of a vocal) uhiry of the native language. Our progress is slow, but deliberate. We have discovered a tolerably regular conjugation of their verbs, con- sisting of present and past tense and participle, — for instance, booma, booma-ing, boomaga, respectively stand for beat, beat- ing (or beat), beaten. "We are also trying to collect and an ange all the minerals of the colony, and have made a tolerable show already. Mr. Preiss, a German, has discovered, in the Toodyay district, something of a fossil nature, which, I think, is an " encrinite," and. is the first of tlie. transition or secondary for- mation (if it be of one or the other), which has been found here. This gives hope of coming to a coal formation. The Governor has offered a grant of 2560 acres to any one who may first discover a coal field.

The natives have been very troublesome and daring of late. They have killed several pigs in this neighbourhood, and were caught in the act of driving away 150 sheep from a flock next to my grant at York. Six of them have been arrested. The week now approaching — Easter week though it be — will be a busy one with me. On Tuesday we had a very long and im- portant Legislative Council to prepare our Budget. I have also another Act to get ready in the meantime. Then on Wednesday there is our criminal sessions, with some heavy cases to be tried ; on Thursday our Legislative Council, with all one's ordinary business besides. This is beginning to be rather hard work.

Good Friday. — It ought to be a hallowed day, but is it so ? We had service this morning at Henley Park, and sacrament will be administered next. Sunday by Mr. Mitchell. There has been much rain these two days past, and very high wind. I have some trees burning near this, and the sparks are driven by the wind at an alarming rate, considering that our roofs are thatched.



April 1st. — Yesterday, Alfred, the boy who looks after the sheep, managed to shoot two turkeys — the mother and the poult — close to the house. The mother weighed 121bs. ; the chick 6|lbs. It is a very good bird to eat, but " of all the birds in the air," as we used to say in our play, commend me to the barn door fowl, after all. There has been a cricket match played in Perth between the country people and the town people.

Friday night. — I am very tired. Have just come from Perth after a rather severe week's work. On Tuesday we sat in Executive Council till five o'clock ; on Wednesday our sessions commenced, and I was engaged till six in the evening %vith a very heavy calendar, (^n Thursday I was at work at six o'clock in the morning, preparing for Council, as we had an adjourned meeting of our Executive Council at 10 o'clock, in order to prepare for Legislative Council at one o'clock. Only think of sitting in Executive Council to dis- cuss and settle the heads of a Bill at 10 o'clock, which was to be read a first time in the Legislative Council at one o'clock on the same day. We had barely time to change our dress, and we sat then in Legislative Council till five o'clock. I thought I had done a pretty good day's work,' and had gone home with the intention of getting some dinner, when I was sent for to conduct a heavy prosecution for burglary at the sessions ; so I hurried to the court. The case had just com- menced, and was not finished until after 10 o'clock at night. Schoales was engaged also in the case. I brought him home with me after the trial, and we got our dinner at 10.30 p.m. — fashionable. On this day the sessions were still continued^ but finished about midday, being the heaviest sessions we have had yet. There were twelve cases for trial.

Saturday. — ^Tlie Governor brought forward the finance measures for the year on Thursday. His speech did not give any bright picture of our finances. He stated there was a decrease in the revenue, but did not mention the cause of it, which was very simple, namely, the fact of our principal



. ) / o

revenue being derived from the duty on spirits, and no ships having arrived here for a long period of the year, that source became dried up for a time. The discussion on the second reading of the Bill is to take place on Monday fortnight.

We are busy ploughing here now, and preparing for seed time, which is approaching. The native Bellick, who lived here so long, has come back again quite tired of bush life, and looking very thin and haggard. He says he will stay the winter with me. There is a good deal of alarm among them about our proceedings, as we have no fewer than eight of them prisoners now, and warrants against seven besides. The natives speak of several lakes and swamps dried up this year that never were so before, in their recollection.

Sunday. — Mrs. Smithers died suddenly last night. It was on her grant that a number of Colonel Laiour's cattle were at the time of what is called the " great flood " here, in the year 1830. The stock yard was on the low meadow ground, near the river. The flood came suddenly ; some one ran down and threw open the gateway, and 26 head of cattle ran and went into the bush, and have not been recovered since.

Monday. — Sent off 100 wethers to-day to Mangaga (as my place on Ellen's Brook is mostly called). There is plenty of feed there, but it is scarce here. Shortly after breakfast came a man to request me to read the burial service over the remains of Mrs. Smithers. They have chosen a picturesque place, not far from the house, for her burial place. That is the third time J have read the service in this colony. There were about 30 persons present.

I was not a little surprised and amused this evening when some hubbub occurred among the dogs, who ran off to a dis- tance barking after something. An emu started off along with them, and tried to keep pace with them, making a great fuss, kicking with its feet, and doubling its neck and swaying its body from side to side, as if enjoying the run most heartily.

Friday night. — On my way up here to-night my horse



stumbled. T pulled him up sharply with a severe bit, and he came head foremost to the ground, pitching me right over, and then, to mend the matter, he rolled over me. I thought I was made into a pancake, but luckily got off with some knocks and bruises. The poor horse seemed very much astonished, and looked quite penitent, as if at a loss to account for it, so I patted his neck, and he rubbed his head against me^ and we made friends and went on again. I fear that we shall become hot house plants here. This day the thermometer was 65, and people were all complaining of cold, and looking quite blue. We thought that degree of heat tolerably warm at home. We still look out for vessels from England, but they seem to be like " the watched pot which is slow to boil." Two native boys have been brought prisoners from my place near York for being concerned in stealing sheep from a neighbour- ing farm — ^luckily not from mine. I suppose, like all other thieves, they keep their own place clear. They knew me immediately by name, as I am now generally recognised among them as " wurdagaderak " — which, being interpreted, means " one having authority." We have only finished the letter A in our vocabulary, having got 218 words or forms of expression in that letier.

. Saturday. — Another cool pleasant day. 1 put in no fewer than fourteen panes of glass to-day, which were broken in the kitchen and different places. I broke two, through unskilfui- ness in the use of the glazier's diamond. I have now in this neighbourhood 12,119 acres of land, of which I mean to sur- render to the Crown about 9000 of the back land, for which I will get an allowance of Is. 6d. an acre in a purchase of a fresh selection of land. The land back here, after the first three or four miles, is mere mahogany forest on the Darling Range of hills, and not available either for pasture or agricul- ture. I think of examining the ground above my grant on the EUensbrook, and taking it in continuation of the farm, if the ground be worth it.



April l^th. — Worked " double tides," and managed to get up here last night. A vessel, called the Strathisla, has touched here from Calcutta. By her we have a flaming paragraph taken from an Indian paper about the Hindoo sailing from Liverpool for this place. I suppose she is close at hand, and that this is Nash's vessel.. Strange that we should hear of her through India first.

April 20th. — I have been to visit my farm at Mangaga. The sheep are thriving well. There are several sorts of bushes there which they browse upon like goats. There were no less than six people there ; two sawyers (Johnny Eakins being one of them), two workmen, and the wife of one of them, and the shepherd. The place begins to look more clear and habitable. It is cheerful-looking also, having a view of the Darling Eange of hills in front, and at no great distance. Some nights ago the natives were very troublesome there. One of the men enclosed a light in a paper lantern, with a hideous face upon it, stuck it in a bush, and roused the natives, who were greatly alarmed, declaring it was some " boylya " or witchcraft coming upon them from the North, and they left the place in dismay in the morning, looking for the certain death of those who remained in the neighbourhood. I have bought a winnowing machine from Mr. Wittenoom. I could no longer do without it. I must pay upwards of £20 lor it,

April 26th. — The Hindoo, with Nash and his party, has just come in,

April 29th. — I intend this as a continuation of my last, which is still on hand. Whether this will form a separate letter, or whether I shall enclose one leaf in the other letter, will depend upon circumstances. I have not said a word yet about Lieutenant Grey, who has just returned from an expedi- tion to Sharks Bay, He has had a very interesting trip. The newspaper will give you the outline, which I will fill up a little, when I see what he has given in the paper. We



have got into a plan here of doing everything by committees and meetings. Such things were quite new to me until re- cently ; now we have so many of them that one would require an ahnanack to keep them in mind. On Thursday last we had at noon a meeting of the Executive Council ; at four a meeting of the Church Committee, which continued till half- past five ; and at seven a meeting of the Temperance Society, in which I seem to be expected to take a conspicuous part. Whilst on my way to the meeting I was trying to think of something that I might say if I were called upon, but it was all confusion ; I could think of nothing, so I determined to say nothing ; but one of the labouring class having got up and spoken against the society, I was called on to answer him, and I had to do so. I began rather stiffly, but soon warmed to the work, and ran on for a good half hour, the ideas throng- ing upon me thicker than I could get quit of them, and push- ing me on till I could hardly stop myself, when, to my no small amazement, I was greeted with a burst of applause, whereas 1 was more prepared for hisses, as it is a very un- popular subject. I was told I had made a considerable im- pression, and shook the opposition greatly. My object was principally to show that it was a mistake to suppose that spirits were necessary, especially in a warm climate, and to appeal to their own experience of the bad effects which its use had brought about here.

Such a long time elapses before we get a return that there is time to forget what we wrote, but I made sure that when a vessel came from Singapore, which seems to us to be the next thing to home, I would have had some Irish oatmeal, Irish pork, and Irish (or Scotch) herrings ; but it appears that the season was very bad in Ireland. It is rather tanta- lising. The Will Watch came from Calcutta.

Wednesday. — After a long search one of Lieutenant Grey's party has been found, and brought in alive, but four others are out still, and there is great uneasiness on



their account. Another party has started again to look for them.

May 9th. — I • have just heard that Dr. Walker (one of Lieutenant Grey's party) has made his way to Perth, in a deplorable state. He was supported along the street by two people. A party had gone out to bring in the rest. I was out all this day endeavouring to get some natives to go out, and had intended to set out myself to-morrow morning to look for them.

May 12th. — I went out 40 miles to the north, looking par- ticularly for a lake called Bambanup, about which there is said to be a fine tract of ground, and also just now a great congregation of ducks, swans, pelicans, &c. — so much so that we did not take any meat with us, only a little flour and tea and sugar. But we could not find the lake, and so had to content ourselves with tea and " damper." One night we had " damper " and a glass of wine, night having come upon us before we could get water. We traced the Ellen's Brook for near 40 miles, and found it to be the drain of extensive level plains of land flooded in winter by some streams running from the hills, and which run even now at the end of sum- mer ; but the water subsides in the earth before reaching the plains at this time of the year. I was rather disappointed with the land on the Brook, but there is a good deal of lime- stone, having rank vegetation. I only returned this evening about four o'clock.

Monday. — Mr. Priess, the naturalist, has called a species of the anigozanthus after me, and has sent me a droll letter with it, written in his German-English. He has also called a new genus after the Governor — " Huttia elegans." These are to be figured in the work of Sir F. Hooker, of Glasgow.

May lAth. — I brought this down to-day, as it is said the vessel will sail this week. I have seen Dr. Walker, of Grey's expedition, who has just come in. You never saw such an object, mere skin and bone, and covered with sores and



bruises. A ragged, haggard figure was seen hobbling to* wards the town with a bit of blanket over his shoulders, and it was with difficulty that the previously stout sturdy figure of Walker's former self could be recognised, when reduced to such a shape, guise, and size. He is in a weak and troubled state, both of body and mind, like a person just recovering from a fever. He fears greatly for one or two of the party who are still out. Those who went in search of him are expected back to-morrow.

Friday. — Mr. Singleton has purchased 10,000 acres from Mr. Peel, of choice land, well situated, for £1,250. It is on a river called the Dandalup, which falls into the Murray river. He gets both sides of the river for six miles up from the mouth. It is navigable up to his place, which is not far from the sea. It is the cream of Peel's land, but it was well worth Peel's while to make a sacrifice to get such a settler in his district as an encouragement to others, for his immense tract of land has been heretofore almost entirely vacant.

May I'^th. — Nash came up to-day to Henley Park. He has nearly closed for the purchase of a grant called Golden Grove, on the Swan, below Guildford — a pretty place yet unoccu- pied. I hope he will get it. ■ The party gone in search of the remainder of the exploring party have not yet returned, and great fears are enterained for their lives. Mr. Grey has again gone out to look for them, and he is not quite strong yet.

May 227bd. — Those who went in search of the exploring party have just arrived, bringing in the three survivors — one young man having died two or three days before this party found them. His name was Smith, a young man of large expectations, who joined Grey's party more to while away the time than for any other reason. The poor fellow was found a mere skeleton, having died rather from exhaus- tion than from actual starvation. The incomprehensible thing is that the party never seemed to think of continuing



to walk southwards along the beach, which a moment's re- flection must have told them led on to Fremantle. It was 32 days from the time that Mr. Glrey had left them. He got on very well, and why the others did not come on can only be answered by supposing that men under such circumstances

lose all presence of mind and power of reflection.

* * * * -x- * .

July ISth. — I have fallen out of my habit of regularity, and find it difficult to recover it. We have advanced here to such a pitch of civilization, as to have private theatricals. The play of "Love, a la militaire." was performed on Tuesday night to a fashionable audience, among whom not the least delighted spectators were the young folks of the town and vicinity of Perth. Most of them having never seen a play, were wonderfully amused. On Thursday a rumour arose that fifty sheep or upwards had been driven away from a flock near Guildford by the natives, and there was great excitement in consequence. A party is gone out in pursuit, but what is the result I know not. It is singular that not one of the murderers of the woman and child on my farm has been taken or met with since the occurrence, and yet parties have been out frequently. We are no match for them. They can hide in a manner that baffles all our search. The only way to match them is to make use of them against one another. I did not get home from Perth before Friday night. We are here still busy getting wheat into the ground, and also some potatoes. Only think we have to give £2 a cwt. for potatoes for seed.

July 14:th. — This was a \ery wet evening. I had all sorts of " moving accidents by flood and field " coming home to- night — pitch dark, raining heavily, ground swampy, river flooded, boat cranky, ground slippery, slipped in the river, hat fell off (new one too), but I picked it out of the water before it sailed far. Oh ! what mud, and slop and splash.

July 15th. — Worse and worse again. It rained all day and



I got wet through twice. One of the partners on my farm on Ellen's Brook has taken fright and given it up, so we had to get another partner. He is to pay £29 for the share of the retiring partner. Have you got from Sir James Stirling a number of stories illustrative of the manners of the natives I sent to you by him ?

Wednesday. — The natives upon the Canning River have committed another murder on a shepherd boy of Mr. Phillips, and have driven off a number of sheep. The Governor seems to be not a little astonished. His theory was that such things could only occur at remote stations, and he seemed not very sorry when they did occur, because his theory was sup- ported thereby ; but seemed to have no idea that such a thing conld possibly occur within reach of the capital (His Excellency's residence), and where settlers are tolerably thick. He sees now the necessity for action, not theory. His blood seems to be up, and he has now endeavoured to raise and equip five distinct parties, all to act in different places and towards a given centre. In the meantime news has reached him that a suspicious party of the natives is in the hills some- where to the east of the head of the river (as it is called here- abouts, and to the north of this). He has requested me to try and get up a party, and scour the hills and reconnoitre. I have just arrived now at eight o'clock, and must get my gun in order, and make some ball cartridges.

Friday. — I was on horseback yesterday at daylight, and took a ride round the settlements to gain information, and get a native guide. With some difficulty I succeeded in getting my old friends Weenat and Tomghin. I had many things to do in collecting and arranging the party, so that it was the middle of day before we could start. I had with me Mr.

Shaw, two soldiers, a constable, James D , and the two

natives. We were all on foot, as no horse could well go where we proposed to do. Each had to take his own provi- sions and entire equipment for himself. 1 took nothing but

2 c



some bread and meat in my pocket, a worsted shirt, another pair of socks, and the pilot's hood, which, with the gun and ammunition, I found to be quite enough. It was two o'clock when we fairly started, and from that till tliis evening we had walked 39 miles, having walked to-day not less than 24. The ground was in some places very rough with rocks and fallen timber, and many rather steep hills. It was pretty hard work, aud reminded me something of our old times of grouse shooting. We did not see a native all the time? though we saw many fresh tracks, and perhaps twenty huts in different places. Yesterday evening, not long before sun- set, our guides saw a fire at several miles distance. We hur- ried on to it over hills and dales at a breathless speed. It was supposed to be the fire of Wilban, who escaped from prison after conviction for murder. We approached the fire with great caution and circumspection, as it was now dark, when, to our ludicrous mortification, it turned out to be the remains of a burning tree, from which the natives had turned out an opossum. It served one good purpose, however, for as we could go no further in the dark, we availed ourselves of the ready-made tire, and halted there for the night. The early part of the niglit was fine, but it commenced raining after- wards, and continued so till morning, to our grievous discom- fort. I got my head on a stone for a pillow, but it was rather too high, and I could not bruise it down, so I experienced the inconvenience of carrying too high a head at the expense of my neck. The morning soon brightened us up, and though walking through the wet bush was not comfortable, yet the day was very favourable. We have all reason to be thankful that in the very midst of winter we could spend a night out with little covering, without experiencing any bad effects — if it be not premature to say so.

July 26th. — Two other parties have also returned from pur- suit of the natives, without having seen any. They must tave gone to some out of the way place. I came home last



night. This morning Mr. Preiss, the German naturalist, came here, and Mr. Irwin. We all set out on an excursion to the hills to botanise. We visited a very picturesque glen about five miles away, where there is a waterfall about 100 feet high, but there was not much water in it. The locality was rich in specimens of plants and flowers. At the very foot of the waterfall were two huts, which, it appears, formed the resi- dence of Wilban ; all the time we were looking for him at a distance. We passed the head of the fall on our way out to look for him, but had no suspicion of his being there at the time. It is a singular thing that they have now so much reliance on our good faith that Wilban has sent his young son to a settler's house to remain and mind cattle during his father's outlawry, and Coondebung (against whom there is a warrant also), has sent his wife and child into the settlements, whilst he escapes from justice in the bush. He desired her to say that he could not feed her, as he was afraid to hunt, whilst the white people were unfriendly. They now feel the want of bread to be a privation.

July 21th. — Mr. Preiss, the botanist, was out to-day again in the hills behind this, and he came here for dinner, laden with specimens, and having a native woman also carrying another load of specimens. The natives are quite surprised at his collecting the jilbah (shrubs), and are very curious to know what he does with them. I purchased two shells of emu eggs yesterday for nine duck eggs.

1 have not told you tlie natives appear to have some fables

respecting the stars, as well as the more classical ancients

had. When I was last in the bush in search of the natives,

the stars were shining brightly at night. " What star is

that ? " I said to Deenat, pointing to Venus. " Oh, that is

Julagoling," was the answer, " What is it — a man, or a

woman, or what?" I enquired. "Oh, very pretty young

woman," was the reply. "Where is her husband?" I said.

"She has no husband; she has had some children, hut she

2 c— 2



always kills them ; she is very powerful in magic. Ah, there she goes off to the West, now to practice her enchantments upon lis. Do you see that star in the East ? that's Diram, and that in the North East ? that's Diram also — that in the East is Diram the woman, that in the North East is Diram the man. Do you see two little stars above the woman there ? Those are her two children, she let them go astray ; you see they are at some distance from her. Their uncle came and asked where were the children, and when she could not find them he was so angry that he drove a spear right through her body. You see it there sticking through her sides. That star on one side is the nose of the spear, and that on the other side is the tail of the spear." What a strange fable, but not more so than inany fables of the Romans.

July 29th. — Very busy getting the ground dug about the garden, a little snugged. I suppose 1 shall have fifty vines bearing fruit this year, and half a dozen peach trees, and as many fig trees ; we are quite at a standstill for want of potatoes for seed.

August 3rd. — Lieut. Grey has been with me for two days, and we have had some very pleasant little excursions. Yes- terday he and Mr. Leake and I went to visit the waterfalls, to examine the geological curiosities as well. Mr. Preiss and I had examined the botanical features principally. We found that the little stream fell over a vein of basalt which inter- sected the granite and liad protruded through it just at the fall, but was overlain by the granite a little higher up. The decomposition of the basalt makes a better soil than the granite, being generally a rich dark red earth. We found also a number of land shells a1)out the rocks near the face of the cliff. These shells are rare in the colony. I do not know that I have seen any before. I had much conversation with Grey about his former discoveries. He speaks of one thing which has strengthened my belief in the existence of the inland sea. From a hill skirting the coast of Shark's Bay he



looked down upon what he conceived to he an inland sea lying to the East. He and his party hurried down to it, but to their surprise found that the appearance of water was the effect of mirage. They walked 15 miles, in a South East direction (I believe) on what was evidently the still moist bed of a scarcely dried up sea. There was the ooze and slimy mud, large blocks of coral, large shells of the conch species, and islands with their South East side steep, and the other sides gradually shelving. As far as they could discern with their glasses the appearance was the same. East South East and N.E. they saw no limit to it. Eecently some natives brought large shells to York, which, they asserted, were brought from the N.W. ,0n being questioned as to where they were got they said it was a place like the sea, but a ship could not go to the sea by it. My conjectural solution is this — that tliere has been a great inlet or estuary connected with the sea at Shark's Bay, and that some elevation of the coast has taken place which has cut off the coninmnication with the sea. There are many proofs of volcanic elevations in this country. This inlet cannot well be supplied from the neigh- bouring sea at Shark's Bay, for the hills between it and the sea on which Grey stood were 300 feet high (apparently sand hills). It is a most strange and puzzhng question, and my solution may be very far from the true one. Do you lemember that Daubain asked me if, wlien I was out to the East, I had seen the " great estuary ? "

Monday night. — There was a christening yesterday at Major Irwin's, and this day there was a ceremony of laying the foundation of a small voluntary church for the Missionary Society, erected on their grant near Guildford. The Governor was there and a good many people.

August 16^/i. — Ten native prisoners contrived to make their escape from Eottnest Island in a boat. It is quite incompre- hensible how they managed to do so. The only remaining inhabitant of the island has been brought out of it, and will



soon be ready to leave it, when the entiro establishment will be put upon a different footing. I went down to Fremantle with the Governor on Thursday to make, enquiries about it. All the people there were engaged in looking out for two whales that were said to have been made fast.

Sir Eichard Spencer, who was Government Resident at King George's Sound, has died. I believe that Lieut. Grey (the explorer) will fill his post temporarily. At the Sound there is great want of supplies. They have not had a ship there for ten months. The Champion is to be despatched there immediately. I am busy in getting up a good deal of fencing near the house here, in place of some very dilapidated- looking ditch and bank. There has been some very heavy rain in the course of the week, but the river is scarcely run- ning even here. The pools are not near full yet at York. I expect to fallow some 12 acres of ground tliis summer, principally in tlie swamp, which 1 have nearly succeeded in draining. The grass on it is of a very short and thin nature, not M'orth the trouble of cutting. An annual crop of tall flags, of which the root is manufactured by the natives into bread, grows upon it ; but \ expect to make it produce a better crop than that. 1 had a petition to-day from a man living two miles away, that 1 would send my sheep to eat off his young wheat, which was growing too rank.

August 2Qth. — We commenced sheep-shearing to-day ; they had l)een washed in my absence. 1 have got one bale ready packed. Another day would have finished the small flock which is here, but heavy rain came on yesterday, and we must wait to let the wool dry. The wool which sold for £100 in London has cost me just £51 to make it ready and sell it — ie., all expenses. We are all in anxious expectation of a ship f lom England, as two ship's guns were heard on Saturday evening, and we have many conjectures. I have been making little additions to the account of the natives, which I send you. It may be amusing, liecollect, if you do not care for



it, send it to somebody — say Baptist Noel, from me. Grey is about to publish a vocabulary, which will reach you iu time. I am to undertake to see it through the press. The Governor is threatening to impose a very lieavy tax to support a police to quell the natives.

August SOth. — The ship was the Elizabeth from India, or rather from China. She had silks and tea and sugar on board, and touched here on her way to Sydney.

Sahirday. — Spent a busy day getting some fencing finished near the house, and putting a trellis work on both sides of a walk, with a pleasant shade amidst clustering grapes. The growth of everything is surprising within the last week. My potatoes, some of which I was almost despairing of, have suddenly lifted up a trap door, as it were, and put their heads up ; vines have started into leaf ; peach trees all loaded with fruit ; almond trees covered with blossoms. The heat of the sun operating on the moist ground has a wonderful effect.

Sept. 23ni — On Friday last the Shepherd arrived from England. By her I have one letter only. It is said that she forgot, or wilfully left behind, the mail and all her ship's papers, and the consequence is that there is the greatest con- fusion and anxiety, no one being certain whether he should expect goods or not by it. You ask about some of the natives, our old friends. Weenat is now married, and when that hap- pens there is not nmch to be done with them — they are by that step wedded also to savage life. He is still very friendly, and I count him a staunch ally on any occasion of danger ; but he has other cares now to occupy him. Tomghin, after much fighting for her, has at last obtained a wife, and has become a little settled in his ways. Weeip is growing old and losing influence ; Geear the same. One native boy is regularly domesticated with me, and I think will not relapse, as he wears clothing, and is delicate. Bellick's beard has come ; in other words, he is coming to man's estate, and will not much



longer submit to the regulaiity and restraint of civilised life. He has gone off now on some froUc. If food be scarce, or the weather very bad, he will come back. Speaking of weather, we have had a most disastrous occurrence in the colony. On Saturday there was a very severe gale, and, of all times in the year, on the very night of the equinox. Three or four vessels were lying in the most exposed situations ; one — the Eliza- beth — has been wrecked. She had sailed long ago from this, and put back again in consequence of unfavourable weather. The mail from the colony was put on board of her, and I suppose it is lost. This is very ]>rovoking. As far as regards my own letters, I feel quite vexed ; for there was a long interval comprised in the journal, and I have no way of re- calling events. I have been suffering some losses of sheep lately : two on their way from York, two by native dogs, four after severe dressing for the scab, and two others missing to- night — I do not know how ; I lost fourteen at York, and many lambs. 1 have brought the flock to this place, so that I have now 450 here — rather too many for this farm.

Sept. 26^A. — Came from Perth to-night. It appears tliat both the Shepherd and the Caledonia had drifted and gone ashore. The Caledonia has been got off safe, but the Shepherd is in a very perilous position.

Sept. 2*Jth. — What has put it into your heads that I am on my way home ? Have I said anything of tliis in my letters ? I seem to be tied down here more fast than ever. Not con- tented with Executive Councils every week, the Governor is about to call another meeting of the Legislative Council, on the 14th of next month, to lay on other taxes. This keeps me still more busy. He was about to lay a tax upon land, but I fought stoutly against this tax at present, as land is not productive generally in the colony as yet. I proposed a duty on goods sold by auction. All these taxes are to maintain a police to quell the natives. Now, is it not too bad that the burden of conquering the country should be thrown upon us ?



To keep twelve mounted men would cost £1700 the first year. This will appear almost incredible to you, and I dare say you will be cutting off an from the above and think it £170 ; but, no, the horses would cost £70 each, and the keep and pay and clothing of man and horse per year £80 each.

Sept. 2Qth. — There was a desperate affray amongst the natives at Perth on Thursday. One of them has been wounded in the back, and he says the spear has gone nearly through his body, another through the shoulder into his arm- pit. Another native had his leg cut through ; Maylup has four wounds, and several others have slight wounds.

The ni.ulit before last I was awakened by loud screams. I sat up in the bed for some time before I could recollect my- self. The screams were reuewed, and seemed to proceed from some part of my own premises. 1 could not find readily any part of my garments in the dark, so 1 ran out as I was, and found in the yard a native hut erected, in which a man had been asserting his conjugal authority over his wife in a rather severe manner. I pulled their hut down, quenched the fire, and turned them out, not knowing how otherwise to interfere. This woman had been partly the cause of quariel a few days before. The old man accused her of a desire to abscond, whilst she retaliated, and said he wiis " yetit-yetit " — a cross old fellow. Next morning I found them back in the same quarter, and I turi>ed them out again. I had hardly done so when two young fellows started out from behind a bush with their spears poised, and gave chase. One of them pinned the husband right through the thigh with his spear, almost into the door of my neighbour, whilst the other carried off the woman. I'ut the cries of the man brought up his friends, and the woman was recovered. It is wonderful how little they seemed to think of the matter. The spear was an unbarbed spear, and the act was done merely to prevent him running after the abductor. The whole thing seemed only as a joke among theni. Mago is recovering from his wound ;



he was struck in mistake by his own friend, and he has a right to inflict a M^ound of exactly the same sort in the same place upon the other, if he choses. I am anxious to know whether he will do it. This is the lex talionis in perfection.

I wish there was some great railroad between this and you, Oh ! that the tedious horrible gap of four or five months voyage could be condensed, or compressed, or done away with in some way ! Eight or ten months clipped out of a man's life at any time of life is unendurable to think of. You see how the leaven works, but I think it is in vain for me to long to visit you.

# ♦ * 1»r # ♦

October 11th. — The Fox, by which I sent my last, only sailed on Tuesday. On Monday (the day before) I had been up at Ellen's Brook getting my flock there washed, and draw- ing off and marking those belonging to me and to the tenants- In washing them, they managed among them to let three fine sheep of mine be smothered, having been forced into a small fold and trodden under foot. There were several others also trampled down, but they recovered. The plain fact of the matter was — there was too much rum going, and, when men stand in the water sheep-washing, it affects them more readily.

I have advertised a second farm to be let there, and have had an application already. No wonder, for no rent is de- manded for some years, and they have their proportion of the sheep which they keep besides. Think of having to give 4000 or 5000 acres for nothing, and to have to coax people to take it on the terms. I was looking this evening also at a snug little farm on my grant here, which I shall let to some- body in the nature of a cottier tenant, who will agree to work for me when 1 want him. There may be from six to ten acres of arable ground on it — I mean rich alluvial meadow ground. I have just had a fence put on between that and the next neighbour, who has purchased a small piece from



Mr. Brockman. The fence is a quarter of a mile, running back from the river, and cost £10, being of only posts and two rails at present. A ditch and bank at the bottom is re- quired to make it a complete fence against sheep ; it now is sufficient against cattle, being about 4ft. 6in. high to the top of the post. The natives have speared my poor friend Weenat very badly at Guildford. I have sent him an invitation to come here and I will support him till he recovers. H'j is to come in a boat. I have got five bales of wool ready to send off, and expect four more from Ellen's Brook.

Oct. 12th. — I rode up this morning to the farm on Ellen's Brook to see the men shearing the sheep, but some rain hav- ing come on they had to desist, and I got the flock driven down here, so that I have now in the fold upwards of 700 sheep, and a rare bleating they keep up, as their lambs were left behind to be weaned.

, ^'There came a rumour to Perth the other day that 150 sheep were driven off from the grant next mine at York by the natives. There was quite a consternation ; but it appears that they were all found again about two miles off, and as no natives were seen, it is supposed that a dog may have scat- tered the flock, as 200 were missed at first, and 50 came back of themselves at night.

There was another performance of private theatricals last night, when " The Spectral Bridegroom " and the " Irish

Tutor " were sriven. W , in the latter distinguished

himself in the part of Dr. O'Toole.

Oct. 19th. — There was a very violent wind yesterday from the south. It nearly unroofed my barn, and this day I hear that the Shepherd was near being on shore again, and the Elizabeth actually driven on shoie. I have finished packing all the wool. I have eleven packages. I cannot call them all bales, for one is only a bag, and another about three- fourths full. Began hay harvest to-day ; have three scythes at work,


A great number of Perth natives came to-day, about some mischief, I suppose, as the women here seemed greatly fright- ened. One of them took refuge in the house. I stopped them at a distance, and would not let them approach without giving up their spears. After a little they crossed to the other side, but were driven off from that by Mackie.

This day we had another Executive Council, afier which I managed to ride up here, and am quite tired of work for this week, I pressed Singleton into the service at the public meeting, and he turned out a trump card. We are to have the third reading of the bills on Monday next, and in the course of the week the Governor intends going for the first time on some tour to see the country.

Friday. — Men busy mowing and haymaking, but, singular to say, we have had a good deal of rain about this time, con- trary to what is usual. There are a few ridges of potatoes here that look as well as I have seen them do in Ireland. The breach is concealed by the top, on either side, which was always considered a good sign in my time. There is very little natural hay to be found now — the grounds formerly covered with it are now fed down by cattle or ploughed for crops. It is all artificial, and the oat hay is the best we have, it renews itself and remains in the ground like grass.

Friday. — Had our last Legislative Council on Monday ; an Executive on Tuesday, and another also appointed for to-day, so that I could not get away before this night. Dined with the Governor.

I had a gentleman from Sydney breakfasting with me yes- terday. He had driven over 800 cattle from tlie Sydney settlement to South Australia. His party was attacked on the Kiver Murray by an immense body of natives — he com- putes them as 500 ; but by boldness and good management they beat them off, and shot several of them. He says im- migration to Sydney is overdone. The land is raised now to 12s. per acre; few or none buy at that; squatting is very




precarious and inconvenient, as you must go to such a dist- ance for land that is vacant. South Australia he considers an utter mistake, as to the principle of its establishment. Kuin is staring many of the settlers in the face. People are as yet buying and selling land as you would buy shares or stock on the stock exchange, but no one doing anything on their grants. Fine town liouses but no farms. One or two Sydney people who have their eyes open and know what they are about are making immense fortunes there. So are a few storekeepers, but that is all. He and his partner are going to settle here. He thinks matters are about to take a favourable turn for this place, and wants to buy land on speculation.

Nov. ^th. — The Governor went on an excursion on Monday last, and probably will not return for another week. I pro- pose in the meantime to take a little trip myself to look out for some land which I am entitled to take. We had a meet- ing of the temperance society on Tuesday last. I had a long argument with several opponents. It is not a very popular cause with the gentry, but it is intended for the people, and is making some progress with them.

Nov. 11th. — Returned to-day from a very pleasant excur- sion. The weather was favourable — not too warm. "Went about 13 miles to the westward, and struck upon a lake nearly five miles long ; then continued for nearly 20 miles along a chain of locks and swamps, upon the margin of which generally speaking, there is some very rich grass upon a light limestone soil. I see in Irving's " Tour on the Prairies," he mentions that each person had two blankets and a bear skin, besides a tent for slielter. I carried a blanket strapped on the front of tlie saddle, and we made some temporary shelter of bushes or bark, and a fire in front of it. But the native lad who was with me, was literally all but naked, and did not complain much, even at niglit. Whilst we were at one of the lakes a native joined us who had a suake 7 feet 4 inches long,



which he had killed. I bought the skin from him ; he eat the body. The only bad effect from these^ excursions is that from the exposure or from the change of diet, any cut or wound festers, and does not lieal readily, but a little medicine sets all right again. We went about 83 miles going and coming.

The men are busied in clearing trees. They have found in them many grubs which the natives eat. The grub is a large maggot, which turns into something like a locust. Can this have been the food of John the Baptist in the wilder- ness ? Found some tine plants of native tobacco, and have stripped some leaves to dry them as an experiment.

Having now come to the end of my paper, I shall com- mence upon a new leaf on my return, so I need not make any conclusive adieus. We are beginning to think that some mischief must have befallen the Black Swan, or she would have been here long since. What a long interval always intervenes between the promise and the fulfilment of the arrival of a vessel.

Nov. 16th. — You will see, I suppose, in the newspaper of this week an account of a dreadful accident which happened at King George's Sound, so I need not dwell upon it. There was a storm and some thunder at Perth on Thursday night, and a good deal of rain, which continued at intervals until Friday, and even hail showers. On Friday night there was a ball at Mr. Brown's, where dancing was kept up till near five o'clock in the morning, and I came home to-day (Saturday) very tired in consequence of it. Found the men busy clearing ground and making a most loeneficial change in the appear- ance of that part of the farm which I bought from Lamb. Our newspaper editor wanted me to give him an account of my last short excursion, but, as I had seen nothing and had only gone over ground frequently traversed before, I declined. The Messrs. Samson have built a very large fine house, which is to serve as a dwelling-house, store, auction-room, &c. It



will cost above £3000 when finished. They gave a house- warming ball and supper on Wednesday night, and invited 150 people. Almost everybody was there, and dancing kept up till sunrise. The Governor returned from his trip that Evening. He is greatly pleased with his excursion, and most surprised both with the people and the progress of the settlers. This is something from one who appeared to have great prejudices against us at first. He is going out again to King George's Sound in about ten days, so I hope to have another little trip in his absence. I only got home to-night.

Monday night. — We had a large number of strangers at Church yesterday. Mr. Mitchell preached here in the morn- ing, as it was a sacrament Sunday. There were 15 comnm- nicants. Among the strangers Messrs. Montgomery and Creery were there. My barley will be all stacked to-day. The men are charging 30s. an acre for reaping wheat this year. I have nearly 50 acres. Only think of having to pay any sum like £75 for cutting a crop of wheat. I am getting my crop of potatoes dug now ; they are very good. I have excavated a cellar, and am putting them into it.

Nov. 30^A. — This was an exceedingly hot day. I went to a place called Galapgolup, about two miles north from where the farm is on Ellen's Brook. My object was to see if a certain piece of land, which had been intended as the site of a house by some persons who were to have gone there next month, was within my boundary or not. I believe it is mine, as near as I can guess by measurement by pacing — the only way we can do in the absence of surveyors and instruments. I learned to-day the way to procure the crayfish as the natives do. In a swamp you see a hole with earth thrown up, nmch in the way that you see it with the large worms on the sea shore. You must put in your arm and scrape with your hand till you find it perhaps two feet down. It is like a small, very small lobster, and can bite very smartly.

Dec. 2nd. — Oh, such me] ting overcoming weather these two



days past ; a very strong land breeze blowing from the S.E., but hot as if from a furnace. This heat has come upon us all at once, for hitherto it has been singularly cool. The men dug some ridges of potatoes to-day, which would have done no discredit to Ireland. Six of them weighed four pounds; indeed a great number of them would average three quarters of a pound each. I think I drank more water to-day than I ever did on any one day in my life before.

People speak of squatting now — that is, of grazing on any unlocated ground, and, when that is purchased, going to some other place. It would be an uncomfortable roving sort of life without any fixed habitation, yet that is the way many have made their fortune at Sydney. But we have not servants here who would lead that sort of life. The Governor went off yesterday on an expedition to King George's Sound by land ; I dare say he will not return for six weeks.

Dec. 7th. — Intimation was sent to me last night that the natives were gathering in great force at the head of the river, and a request that I would go up there. I got three soldiers this morning and went up, accompanied by Major Irwin. Made a loud harangue to them, and told them it was the Governor's order that all should remain in their own districts, at harvest time particularly. After some time they all dis- persed. They had been about to kill a child of a man called Dunomeria, who has been very friendly, and has lived con- stantly with some settler. Some one gave him a gun, and he stood out and braved the whole of them, and when they showered their spears upon him, he cocked the gun, and, in his confusion, one barrel went off, and they all fled in a moment. They complained to me of it, but I told them they had no right to come about our houses to fight and kill one another.



January 1840.

Jan. 2nd. — I have just arrived here from Perth, at nine o'clock at night, and sit down to pick up some dropped stitches. Our sessions were held yesterday ; one man was sentenced to 10 years' transportation for stealing from a wreck. He was mate of the ship Elizabeth that was lost here some time ago, on her voyage from India to Sydney. A few nights since I was disturbed by the sheep rushing about in their yard, so I went out. The night was rather dark, but, upon walking in amongst them, T discovered a native dog, actually fastened on the hip of one of them. I could hardly believe my imperfect vision in the dark. At last I made a grasp at it, being lite- rally only in my shirt and without any weapon, but it eluded my grasp and disappeared in some way that I could not account for. Several of the sheep were severely bitten. I had a letter a few days since from Capt. Grey, who is at King George's Sound. He is married to the youngest Miss Spencer, daughter of the late Sir Eichard (a very fascinating girl). I was quizzed the other day and congratulated on my intention of being married this week, but I said, if it was to happen so soon, it was time that I should know something of it, which 1 did not. Grey says there is a great change for the better coming over the Sound, and expects large importations of settlers and of sheep within this summer. By the way, the colonial schooner is going to the northward to examine the coast near Moresby's flat- topped range, about lat. 29°, and the neighbourhood of Houtman's Abrolhos. A large river is

supposed to debouch on the coast thereabouts. T have serious

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thoughts of going in her to examine that part of the world — it will be something new ; but I have not yet made up my mind finally. Busy getting in tlie harvest.

Friday night. — ^There was a meeting of the Agricultural Society to-day at Guildford. Schoales made a proposition to send for labourers to Ireland, and, if it goes on, I will either request you to send me one or more by that ship, or will send by him for some. I think J would pay the passage of any one who would agree to serve me at least one year at the rate of £18 a year (for a man), or for such a time in addition as would repay me any expense I bad been put to on his account, or any advance made to him in the meantime.

Jan. 6th. — Oh, what a melting day ! The thermometer has been up to 100°, both yesterday and to-day, in the middle of the day. I have been measuring the ground which was reaped by the job — a troublesome business, for our iields are all sorts of shapes. I measured eleven irregular pieces to-day for two of the men, and paid them £25 for about three weeks work, or less indeed ; they had done about 18 acres. We do want labourers sadly. I hear to-day that the Beagle surveying ship has returned. She was to have been here in three months from her last departure ; it is now two years. Only think of going three degrees nearer the line in this weatlier ; yet I intend taking this trip, if not prevented by some business. It is like going close to the fire in summer.

Feb. 1st. — After an absence of three weeks, I have once more reached my own home, and been able to enjoy the com- fort of a day's rest on teri^a firma. We did not succeed in finding an entrance to a large estuary or lake which was seen by Capt. Grey some distance from the coast, nor did we see any river worth speaking of, but we saw a very extensive tract of fine pasture land, about Moresby's fiat-topped range, and also we twice visited some of the islands of the Abrolhos, which is an exceedingly interesting group of coral islands and



islets in a state of rapid growth. I tiave written rough notes of our little trip, and I shall probably send them for your amusement, or perhaps the substance of them will be inserted in our newspaper iu some shape or other, but not in so familiar a style as written in the notes. On the whole the trip was interesting, though we had some rough weather at sea, and I had an interesting interview with a large body of natives who probably then for the first time came iu contact with white men. This was near the tlat-topped range already referred to. Their language differed materially from that of the people here, but many words were identical, or nearly so. I managed to make myself partly understood by them. We were also at Gantheaume Bay, and saw the whale boats lying, where Capt. Grey was wrecked, from which place he walked

to Perth.


Feb. Srd.— I feel myself as yet rather confused, and forget exactly how matters stood before I went away. I dare say I shall recollect by degrees. My grapes have ripened since 1 went away. I attacked them to-day with all the eagerness of appetite acquired by the exercise and salt fare of a sea trip, and I wish I had not taken so many. By the way, we got abundance of delicious rock oysters on the Abrolhos, and one day we had very nice soup made from the haliotis or aures • marines, which you must know as the ear-shaped shell you have often seen. My former mention of the arrival of the Beagle was premature. Like coming events, she had, I sup- pose, " cast her shadow before." She arrived the day after we did. She came round from Sydney by Torres Straits, and has discovered on the main, in the neighbourhood of Port Essing- ton, two rivers — one, the Victoria ; their boats went up for perhaps 130 miles, and the ship itself went up the Adelaide for 10 or 12 miles, and their boats went further; but the land did not appear to be very available, and the climate was so

hot as to make it almost uuiuluibitable for Europeans — at

2 D— 2



least so think they of the Beagle. These rivers were out of the limits of the colony — no great loss. There are still 300 miles of our North Western shore not examined. They are about to go there, and also, on their way, to examine the Abrolhos. It is astonishing how nmch persons may be de- ceived as to the nature of the country, or rather how little they may know about it, by a mere examination or view from a ship. It happens very singularly that the very part of the coast which I have returned from seeing — the flat-topped range — which first Capt. Grey spoke of as an extensive grassy or fertile country is marked in my old map thus : " The shore here is steep and very barren ;" and, again, on the same map, just about the place where the lakes are, that so many are now looking after, there- is this observation — " The land here is very high." It is true of what you would see from the deck of a ship, certainly ; you see little else but sandy hills. I have brought home new specimens of coral and other forma- tions. The water in some places near the Abrolhos was smooth and very clear. The view of the growing coral — especially the groves, shrubberies, coppice — what shall I call them- — of branch coral was very interesting and very beau- tiful. I often thought of the mermaid's song, " Come with me and we will go, where the rocks of coral grow." I was rather disappointed at not finding turtle. We found plenty of seals, and to my surprise a great number ot an animal called here wallaby— about the size of a hare. How did they get there ? It is 45 miles from land.

Feb. 7th. — lieturned from Perth. Dined with the Governor yesterday, with Capt. Wickham and Lieut. Stokes, both of H.M.S. Beagle. They speak of enormous bats, iu multitudes among the bamboos lining Adelaide river. They described the expanse of their wings as perhaps two feet. They saw also indigenous fruits which we have not here. We are soon to have another sitting of the Legislative Council, when I shall be busied with laws and amendments and such like thin<is.



Feb. 8th. — Have I mentioned before that we have got out two protectors of the aborigines ? One of them is the son of Sir John Barrow. I fear it will be only an additional diffi- culty in our way in obtaining redress or justice for wrongs done to us. Mr. Barrow has been at Sierra Leone, engaged in something of the same sort, but he seems quite despondent about the natives here, as he finds them so very different from what he had expected, and so much more difficult to make any impression upoTi.

Monday. — Major Irwin is in Perth, and Mr. Mitchell did not come, so I had to read two services yesterday.

Feb. 13th. — I was not able to send this by the Westmore- land, but some other vessel has come in the meantime, and is to go the same route in a week, so it cannot make much dif- ference. We have news now from South Australia. People are coming here from that place with stock, and we expect soon to have great quantities poured in. There are strange accounts from that colony — great numbers arriving there, and some not even landing, but going off by shiploads to other

colonies. New Zealand seems to be all the rage. S has

had a letter from Thomas B , who is there. He says it

has been altogether too much cried up. So long as people can be induced to come out there with plenty of money, and so long as the money lasts, things will go on well ; but nothing is done there, notliing is produced, and when the money is at an end where will a renewal of it come from ? Water, in South Australia, was selling at the port at 4d. — some say Is. a glass. The Governor there and an exploring party were nearly lost in the bush. One young gentleman, a Mr. Bryan, was actually lost. This was in looking for some good land near the Murray River, above Lake Alexandrina. As to this colony we are getting on better every day, but we want labour sadly. Schoales is thinking of going for a shipload. He has near 100 bespoken, and the Government mean to spend £600 in getting out labourers also this year.



Fd). 14:th. — I am much more occupied now than I was formerly. A vast number of questions are referred to me now by the Governor, and legal points of much nicety and dif- ficulty are arising, especially in regard to the lands which are threatened to be resumed, the location duties not having been fulfilled, and the term of ten years for which they were origi- nally lent or assigned being now about to expire. I dare sajj. upwards of 100,000 acres will be forfeited in a few months, belonging to persons not resident in the colony, and no mercy should be shown to them. This land is all situate in the very best districts, having been taken in the first years of the colony.

March 1st. — Several ships have disappointed us, for they were from America. We thought one of them surely would be the Black Swan. What can have become of her ?

Monday. — I had all my sheep washed to-day, as the weather is very warm, and they are very dirty. I stayed three hours in the water myself, taking only tlie precaution to wear a hat to screen me from the sun. I have no recollection what is the price of grinding wheat with you, nor what difference there is between the price of the wheat and flour. I was not a little surprised a few days ago to find that 2d. a lb. is higher than the average price of wheat now ; yet the price of flour is 4^d. or even 5d. a lb. Surely there ought not to be such a difference. It is nearly as bad with fresh meat ; the butcher offers the grazier about 9d. a lb. and charges the public 16d. a lb.

March 9th. — The servants are all speaking of striking for

higher wages. 1 hear that J expects to get £3 a month

for himself. This would have been a great part of a year's wages for him at home. Until more servants are brought by

Schoales I know not what we shall do. All S 's men

have left him, as well as many others. The price of any work now is absurd. A man asked me £5 for the iron tyres of two C£^rt wheels, and the carpenter asked ^7 for the wood worlj;,



so that with the other expenses, a pair of wheels would cost about £13 or £14. I think of sending to India for a pair.

I met, at the Governor's, Col. Hazlewood, who has been in India for 50 years without going home. He has been in Van Diemen's Land, and is on his return now. He speaks of white-woolled sheep being sold there in some districts for 2s.» and horses and cows for a few pounds ; yet so little commu- nication have we with them that we cannot get any of them. I am looking out for Singleton every moment, and just scribbling till his return. One of the Messrs. Burgess came here to breakfast this morning ; he comes from near York, where they are now settled. He tells me he killed 103 emus since he went over there, about three years ago. I have had an interview witli one of the natives, who escaped at the time I went to take them for killing my sheep. He and a number of his friends were brought to me at Perth by Weeip, after he had first asked my permission. We renewed our friendship, and ratified the treaty by giving them flour and rice. The tribe about Perth is in much better subjection now than for- merly. They are prevented from carrying spears in the town and fighting. There was a grand encounter a week ago between them and the Murray Kiver men, just outside of the town, when a man was killed on each . side and many wounded. A woman has been killed in consequence of it, and there is a great mustering of forces by the Perth men, who are going to seek the Murray men in their own country, and to carry war into the enemy's camp.

Friday. — Arrived here late last night, having got off from Perth a day earlier than usual, as I expect Mr. Stokes (Lieu- tenant of the Beagle) here to-morrow. I saw yesterday a sort of net for catching small animals, which was brought from a tribe of natives to the N.E. There is no such thing known or used hereabouts. It is as well made as any rabbit net, but stronger,



Saturday. — Mr, Stokes, Mr. Yule, and Capt. Scully came here yesterday, and went away in the evening again. Poor Mr. Stokes has not recovered completely since he was wounded by a native on the North Coast. I have been getting stacks thatched and preparations made for winter. The Governor and Mr. Symmons, one of the native protectors, are coming up here to have an interview with the natives as soon as I can gather them, as they are now gone to the Northward.

Sunday. — A sad piece of news has reached us to-day from King George's Sound. A Mr. Spencer (the eldest son of the late Sir Eichard), and a V.r. Morley (of whom I made mention on my first visit to the Sound), have been drowned. Two others narrowly escaped the same fate at the same time Captain Grey had just sailed from that port with his wife, who was in very delicate health. Two ships had come there, bringing sheep and horses and cattle.

Monday. — Getting some potatoes planted. If they escape the frost, I expect to have as man} as will last till they are ripe. Mr. Eden came this evening, and we took a ride about the country. He is a complete seaman. He was telling us at Major Irwin's that one of the loops for fastening a valise to the saddle had bioken as he was riding up, and the way he expressed it was : " That he carried away the becket of the starboard side of the saddle."

Thursday night. — The Governor M'ent to Tiottnest yesterday in the Beaglo. I finished all my business in Perth to-day, and have come home a day sooner than usual. The day has been extremely hot. The country is all on fire between Perth and this. It looks pretty at night, but the glare is very con- fusing, and makes it difficult to distinguish the bush road. I was so heated and dusty that I tumbled into the river to-night as soon as I came home, and felt quite refresheil.

March 29/A.. — A painter and glazier who was doing some of his work liere has charged me 2s. 6d. a-piece for common 8 X 10 panes. 1 have been up at Ellen's Brook farm tills



evening, looking at the sheep. Have sold 21 wether lambs and wethers for £33, and a man has engaged to take 20 other wethers at lid. a pound., weighed after the head and pluck and feet, &c., are taken away.

April 2nd. — The Governor and Mr. Symmons, one of the native protectors, have come up with me this evening to pay a visit and see the country, and in order that' Mr. Symmons may have a formal introduction to the natives of this dis- trict. Yesterday our sessions were held. My old friend Coondebung, the native, received seven years' transportation for killing pigs ; another, Yoinap, seven years for house- breaking and robbing at York ; and two native boys got two years' transportation for killing sheep.

Friday. — A long interview with the natives. Had about 50 here. Afterwards we rode around all the settlements about here, and returned at three o'clock. The Governor is much pleased with this part of the country.

Monday. — For a novelty there was thunder and lightning and rain last night, and a good deal of rain to-day. Found a sheep lying torn to pieces by some dogs, natives, or other- wise, so the tiux voinica is in requisition to-night. Three ships are said to have arrived, one from Van Diemen's Land, one from South Australia, and the Queen's ship, Britomart. So I have had a requisition for 30 sheep for an innkeeper in Fremantle, to supply the vessels.

Thursday. — The Britomart is to sail on Sunday, so, having brought this letter down on speculation, I shall be able to have it ready to put in the mail to-day. It appears that at Port Essington there was a very severe hurricane, which drove the Pelorus (ship of war) high and dry on land, and destroyed her, and prostrated or carried away almost all the houses at the settlement. Sir Gordon Bremer was not there, I believe, he is at Sydney. The Britomart is just come from Port Essington. Her people say that the climate there is too hot for Europeans to du anything in. The natives are numerous



— a fine race of men, and have been friendly hitherto. The

place was in great want of provisions.

April 15th. — I have been a considerable sufferer through

natives and their dogs. In the course of these three days

past on Ellen's Brook, the natives have carried off three ewes,

a lamb, and a valuable ram, and at Millendon, their dogs have

killed four ewes, a ram, and a wether. The ewes were all

heavy in lamb. I consider the loss to amount at the present

value of sheep to not less than £40. I went out on Monday

evening with some of my own servants and two soldiers for a

long way into the hills, and up the valley of the Swan River,

where I was informed the party who did it, were camped ;

but I could not see anything of them. Perhaps they may

have seen us, or our tracks. That may frighten them and

prevent a repetition. I was glad I did not meet with them,

for something unpleasant might have occurred. My flock

there is lambing very fast. There are now 160 lambs, but it

is a month too early for the grass.


May 22nd. — I have for so long a time intermitted my journal entries as almost to have lost hope of recovering the habit of it. This has arisen rather from my being very much occupied than from want of incidents to make mention of. This is the period for our Legislative Council meetings, and Executive Councils are also very frequent and very import- ant, so that I have been very little at home (i.e., in the country). Our last Legislative Council was on Monday. I left this at seven o,clock that morning, after an early break- fast. Waited on the Governor at eleven ; went into Council at twelve, where we remained till near six, having had several long and rather dtiU speeches. Well, next day we were in the Executive Council till we could not see to do any more business. Then again on Wednesday another meeting of the Legislative Council, and, after that, a presentation of a remonstrance to the Governor from the agricultural body,



about his regulations relating to land, &c. — another very long and unpleasant business, which lasted till six o'clock. On Thursday I transacted what I could of my routine official duties, and intended to have come off in the evening. Just as I was coming away, Mr. Logue came, so I put otf my journey, determining to come off by daylight this morning.

Some time during the night I was roused by dreadful shrieks, and cries of natives sleeping near. I got up as fast as I could and went out, when a number clustered about me, saying that the natives of the Murray River had made an irruption on the unfortunate Perth natives at night, and had speared six of them whilst they were sleeping. I ran to the scene of action and found that none were killed, though two of them were very dangerously wounded, but it is probable they may survive — although one had four spears driven into his body. This cowardly attack was in revenge for the death of a Murray River man from a wound which he received in a fight with the Perth men some time ago. If they have always been in the habit of thinning down their numbers as we have seen since we came here, it is a wonder tliat there are any of them left. I was so occupied with them that I scarcely got to bed till it was daylight, and I had to rise again and communicate with the Governor, and send a surgeon to them and get them taken care of. After breakfast, business again, as I had to get ready the heads of two other Acts to be introduced into our Council, and I have brought them up here to try and make some progress in framing the Bills. So that, you see, in our kingdom of Lilliput, we have great doings.

I arrived at three o'clock, and found a native waiting to get a promised reward for arresting or apprehending another native, who has long escaped from justice.

Sunday. — This has been a most lovely day. My Hindoo servant (Motu) persuaded me to cut down the stem of a banana tree which was not thriving well, saying it would soon



grow again. After some hesitation I cut it, when, to my utter amazement, the centre began to sprout up again visibly, so that in half an hour it had sprung up half an inch. Why, Jack's bean-stalk was nothing to this ! He also pounded the clay firmly round about it, instead of leaving it loose and friable as I should have done.

Monday. — A blade of a pen-knife ran into my hand to-day up to the handle. I bled like a stuck pig ; still I stopped the cut with my thumb, and then bandaged it, without any- thing further. It cannot be very bad, for I am writing with it now, but holding the pen very gingerly. It is rather un- seasonable, for I have been obliged to write out the greater part of at] Act to-day, getting it ready for to-morrow.

May 29th. — Returned to-night from Perth. A most melan- choly occurrence has just been made known at Perth. A child of John Meay, a tenant of mine near York, has been missing now for ten days, and no trace can be found of it. The child was about three years old. There are suspicions that it has been carried off and killed by the natives, but I do not think it is so. At present all is uncertain. I have beeu busied throughout the week about preparing different Acts. One very long one has been postponed for the present, to my great joy ; this will relieve me considerably.

Saturday. — The business here is ploughing, sowing, harrow- ing, threshing, grubbing, and gardening — all at once. Two men are ploughing with six bullocks to one plough — very stiff land, never having been broke up before ; one man har- rowing with a pair of horses ; two men thrashing, one grub- bing bushes, one in the garden, one with the sheep, one with the cattle, and one helping in the kitchen. They all make a pretty good houseful. Three sheep a week are consumed about the establishment. I bought a barrel of salt beef a few days ago for eight guineas, and the men have become so saucy tliey will not eat it. There is no pork to be had. Persons who handle the wheat in which there has been any



moth have been subject to a similar affection, something like stings of nettles, which turn to small itchy blisters ; some are more subject to it than others. It was supposed to be from bites of flies, but I think it proceeded from some hairy exuviae of the moths, which produce irritation like cowage.

June 5th. — On Monday last was held or commemorated the anniversary of the foundation of the colony. There were races, a regatta, dinners, balls, &c., &c. The Governor also had a party at dinner, and we went thence to the ball.

June 7th. — 1 have made an entry this evening in my books, which, I should think, is the first of the kind in the colony. It is this: "Hired Thomas Gear (a native boy) at 10s. a month, 1st June." This is the boy Tunagwert, the son of Gear of whom I have often spoken. He desires wages now to clothe himself, as I have hitherto clothed him. Mr. Preiss, the naturalist, has found over the hills a species of jerboa. I had often heard the natives speak of it by the name of dad- daar, as aboimding in the interior. It is abundant in the steppes of Tartary. Its shape is like a kangaroo, but more delicate and graceful, and scarcely so large as a squirrel. It has cost me about £45 for threshing wheat this year. I have been thinking very much about going home, and perhaps you will be glad to hear that I have " sounded " the Governor, and he is not averse to it if I can make arrangements with Nash or any one else to fill my place. It is odd that though I did this three or four days ago, 1 could not bring myself to tell you of it till now, from iear that I should not accomplish it. It is in suspense yet, you see ; but I have not disburthened my mind so far.

* * * * IHr *

June 29th. — M}' last to you went off, 1 hope, on Thursday last, by the Prima Donna, going, I believe, by Batavia. It is probable that the next opportunity will be by the troop ship, the Eunnymede, on her voyage to Calcutta, direct from Sydney. 1 have not yet seen any of the officers, so I know



nothing of them, but they are to be entertained on Thursday next at a dinner given by the officers of the 21st on their departure. This will be a busy week with me. To-morrow there will be an Executive Council ; Wednesday will be our day of quarter sessions, when some natives will be tried for murders committed ; Thursday will be our next meeting of the Legislative Council, with the dinner afterwards ; and on Friday is the meeting of the Agricultural Society at Guild- ford, when I am anxious to be present, for several reasons — one being to mention that I have received from Mr. Manning, of London, two vols, or numbers of the transactions of the English Agricultural Society, with a receipt for a year's sub- scription, making me a member. This was done for the purpose, I suppose, of bringing our little society into cor- respondence with the English Agricultural Society. I do not know how he came to write to me and pay me the compli- ment. He thought me the chairman perhaps. Another reason is that I have just received from Soutli Australia a letter requesting Mr. Roe, Mr. Leake, and myself to form a com- mittee, to co-operate with one formed there for the purpose of exploring a route of overland communication between that colony and this. They have subscribed pretty largely there (on paper at least), and want us to do the same. Verily they seem to have more money at command than we have. I have

received by the same conveyance a letter from W , dated

23rd June, 1839 — more than a year ago. The weather is exceedingly pleasant and bracing now. There is a slight frost every morning, but the middle of the day is like your good summer. I ventured to bathe to-day, and enjoved it very much ; yet this is the middle of our winter, past the shortest day. July and August, however, are wet. I do not know how I shall be able to endure ttie climate of home again, should I arrive there in the winter. I almost dread it. Non stem qualis eram. I'm not What I was in many respects ; to say the truth you will see a great change in me. Time has



not let me stand still ; bald and old looking, T fear you will hardly recognise nie. I often wondei if I shall perceive a similar change in any of you. It is surprising how the memory clings to the appearances which it last saw, and I fear this is one of the disappointments necessarily attendant upon a meeting after a long absence.

July oth. — Wlien I came to look for my horse to-night, at Major Irwin's, it had gone off, so I had no ready way of coming across the river without borrowing a horse, which I did not care to do, and I quietly walked through the river up to my neck, just opposite my own door, and slipped into the house unperceived to get a towel to dry myself. In the mean- time the servants were on the look out to hear the footsteps of the horse, and when they heard me call out from the house without hearing the horse I believe they thought it was my ghost. As I came to the bank of the river I had some qualms about going in, thinking it would be cruelly cold, but I was very agreeably surprised to find it rather pleasant than other- wise. Now this is the middle of our winter. I had a dis- cussion to-night about the propriety of going home by India. Irwin advised it, but Mr. Mitchell says the monsoons prevail from July till October, at which time it is not practicable to travel. I think the first ship might be an American one, so there is no knowing from what quarter I might drop in upon you.

MoTiday. — A native has unfortunately been wounded to-day on Ellen's Brook, on my farm there. A boy was charging a pistol when it went off, and shot the ramrod into a native who was with him. They know it to be accidental, but I fear they will not be easily reconciled if the man dies. It struck him about the loin.

July 17th. — I have delayed closing this letter in the hope that I may be able to give some more decisive information as to my movements, but I have learned nothing more definite. I think I may consider that I have obtained my leave,



although in point of fact it is to be made a matter of con- sideration in Executive Council on Tuesday next, according to instructions now issued to Governors. I suppose I would not be allowed to go until the Legislative Councils are over, which may be three weeks or a month yet. After that I hope to go by the first opportunity which may offer.

July 18^/i.— I do not know how it is that one contracts a kind of liking for a letter so as to be unwilling to part with it, although written for that object. I feel myself lingering over it with a fondness which makes me unwilling to finish so long as there is the least space remaining to write upon, and yet it has often been spun out with but mere words. It is now eight o'clock ; the sun shining brightly, and not a cloud in the sky ; but there was a sharp frost in the night, so that I slept in the blanket, and my hands are this moment be- numbed with cold. How shall I bear your winter ? Oh, that I should ever say so of home ! Ten years ago would I have

believed it.


Oct. 23rd. — 1 have been waiting here for some time in the most provoking state of suspense for an opportunity to leave the colony, but any ship that has come here seems determined not to go my way, and I cannot afford, out of my limited leave, tlie time to go their way. Within these few days past a ship called the Charlotte — belonging, I believe, to the Mclntyres, of Derry — touched in here on her way to Calcutta, open for I'reight, as it turned out, afterwards. But though there are 170 tons of oil ready, our merchants could not agree about the terms of chartering her,

H.M.S. Beagle has been here for a short time on her return from exploring the coast a second time on the Nor' West. No discoveries of any importance have been made, though the coast was examined in the vicinity of Depuche Island, which was always considered a promising place. There are still about 200 miles left unexplored, which have never yet been



examined or seen. The Beagle was obliged to leave it for the present unexplored, but it is supposed she must return again to this coast for that purpose. In the meantime she goes to Sydney, but has to stop at King George's Sound, and it is probable will not reach Sydney for six weeks or two months, before which time I confidently expect that there may be a direct opportunity from this port. It is true she may touch in at South Australia, which might present an earlier oppor- tunity.

The Beagle is to sail on Sunday next, so, upon the chance of this reaching you, to account for my delay, I send it by her. The state of suspense is very unpleasant to me, for I have vacated my house in town, and let it for two years to Captain Fisher, and I am in doubt what to do with my crops in the country, or how to get them managed. In the daily hope of my departure I have omitted for some time to con- tinue my journal which I now regret very much, and I do not write this with much spirit, as I still hope that I may be with you before it. We have always had a ship here before this from England every year, and this is the first year that we have had sufficient to fill a vessel. The wool is all ready, and the oil also, so there will be no delay or waiting for freight.

I am obliged to close this letter hastily, as the Governor has called upon me to accompany him to visit the school for native children, which has lately been established. I think it likely that I shall take with me to England the materials of a native and English dictionary, to get it published in London, as we cannot manage it here without great delay and expense.

Nov. 10th. — Although I may probably be the bearer of this

myself, yet I must write, as an unconquerable desire to do so

has just seized upon me. Would that that desire had been

equally unconquerable several months ago ; for, in the almost

daily expectation of my departure, I have omitted to continue

2 E



my journal, and have thereby broken the continuity of the " thread of my story," and have lost the vivid recollection of many little circumstances which I would gladly have retained. I can do no more now than try to pick up some dropped stitches, so as to fasten them, and prevent the whole work from running irrecoverably, I suppose it is a stocking that has furnished this illustrative metaphor ; and this goes to show that Penelope's web must have been made by knitting, as she could so easily undo by night the work which she did in the day. I have forgotten the public events. I believe I men- tioned the return of the Beagle, without any success in the discovery of anything important, but leaving still 200 miles of coast unexamined. By the bye, we have rumours here of some large lake discovered to the North of Spencer's Gulf, in such a direction and in such a country as to produce an im- pression on the mind of Mr. Eyre, the explorer, that a connec- tion between Spencer's Gulf and the Gulf of Carpentaria did once exist. We shall know more of this presently, for he is gone to explore that part of the country, having had a flag presented to him which he was to erect on the central spot of Australia. This news we received by the Lady Emma, from Hobart Town, with stock. By her T have at last received a few letters which were sent in the unfortunate Black Swan. They are dated nearly two years ago, and are (some of them) productive of a very melancholy pleasure.

1 have been twice over at Rottnest Island to examine and report upon the prisoners there. Three died there lately ; one was poisoned by eating a " blow hsh." I lost a fine young cow lately from a hurt given by some other cows. I have had a fine filly foal from a thoroughbred horse and a very good mare. I sold one horse to Government for £68.

Nov. 19th. — The Shepherd at last has arrived. She seems to have outrun the Heroine, which must have left London before her, as my goods (I find by a duplicate letter from Messrs. Luckie) are in the Heroine, and I suppose all letters



also. By the Shepherd I have one letter dated so long ago as

May, 1840 ; but no other letter. As the Heroine is looked

for hourly, I must have a little patience.


^ov. Tlth. — As it is most likely that 1 shall take this letter home myself, I shall merely make entries to serve as memo- randa I find myself much perplexed by having some of my goods mixed up in the same packages with goods of j ours ; for, as X must sell your things by auction, or dispose of them at once to some storekeeper, the packages must first be opened to take out my things. This gives the rest a ragged, tossed, unpacked appearance and injures their sale. I have no means of knowing the quality of your goods, as I have only seen the invoice. The tap and screw appear to be excessively dear, or they are not the thing we want here. It will cost me nearly £40 when erected, and no profit that we get on our wool will bear that.

Bee. bth. — I have been busied all the week. The captain of the Shepherd will not take our wool except by measure- ment, at the rate of £6 a ton. This would amount actually to nearly £50 a ton weight ! A bale measures 33 feet, packed without a screw. What can stand that ? Our wool, with the enormous charges upon it, costs upwards of one shilling a pound weight to sell it in the London market, and by the last accounts we have got about Is. 3d. a pound. If the settlers give this, the captain will load and sail early next month ; if not he threatens to sail immediately. I asked the Governor to allow me to " retire on half pay " just now, so that I might make some preparation. He said there were so many im- portant questions before the Council now that he would beg of me to remain as long as I could. As we were about to sit down to dinner the two Messrs. Lennard came here and dined with us. They were on their way to York. One of them has just arrived in the colony.

There is a French vessel here, the Ville de Bordeaux, which

2 E— 2



must be upon a smuggling expedition. Sometimes the captain talks of going to the Cape, sometimes to China. I suspect he was trying to smuggle tea, and was frightened by our ships of war in those seas. Common labourers in Perth have struck for 7s. a day, and mechanics of some sort are asking 15s. a day. Snug fellows these.

Dec. 12th. — Had a very long swim after a raft that had floated away. It is composed of two barrels, with poles fastened to them. It is easily made, and answers for crossing the river on an emergency. My flock of sheep scattered some days ago, whilst under the cbarge of a native boy, and got into a neighbour's corn. He wants to cbarge me £10 damages for what they liave done — rather heavy that ; and, besides, one sheep has died, and several are sick and one blind in consequence of eating the wheat.

Saturday, 26th. — Have been up at Menolup to-day to see the flock and cull some for sale. Hearing an unusual com- motion amongst the natives this evening, I went out to them, and found that they expected the " Waylemen " and Perth men, and that there was great excitement among them, not knowing whether they would be for peace or for war.

Monday, Dec. 28th. — Mr. Samuel Burgess was bere to-day. This place is beginning to look deserted and neglected.

Saturday night, 2nd January, 1841. — Have been kept in town all the week on business. I had arranged to withdraw from business on the last day of the year, but Nash was not ready, and our sessions came on tbe 1st of the month, so I did business for him.

The foundation stone of the first church in Perth was laid yesterday morning at eight o'clock by the Governor, and he gave us a long speech on the occasion. I had to remain in town to dine with him. I have been in great doubts which ship to go by. The Elizabeth is a bad sailor, but goes direct, while the Shepherd goes by the Isle of France, gets there first in the hurriQane months, stays there three or four weeks (|th§



dearest place in the world). The passage to that is £35, and perhaps £85 from thence home. The passage money by the Elizabeth is £80 in all.

Monday night, Wth July. — I was busied all last week putting Nash in harness. He was sworn into the Council on Tuesday.


(From the " West Aiistralian," December 2&th, 1882.J

In a supplement to-day, we give a last instalment of Mr. George Fletcher Moore's diary, written on the eve of his departure for England.

A celebrated American journalist, when lately giving his experience of the trade for the benefit of others, said that people did not so much care for news as to see, reproduced in print, what they already knew ; they liked above all things to see accounts of occurrences which had taken place in their midst, and would be far more eager, for instance, to read a report of a meeting at which they had been present than of one at which they had not assisted. In the same way, though Mr. Moore's diary has no doubt liad much interest for every one who belongs to the colony and cares to hear about its early history, it lias, probably been appreciated most by those who took part in the scenes which it depicts, or whose recol- lection carries them back nearest to the period with which it deals. There is, now, a strong and growing disposition to be impatient of the " old settler " element in the colony. The old settler is supposed to be a man who, by reason of his long local residence, considers himself possessed of certain pre- scriptive rights which the younger generation objects to re- cognise. He is supposed to be ultra-conservative in his views; to be imbued with all those instincts and prejudices which grew up under old Crown colony government ; to be



opposed to progress, or at any rate, to the steps which lead to progress, and, generally, to be a drag upon the youthful energies of the present generation. Whether this idea is, or is not, well founded we do not pretend to say, though it is certain that some ground for it is occasionally given But in their impatience of the attitude of the old settler of to-day, people should not forget that when that old settler was a young settler he was a particularly fine fellow, and that to him we owe the accomplishment of an arduous task of which we, who followed him, are now reaping the benefit. When we read of the difficulties, the trials, and privations which attended the settlement of New South Wales, South Australia, New Zealand — colonies possessing rich natural resources to assist the pioneers — it should be with a feeling of profoundest admiration that we turn to the story of the settlement of the Swan. The Pilgrim Fathers of Swan River lighted upon a corner of the continent more infertile probably than any other, where they had to contend against sand and scrub and poison, and nearly every drawback with which it was possible to meet. They laid the foundations of the colony amid hard- ships and harassment unknown elsewhere, deprived of those resources of nature which helped others in their contests with the wilds. It is a story of brave men, of indomitable pluck, of a patient, long continuing resistance to difficulties, and of steady determined effort to succeed. The old settlers, what- ever new blood may think of them at present, were a body of Englishmen of whom we have every reason to be proud, a set of men, taking them all round, perhaps the l)est that has ever formed a first group of colonists. Certain it is that, had this not been so, the settlement of the southern part of the colony would have been abandoned or long retarded.

Mr. Moore's diary, written in somewhat quaint but graphic style, vividly brings the scenes of the early struggle before the eye, with a striking realism of detail. There is one thing about the pictures he paints which is particularly noticeable.

Notwithstanding the privation, the poverty, the isolation, which those early colonists had to endure, their social life seems to have been full of compensation for their troubles. While they were digging and delving and toiling, on the one hand, on their little patches of ground, and looking after their small flocks of sheep, they were, on the other, dancing and dining, visiting and being visited, extending to one another a generous hospitality, and enjoying the pleasures of social intercourse in a "society" which, at that time, comprised nearly the whole of their number. The days of the early struggle were evidently by no means days wholly of gloom.

This journal, the publication of which we have just brought to a close, will be found of much value when the history of the colony comes to be written. And it certainly would be extremely desirable that there should be no delay in collecting materials for that history, and that the complete story of the early days of the colonization of Western Australia should be recorded before those who took part in it, and can assist by personal recollection, are departed. There is more than one " old settler " well fitted to undertake the task.

Garry Gillard | New: 27 March, 2015 | Now: 21 September, 2020